Chapter-8 Part-I Reach for the top- Extra Questions and Notes

By | May 1, 2018

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 9th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter-8

Lesson Name REACH FOR THE TOP

By- Santosh Yadav

Introduction of the lesson- REACH FOR THE TOP

 INTRODUCTION

`Reach for The Top’ topic has been bifurcated in two part  . Each part of the topic contains a heroic story of two young girls. The heroine in the first part is a young Mountaineer Santosh Yadav and the heroine of the second part is Maria Sharapova a tennis sensation of the world. Santosh Yadav was born in a small village of Haryana state. She belonged to a agriculturist family. Her family was of the opinion of traditional values and they were adatnent to keep their prevailing customs but she rose to the highest glory by her hard efforts. In the same way Maria Sharapova rise to the top of tennis world by her hard efforts. She became the world’s number one tennis sensation and now becomes the most glamourous sensation of the modern world.

 (‘Reach for The Top’ विषय दो भागों में विभाजित किया गया है । विषय का प्रत्येक भाग दो युवा लड़कियों की बहादुरी की कहानी से संबंधित है । पहले भाग में नायिका एक युवा पर्वतारोही संतोष यादव है और दूसरे भाग की नायिका दुनिया की टैनिस हस्ती मारिया शरापोवा है । संतोष यादव का जन्म हरियाणा राज्य के एक छोटे से गांव में हुआ । वह एक किसान परिवार से संबंधित थी । उसका परिवार परम्परागत मूल्यों का विचारक पात्र था और वे अपने वर्तमान रीति-रिवाजों के प्रति दृढ़ थे , परंतु उसने अपनी सख्त कोशिशों के कारण उच्चतम प्रतिष्ठा की ऊँचाईयों को छुआ । इसी तरह, मारिया शरापोवा ने भी अपनी सख्त कोशिशों से टेनिस की दुनिया में नाम ऊँचा किया । वह दुनिया की नंबर एक की टैनिस हस्ती बनी और अब आधुनिक संसार की आकर्षक हस्ती बनी ।)

Introduction (2):

 “Reach for the Top” (Part I) is an inspirational account of the phenomenal success and achievements of an Indian woman mountaineer, Santosh Yadav, who beat all odds and prejudices to script a success story, thanks to her sterling qualities of perseverance, patience, commitment, persistence and constancy of purpose.

CHARACTERS

SantoshYadav

 Santosh Yadav has been portrayed as a firm-willed, decisive, courageous, adventurous girl endowed with a rational mind and physical and mental toughness. Born in a small village of Haryana, Santosh Yadav had an independent temperament right from the beginning and wished to live life on her own terms. She knew fully well that her conservative family would pressurize her to adhere to the traditional way of life. But at the same time she was aware that if she chose a correct and a rational path, she would be able to change others and win their support.

Santosh Yadav had the courage to oppose what she considered to be wrong. When her parents insisted that she should get married on turning sixteen, she put her foot down and made it clear that her first priority was getting educated. Determined as she was, she got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When the parents threatened that they would not pay her school fees, she told them that she would work part time to pay for her education. Her parents had to finally relent before her determination. Later on, her iron will, physical endurance and mental toughness helped her to first join Maharani College Jaipur and then Nehru Institute of Mountaineering at Uttarkashi. Her hard work and determination, mental strength and physical fitness equipped her for undertaking the dangerous journey to reach Mt. Everest, the ‘top of the world’ successfully, not once, but twice.

 Santosh Yadav’s humanitarian attitude and team-spirit came to the fore during her expedition when she helped her fellow climbers. Her concern for environment was evident when she brought down as much as 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas.

 All these qualities and amazing achievements helped Santosh earn one of the nation’s top awards, Padmashri. She is a motivation for young men and women of the world.

Santosh Yadav’s Parents

Santosh Yadav’s parents were affluent but orthodox, conservative landlords. They liked to live according to the prevailing customs in the family. However, whenever they tried to make Santosh toe the line set by traditions and the girl offered resistance, they yielded because they loved her from the core of their hearts, and knew that she had chosen a correct and a rational path. Thus, Santosh kept on getting support from her parents, which in the long run helped her reach the zenith of glory.

THEME

“Reach for the Top” is based on the theme that success comes to those who dare and do. This theme runs throughout the account of Santosh Yadav’s education, training and success as a woman mountaineer in a country where discrimination against women is rampant. Santosh defied all odds, customs, traditions and prejudices to script her phenomenal success through hard work, persistent effort, focus on the goal and mental and physical toughness. Santosh has really reached the highest top that a woman mountaineer could reach, not just once but twice. She is a wonderful role-model to emulate.

TITLE

The title “Reach for the Top” is an appropriate title for the biographical feature on Santosh Yadav, both literally and metaphorically.

means the mountain top, especially of Mt. The ‘top’ here not only Everest but also the pinnacle of glory . Santosh reached both the tops with Elan, thanks to her sterling qualities of body and mind, and thanks also to the training and support she received.

 “Reach for the Top” as an imperative phrase gives a call to the readers to do their best and strive to achieve excellence and glory in their own area of interest through hard work, persistent efforts, constancy of purpose, strong will and meticulous planning.

Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- REACH FOR THE TOP

 WORD-MEANINGS

[PAGE 99] : Conquered = got victory over, फ़तेह करना ; regarded = considered,माना जाना ; blessing =boon, आशीर्वाद,वरदान ; curse = a bad omen, अभिशाप ; expecting =hoping, उम्मीद होना ; assumed = though,सोचा ; holy man = saint, साधु ; destiny = luck.भाग्य I

[PAGE 100] : Contentment = satisfaction,संतुष्टि ; determination = true resolution,दृढ़ निश्चय ; affluent  =rich/prosper, संपन्न ; afford = bear, वहन करना ; in line with = according to, का अनुसरण करते हुए ; prevailing = the normal system, प्रचलित ; the last thing = the least important thing, सबसे महत्वहीन बात; enrolled = got admission, दाखिला ले लिया ; urge = desire, इच्छा I

[PAGE 101] : Vanishing = getting out of sight, आंखों से ओझल हो जाते हुए ;check out = find out,पता लगाना  ; affirmative = positive, सकारात्मक ; motivated = inspired, प्रेरित किया ; headed straight for = went toward,सीधा चला गया ; apology = forgiveness, क्षमा याचना ; expedition = risky job,  जोखिम पूर्ण कार्य ; rapidly = fastly, तेजी से ; resistance = opposite power, प्रतिरोधक शक्ति ; altitude = height, ऊंचाई ; equipped = furnished, सुसज्जित ; endurance = tolerance, सहनशक्ति ; culmination = top point, चरम बिंदु I

[PAGE 102] : Securing= getting, प्राप्त करते हुए ; unique = strange, अद् भुत ; annals = history,इतिहास ; top honours = highest awards, सर्वोच्च पुरूस्कार ; literally = in reality, सचमुच ; enormity = hugeness, विशालता ; held it aloft = held it up high, ऊंचा रखना ; fervent = strong and sincere feeling, सच्चा –पक्का ; garbage = rubbish, कूड़ा–कर्कट I

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MESSAGE

“Reach for the Top” conveys the message that one must set one’s eyes on the stars and strive hard to achieve the goal through hard work, determination, and constant and persistent efforts. Instead of complaining against the ills in society, one can dare to change the systems and shape one’s own destiny. And once one has achieved great heights, one must shoulder the responsibility to achieve success and glory in their own areas of interest just like Santosh yadav  has done.

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English- REACH FOR THE TOP/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – REACH FOR THE TOP

 Summary:

Santosh Yadav was born in a traditional family. She had five brothers. She was born in the small village of Joniyawas in Haryana. The girl was given the name Santosh, which means contentment. But Santosh was not always content with her place in a traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start. Where other girls wore traditional Indian dresses, Santosh preferred shorts.
Santosh’s parents were affluent landowners who could afford to send their children to the best schools, even to the country’s capital Delhi, which was quite close by. But, in line with the prevailing custom in the family, Santosh had to make do with the local village school. At the age of sixteen years her parents wanted to marry her. She threatened her parents that she would never many if she did not get a proper education. She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her education . she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees. Her Parents then agreed to pay for her education.
Santosh passed the high school examinations and went to Jaipur. She joined Maharani College widget a room in Kasturba Hostel. She developed a love for mountaineering while watching the Aravalli Hills’ She saved money and enrolled in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.
Thereafter, Santosh went on an expedition every year. Her climbing skills matured rapidly’. Also she developed a remarkable resistance to cold and the altitude. Equipped with an iron will, Physical endurance  and an amazing mental toughness, she proved herself repeatedly. The culmination of her hard work and sincerity came in 1992, just four years after she had shyly asked the Aravalli mountaineers if she could join them. At barely twenty years of age, Santosh Yadav conquered Mt. Everest, becoming the youngest woman in the world to achieve the feat. If her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength impressed her seniors, her concern for others and desire to work together with them found her a special place in the hearts of fellow climbers.

 During the 1992 Everest mission, Santosh Yadav provided special care to a climber who ‘lay dying at the South Col. She was unfortunately unsuccessful in saving him. However, she managed to save another climber, Mohan Singh, who would have met with the same fate had she not shared her oxygen with him. Within twelve months, Santosh found herself a member of an Indo-Nepalese Women’s Expedition that invited her to join them. She then conquered the Everest a second time. –
She was given Padmashri Award. She is also a fervent environmentalist, Santosh collected and brought down 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas.

Summary: (2)

Born in an affluent family of Joniyawas, a small village of Rewari District, Haryana, Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world to have scaled Mt. Everest twice. Born in a conservative society, where sons are preferred over the daughters, Santosh was welcomed in the family as she was the sixth child and the only sister to five elder brothers.

Santosh was a bit of a rebel right from the beginning and defied conventions. She neither liked to wear traditional dresses nor followed the traditional course of life. Again, rather than succumbing to parental pressure to go married early, she insisted on pursuing her studies. Her parents had to give in to her desire to study at a high school in Delhi , followed by higher education at Maharani College Jaipur.

 In Jaipur, she used to live in Kasturba hostel and could see the Aravalli hills from her room. Attracted by the villagers climbing these hills, one day she decided to check the route herself. There she met a few mountaineers, who allowed her to join them and encouraged her to take to mountaineering.

Before completing her college di Santosh Yadav got herself enrolled at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute, of Mountaineering. After the completion of her semester in Jaipur she had to rush straight to the institute as she had no time to visit home. So, she wrote her father a letter apologizing for not having sought his permission before joining the institute.

During this training, she went for an expedition each year. Her physical fitness, strong will power, mental toughness, resistance to cold and altitude helped her to improve her climbing skills rapidly. In 1992, after training for four years, she became the youngest woman in the world to conquer Mt. Everest at 22 years.

 Her physical and mental strength impressed her seniors, while her team spirit and concern for others endeared her to her fellow climbers. Santosh provided special care to a fellow climber in critical condition at South Col., who unfortunately could not be saved. However, she managed to save Mohan Singh, who too was in distress, by sharing her oxygen with him.

In less than a year of scaling Everest she got a second invitation from an Intio-Nepalese Women’s Expedition to repeat the feat. She was successful in scaling Mt. Everest once again.

 While unfurling the tricolour on top of the world, Santosh experienced indescribable pride as an Indian. It was truly a spiritual moment for her.

 Showing exceptional concern for the enviornment, she collected and brought down about 500kg of garbage from the Himalayas.

The government of India honoured her with Pact rnashri for her unparalleled mountaineering feats.

 Summary in Hindi/ REACH FOR THE TOP

 SUMMARY IN HINDI

संतोष यादव का जन्म एक परम्परागत परिवार में हुआ । उसके पॉच भाई थे । उसका जन्म हरियाणा के जौनियावास नामक छोटे से गांव में हुआ । लड़की का नाम संतोष रखा गया, जिसका अर्थ है सन्तुष्टि । लेकिन जीवन के परम्परागत ढंग से संतोष हमेशा संतुष्ट नहीं थी । उसने शुरु से ही अपनी इच्छा से जीवन जीने की ठान ली थी । जहाँ अन्य लड़कियों परम्परागत भारतीय पोशाक पहनती थी , वही संतोष निक्कर पसंद करती थी ।
संतोष के माता-पिता संपन्न भूमिपति थे जो अपने बच्चों को बढ़िया स्कूल में भेजने का भार वहन कर सकते थे, वे अपने बच्चों को देश की राजधानी दिल्ली में भी भेज सकते थे क्योंकि यह उनके बहुत निकट था । लेकिन, परम्परा का निर्वहन करते हुए जो रिवाज परिवार में प्रचलित था, तो संतोष को अपने गांव के स्थानीय स्कूल में ही पढ़ाई करनी पड़ी । 16 वर्ष की आयु में उसके माता-पिता उसका विवाह करना चाहते थे । उसने अपने माता-पिता को धमकी दे दी यदि उसने उचित पढ़ाई नहीं की तो वह कभी भी शादी नहीं करवाएगी । उसने घर छोड़ दिया और दिल्ली के एक स्कूल में अपना दाखिला करा लिया । जब उसके माता-पिता ने उसकी पढाई का खर्चा देने से मना कर दिया, तो उसने विनम्रतापूर्वक उन्हें बता दिया कि वह स्कूल समय के पश्चात नौकरी करके अपना खर्चा चला लेगी । तब उसके माता-पिता उसकी पढाई का खर्चा उठाने पर सहमत हो गए ।
संतोष ने हाई स्कूल की परीक्षा पास कर ली और वह जयपुर चली गई । उसने महारानी कॉलेज में दाखिला ले लिया तथा कस्तूरबा हाँस्टल में कमरा ले लिया । अरावली पर्वतों को निहारते हुए पर्वतारोहण के प्रति उसका प्यार उमड़ पड़ा । उसने धन की बचत की और उत्तरकाशी में स्थित ‘नेहरु पर्वतारोही संस्थान’ में प्रवेश किया ।
इसके पश्चात से, संतोष हर बर्ष पर्वतारोहण पर जाने लग गई । उसकी पर्वतों पर चढ़ने की निपुणताएँ तेजी से परिपक्व हो गई । इसके साथ ही उसमें दंड और ऊँचाई के प्रति कठोर प्रतिस्पर्धात्मक शक्ति का विकास हो गया । एक फौलादी इच्छा शक्ति, शारीरिक सहनशीलता और एक हैरान कर देने वाली मानसिक मजबूती, उसने इस सबका बार-बार प्रदर्शन किया । उसके द्वारा किए गए कठोर परिश्रम तथा लगन उसको 1992 में प्रसिद्धि के शिखर पर ले गए । जब उसने शरमाते हुए अरावली के पर्वतारोहियों से पूछा था कि क्या वे उसे अपने साथ शामिल कर सकते हैं । मुश्किल से 20 वर्ष की आयु में, संतोष यादव ने माऊंट एवरेस्ट की छोटी विजय प्राप्त कर ली और वह पूरी दुनिया की वह पर्वतारोही बन गई जिसने इतनी कम आयु में यह सफलता पा ती । यदि उसकी पर्वतों पर चढ़ने की प्रवीणता, शारीरिक योग्यता और मानसिक शक्ति ने उसके वरिष्ठ अफसरों को प्रसन्न किया बल्कि दूसरोंके प्रति उसकी और उनकें साथ मिलकर काम करने की इच्छा ने उसके साथ पर्वतारोहण कर रहे पर्वतारोहियों के मन में विशेष स्थान बना दिया ।
1992 के माऊंट एवरेस्ट मिशन के दौरान, संतोष यादव ने एक पर्वतारोही की जो दक्षिणी दर्रे पर पड़ा  दम तोड़ रहा था कि विशेष देखभाल की उसका दुर्भाग्य रहा कि वह उसे बचा नहीं सकी । जबकि वह एक-दूसरे पर्वतारोही, मोहन सिंह, को बचाने में सफल रही जिसका कि पहले वाले पर्वतारोही के समान हश्र होता यदि वह अपना आक्सीजन उसके साथ न बांटती । 12 महीनों के अंतर्गत संतोष ने स्वयं को भारतीय नेपाल महिला पर्वतारोही दल के सदस्य के रुप में पाए,जिसने कि इसका सदस्य बनने के आमंत्रित किया था । तब उसने दूसरी बार माऊंट एवरेस्ट पर विजय प्राप्त की ।
उसने पदमश्री पुरस्कार को प्राप्त किया । वह एक सच्ची –पक्की पर्यावरणविद भी है । संतोष हिमालय के ऊपर से लगभग 500 किलोग्राम कूड़ा-कर्कट एकत्र करके नीचे लाई है ।

Following is the complete question bank for – REACH FOR THE TOP

 IMPORTANT PASSAGES FOR COMPREHENSION

Read the following passages and answer the questions given at the end of each :

PASSAGE 1

The only woman in the world who has Scaled Mt Everest twice was born in a society where the birth of a son was regarded as a blessing, and a daughter, though not considered a curse, was not generally welcome. When her mother was expecting Santosh, a travelling ‘holy man’, giving her his blessing, assumed that she wanted a son. But, to everyone’s surprise, the unborn child’s grandmother, who was standing dose by, told him that they did not want a son. The ‘holy man’ was also surprised! Nevertheless, he gave the requested blessing… and as Destiny would have it, the blessing seemed to work. Santosh was born the sixth child in a family with five sons, a sister to five brothers. She was born in the small village of Joniyawas in Haryana.

Questions :
(i)  Name the woman who had Scaled Mt Everest twice.
(ii)   In what sort of society was she born?
(iii)  What blessing did the holy man give?
(iv)  How many brothers did Santosh have?
(v)   Where was Santosh born?

Answers :
 (i)  Santosh Yaday.
(ii)  She was born in a society where the birth of a son was regarded as a blessing.
(iii)  The holy man gave the blessing of the birth of a boy.
(iv)  She had five brothers.
 (v)  She was born at Joniyawas village in Haryana.

PASSAGE 2

 Santosh’s parents were affluent landowners who could afford to send their children to the best schools, even to the country’s capital Delhi, which was quite close by. But, in line with the prevailing custom in the family, Santosh had to make do with the local village school. So, she decided to fight the system in her own quiet way when the right moment arrived. And the right moment came when she turned sixteen. At sixteen, most of the girls in her village used to get married. Santosh was also under pressure from her parents to do the same.

Questions :
(i)   What was the profession of Santosh’s father?
(ii)  Where did Santosh get his elementary education?
(iii)  Why was she not sent to a good school?
(iv)  When did the right time come for her fight with the system?
 (v)  What pressure did her parents put on Santosh?

Answers :
(i)  Her father was a affluent farmer.
(ii) She got her elementary education in the local school of the village.
(iii) She was not sent to a good school following the tradition of the family.
(iv)  That time came when she turned of sixteen.
(v)  They put pressure on her to go for the marriage.

PASSAGE 3

 A marriage as early as that was the last thing on her mind. She threatened her parents that she would never marry if she did not get a proper education. She left home and got herself enrolled in a school in Dellm When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees. Her parents then agreed to pay for her education.

Questions :
(i)  How did Santosh consider a marriage ?
(ii) What did she threat to her parents ?
(iii)  Why did she leave home ?
(iv)  Why did her parents refuse to pay for her education in Delhi ?
(v)   What was Santosh’s plan to make arrangement for her fee ?

Answers :
(i) She considered a marriage the least important thing of her life.
(ii) She threatened her parents not to marry for ever if she did not get a good education.
(iii)  She left home to get education in Delhi.
(iv) Her parents refused to pay for her education in Delhi because they did not want that their daughter should live away from home.
(v) She planned to do part time job to pay her school fee.

PASSAGE 4

 Then there was no looking back for this determined young girl. She saved money and enrolled in a course at
Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering. “My college semester in Jaipur was to end in April but it ended on the 19th of May. And I was supposed to be in Uttarkashi on the 21st. So, I did not go back home; instead, I headed straight for the training. I had to write a letter of apology to my father without whose permission I had got myself enrolled at Uttarkashi.”

 Questions :
(i)  Who is the girl mentioned in this passage ?
(ii)  Where did she enroll herself for mountaineering training?
(iii) Where was she studying in college?
(iv) Why did she write an apology letter to her father?
(v)  In which state of India is Uttarkashi?

Answers :
(i)   Santosh Yaday.
(ii)  In Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.
(iii)  She was studying in college in Jaipur.
(iv)  She wrote an apology letter to her father because she had got herself enrolled in a mountaineering institute without his permission.
(v)  Uttranchal State.

PASSAGE FOR PRACTICE

PASSAGE 5

Thereafter, Santosh went on an expedition every year. Her climbing skills matured rapidly. Also, she developed a remarkable resistance to cold and the altitude. Equipped with an iron will, physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness, she proved herself repeatedly. The culmination of her hard work and sincerity came in 1992, just four years after she had shyly asked the Aravalli mountaineers if she could join them. At barely twenty years of age Santosh Yadav conquered Mt Everest, becoming the youngest woman in the world to achieve the feat. If her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength impressed her seniors, her concern for others and desire to work together with them found her a special place in the hearts of fellow climbers.

Questions :
(i)  On what expedition did Santosh go every year ?
(ii)  When did she go on her first expedition to Mt Everest ?
(iii)  At what age did she conquer Mt Everest ?
(iv)  How did she impress his seniors ?
(v)   How did her fellow climbers treat her ?

EXTRACTS FOR COMPREHENSION

Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow in one or two lines each.

(I)

“From the very beginning I was quite determined that if I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me.”

1.Who speaks these words?

Santosh Yadav, the great mountaineer from Haryana, speaks these words.

2.What was the speaker’s approach towards making choices?

 Santosh Yadav’s approach was to choose the correct and rational path.

3.How was the speaker able to change those around her?

 Santosh Yadav was able to change those around her by making them yield to her firm decision which deviated from the traditional path but was based on logic and rationale.

4.What light do these words throw on the speaker?

These words show that right from her childhood, Santosh wished to change the system for the sake of the right cause rather than to submit to it.

(II)

So, she decided to fight the system in her own quiet way when the right moment arrived. And the right moment came when she turned sixteen.

1.Who is ‘she’ in this extract and which system did she decide to fight?

Here ‘she’ is Santosh Yadav, the celebrated Indian mountaineer who scaled Mount Everest twice. She decided to fight the system of old and stifling traditions which obstructed the progress of a person.

2.How and why did she decide to fight the system?

 Santosh Yadav decided to fight the system in her quiet but firm way because she did not want to humiliate or insult those who supported the traditions that obstructed the path to progress.

3.What was ‘the right moment’? What did ‘she’ do at this moment?

 The right moment was when she turned sixteen and was under pressure from her parents to get married like other girls of her village. Santosh Yadav did not wish to get married at such a young age, so she threatened her parents that she would never marry if she was denied proper education.

4.What did she do next?

 The next thing Santosh Yadav did was to leave home and get herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.

(III)

When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees.

1.Who does ‘she’ refer to?

She refers to Santosh Yadav, the famous mountain climber.

2.Why did her parents refuse to pay for her education?

Her parents refused to pay for her education because Santosh did not follow the family tradition of getting married early and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi against their wishes. They thought that their refusal to pay for her education would bring their daughter back home.

3.How did she react to her parents’ decision?

Santosh refused to give up her studies and told her parents that she would manage to pay her school expenses by working part time.

4.Why did she inform her parents ‘politely’?

She talked to her parents politely but firmly because she loved them and did not intend to insult them. At the same time, she also knew that the path chosen by her was not irrational or incorrect.

(IV)

 I had to write a letter of apology to my father without whose permission I had got myself enrolled at Uttarkashi.

1.Who is the speaker here? Why did she have to write a letter of apology to her father?

Santosh Yadav is the speaker here and she had to write a letter of apology to her father because she had got herself enrolled for a mountaineering course without seeking his permission. To top it, she did not have time to visit her parents as her course started immediately after her semester exams.

2.Where had she enrolled herself and why?

She had enrolled herself at the Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering in order to get proper training to pursue her interest in mountain climbing.

3.Why didn’t she seek her father’s permission before getting enrolled?

 Santosh knew that her father would not allow her to pursue a career in mountaineering, so she decided to let her parents know about it after having joined the institute.

4.What light does this extract reflect on the speaker’s character?

 The extract shows that Santosh was adamant and determined to live life according to her choices. She did not mean to insult her parents in any way but at the same time did not wish to forego her dreams and ambition.

(V)

If her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength impressed her seniors, her concern for others and desire to work together with them found her a special place in the hearts of fellow climbers.\

1.Whose qualities are being described here?

 The qualities of Santosh Yadav, the great Indian mountaineer are being described here.

2.Why were her seniors impressed with her?

 Her seniors were impressed with her because of her climbing skills, physical fitness, and mental strength.

3.What endeared her to her fellow climbers?

Her team-spirit and her concern for her fellow climbers endeared her to them.

4.Give an example of her concern for others.

 Santosh Yadav tried her best to save the lives of two fellow climbers. She succeeded in saving the life of one, Mohan Singh, by sharing her oxygen with him.

Go to the NCERT Solution “Reach for the top Part II”

Very Short Answer Type Important Questions

Additional Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the special distinction of Santosh Yadav ?

Ans. Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world who has scaled Mt Everest twice.

2. Where was Santosh Yadav born ?
Ans. She was born in the small village of Joniyawas of Rewari District in Haryana.

3. What does `Santosh’ mean ?
Ans. Santosh means contentment.

4. What did Santosh tell her parents about marriage ?
Ans. She told her parents that she would never many if did not get a proper education.

5. Why did Santosh leave home ?
Ans. Santosh left home to get herself enrolled in a school in Delhi.

6. Where did Santosh take admission after passing high school ?
Ans. After passing high school Santosh took admission in Maharani College Jaipur.

7. Where did Santosh enroll herself for mountaineering training ?
Ans. She enrolled herself at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering.

8. What great honour was given to Santosh Yadav by the government of India ?
Ans. The government of India honoured Santosh Yadav with one of the nation’s top honours the Padmashri.

9. When did Santosh Yadav scale Mt Everest for the first time ?
Ans. She scaled Mt Everest for first time in 1992.

10. Why is Santosh Yadav mentioned as a fervent environmentalist ?
Ans. She collected and brought down 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas.

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the special distinction of Santosh Yadav as a mountaineer?

Ans. Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world who has conquered Mt Everest twice. She is a woman who got this distinction rising up from a rural background .

2. What type of a social system was there is in the village when Santosh was born ?
Ans. In those days the birth of a son was regarded a blessing, but the birth of a daughter was not generally welcomed in the society.

3. Give a brief sketch of Santosh’s family .
Ans. Santosh was born in the small village ofioniyawas in Haryana. Her parents were affluent landowners. She was the only sister of five Brothers .

 4. How did Santosh show contradiction to her name?
Ans. The girl was given the name Santosh, which means contentment’. But Santosh was not always content with her place in traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start.

5. What did Santosh tell her parents regarding her marriage?
Ans. Santosh was not in favour of early married life. She threatened her perents that she would never marry if she would not get a proper education.

 Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

 1. Write a brief character sketch of Santosh Yaday.

Ans. Santosh Yadav was born in a traditional family. She was born in the small village of Joniyawas in Haryana. The girl was given the name Santosh, which means ‘contentment.’ But Santos  was not always content with her place in a traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start. Where ever other girls wore traditional Indian dressess. Santosh preferred short. Santosh did not yield to the traditions. In opposition to her family, she enrolled herself in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees. This shows that she was a determined child. She developed a love for mountaineering. She saved money and enrolled herself in a course of mountaineering. She scaled Mt. Everest twice. This is the achievement of her heroic character.

Go to the NCERT Solution “On Killing A Tree”

QUICK REVIEW OF THE CHAPTER


1.In which society was Santosh born ?

(A) where the birth of a son was a blessing    (B) where the birth of a daughter was a blessing

(C )both (A) and (B)                                             (D) none of the above  

 Ans. (A) where the birth of a son was a blessing

2.What request did the unborn child’s grandmother make to the holyman ?

(A) blessing for a son                                                 (B) blessing for money

(C) blessing for milk                                                   (D) blessing for a daughter

 Ans. ( C) blessing for a daughter

3.Santosh has scales Mt Everest ________.

(A) once                                                                          (B) twice

(C) thrice                                                                        (D) four times

Ans. (B) twice

4.What is the name of Santosh Yadav’s village ?

(A) Joniyawas                                                               (B) Hariyawas

(C) Bariyawas                                                               (D) Jonnawas

 Ans. (A) Joniyawas

5.Which district of Haryana does Santosh belong ?

 (A) Bhiwani                                                                    (B) Mahendragarh

 (C) Rewari                                                                      (D) Jhajjar

  Ans. (C) Rewari

6.What does `Santosh’ mean ?

 (A) contentment                                                         (B) discontentment

(C) greed                                                                        (D) Bravery

Ans. (A) contentment

7.Santosh left home to get herself enrolled in :

(A) Rewari                                                                      (B) Delhi

(C) Gurgaon                                                                  (D) Faridahad

Ans. (B) Delhi

8.From where did Santosh do her graduation ?

 (A) Rewari                                                                      (B) Delhi

(C) Jaipur                                                                        (D) Mumbai

    Ans. (C) Jaipur

9.For what did Santosh train herself in Uttarkashi ?

 (A) mountaineering                                                   (B) acting

(C) swimming                                                               (D) skating

 Ans. (A) mountaineering

10. Santosh was fully equipped with :

(A) an iron will                                                            (B) physical endurance

(C) mental toughness                                                 (D) all of the above

 Ans. (D) all of the above

11.When did Santosh scale Mt Everest for the first time ?

  (A) in 1992                                                                   (B)  in 1993

  (C) in 1994                                                                   (D)  in 1995

   Ans. (A) in 1992

12.What shows her concern for the environment ?

 (A) collecting 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas

 (B) climbing mountain

 (C) helping other climbers

  (D) all of the above

 Ans. (A) collecting 500 kilograms of garbage from the Himalayas

13.At what age did Santosh scale Mt Everest for the first time ?

   (A) eighteen                                                                           (B) nineteen

 (C) twenty                                                                                   (D) twenty one

   Ans. (C) twenty

14.What is considered the roof of the world ?

(A) sky                                                                                            (B) stars

(C) top of Mt Everest                                                                  (D) all of the above

Ans. (C) top of Mt. Everest

Value based questions-

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Type Questions

1. What is the special distinction of Santosh Yadav as a mountaineer?

Ans. Santosh Yadav is the only woman in the world who has conquered Mt Everest twice. She is a woman who got this distinction rising up from a rural background .

2. What type of a social system was there is in the village when Santosh was born ?

Ans. In those days the birth of a son was regarded a blessing, but the birth of a daughter was not generally welcomed in the society.

3. Give a brief sketch of Santosh’s family .

Ans. Santosh was born in the small village ofioniyawas in Haryana. Her parents were affluent landowners. She was the only sister of five Brothers .

 4. How did Santosh show contradiction to her name?

Ans. The girl was given the name Santosh, which means contentment’. But Santosh was not always content with her place in traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start.

5. What did Santosh tell her parents regarding her marriage?

 Ans. Santosh was not in favour of early married life. She threatened her perents that she would never marry if she would not get a proper education.

6. Why was the ‘holy man’, who gave Santosh’s mother his blessings, surprised?              (Textual)

Ans.The holy man expected that like all other families in the villages, the family would be wishing for the birth of a son. However, when he was told by Santosh’s grandmother that they wanted to have a daughter, he was surprised.

7. What kind of society was Santosh born in?

Ans. Santosh was born in Joniyawas, a small village in the Rewari District in Haryana. The society in this region was rigidly patriarchal and gender-biased. The birth of a girl was generally unwelcome and people strictly adhered to conservative traditions.

8. Why did the grandmother (in spite of being a member of a family with conservative views) wish her daughter-in-law to give birth to a daughter?

Ans. Despite being the member of a conservative family, the grandmother wished to be blessed with a granddaughter because there were already five boys in the family. Hence, the family now wished for a daughter.

 9. What do you know about Santosh’s family?

Ans. Santosh was the sixth child in a conservative but affluent family of landlords. Her family lived in the backward district of Rewari in Haryana. Though financially well-off, they were orthodox and conservative in matters related to the education and upbringing of girls.

 10. Why was Santosh sent to the local school?                                                                              (Textual)

Ans. Santosh’s parents were affluent and could afford to send Santosh to a school in Delhi. But they sent her to the local village school because they sternly followed tradition and it was customary in their society to send girls to the local school only.

11. Why was Santosh Yadav not content with a traditional way of life? What path did she choose and why?

Ans. Santosh was not content with a traditional way of life because she was a bit of a rebel right from the beginning. She wanted to charter her own course in life, rather than following the age-old customs and traditions.

 She chose the path of excellence through education, rational thinking and hard work and achieved unparalleled success as a woman mountaineer.

 12. When did Santosh leave home for Delhi, and why?                                                               (Textual)

Or

When Santosh turned sixteen, why did she consider it to be the ‘right moment’ to fight the system?

Ans. Santosh left home for Delhi when she turned sixteen because her parents had begun to pressurize her to get married in keeping with tradition. She decided that it was the right moment to rebel and she quietly got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi to continue her studies.

13. Why did Santosh’s parents agree to pay for her schooling in Delhi? What mental qualities of Santosh are brought to light by this incident?                                                                                  (Textual)

Ans. Santosh’s parents agreed to pay for her schooling in Delhi because she told them that she planned to work part time in order to pay her fees. They realized that their daughter was independent, had a strong will-power and firm self-belief. She could take her decisions and also stand by them.

14. How did Santosh begin to climb mountains?                                                                            (Textual)

Ans. Santosh Yadav began to climb mountains when she met some mountaineers in the Aravalli Hills, who not only let her join them but also motivated her for mountain climbing. She had gone to the Aravallis after she had seen villagers from her room (at the Kasturba Hostel in Maharani College, Jaipur) cross the hills and disappear beyond.

15. What did Santosh do after being motivated by the mountaineers to take to climbing?

Ans. Santosh saved money and enrolled herself in a course at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering and after completion of her semester in the college, headed straight for the institute to be able to reach for her training in time.

16. Why did Santosh write a letter of apology to her father?

Ans. Santosh had got herself enrolled in the Uttarkashi Nehru Institute of Mountaineering without seeking her father’s permission. She had thought of talking to her family about this during her holidays. However, there was hardly any time between the end of the semester and her reporting date at the institute. Due to her inability to go home, she wrote a letter of apology to her father.

17. As a climber, what qualities was Santosh Yadav gifted with?

Ans. As a climber, Santos was gifted with an iron will, a great physical endurance and an amazing mental toughness. All these qualities, coupled with her resistance to cold and altitude helped her prove her mettle in climbing mountains again and again.

 18. When did Santosh get an opportunity to scale Mt. Everest?

Ans. Santosh got an opportunity to scale Mt. Everest in 1992, just four years after she had joined the Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering. She was hardly twenty years of age at that time when she became the youngest woman in the world to scale the highest peak.

 Q19. How did Santosh’s seniors and fellow climbers appreciate her?

Ans. Santosh’s seniors appreciated her for her climbing skills, physical fitness and mental strength. On the other hand, her fellow climbers admired her for her team spirit and her genuine concern for her fellow climbers.

Q20. What incidents during the Everest expedition show Santosh’s concern for her team-mates?            (Textual)           

Ans. During the 1992 Everest expedition, one of her team-mates was in a very critical condition in South Col. Santosh made all efforts to look after him. Unfortunately, the climber could not be saved. However, she did succeed in saving the life of another fellow-climber, Mohan Singh. Santosh shared her oxygen with him and saved his life. these incidents show her concern for her team mates.

21.when did santosh scale the mt.everest for a second time?

Ans. Santosh was invited by an Indo-Nepalese Women’s expedition to scale Mt. Everest within a year of her first expedition in 1992. Santosh joined them to climb the Everest for the second time. Thus, she scaled the Everest twice setting a record as the only woman to have scaled the Everest two times.

22. Why is Santosh Yadav’s name recorded twice for climbing Mount Everest?

Ans. Santosh Yadav earned the credit for being the youngest woman in the world to climb the Mount Everest. She was all of twenty years when she scaled the peak for the first time in 1992. She earned another credit when she climbed Mount Everest for the second time soon after. Now her name was recorded again for being the only woman in the world to have climbed the mighty Everest twice.

23. How did the government of India honour Santosh Yadav?

Ans.The government of India recognized Santosh’s achievements as a celebrated mountaineer. Acknowledging her feat as the only woman to climb Mount Everest twice, the government bestowed upon her one of the nation’s top honours, the Padmashri.

 Q24. What shows Santosh’s concern for the environment?                                                         (Textual)

 Ans. Santosh’s fervent concern for the environment is indicated by the fact that she couldn’t stand the sight of the Himalayas littered with garbage. Hence, she collected and brought down as much as 500kg of refuse from the pristine mountains.

Q20. How did Santosh feel when she found herself on the ‘top of the world’ at the summit of the Everest?                                                                                                              

Or

 How does Santosh describe her feelings at the summit of the Everest?

                                              Or                                  (Textual)

What was the most spiritual and proud moment for Santosh Yadav?

 Ans. Santosh Yadav, while standing on the ‘top of the world’, was overwhelmed with emotions of patriotism and ecstasy. She felt proud as an Indian when she unfurled the tricolour on Mount Everest. She was so happy that she experienced a kind of spiritual bliss. She found it hard to articulate her feelings.

Long Answer Type Questions

1. Write a brief character sketch of Santosh Yaday.

Ans. Santosh Yadav was born in a traditional family. She was born in the small village of Joniyawas in Haryana. The girl was given the name Santosh, which means ‘contentment.’ But Santos  was not always content with her place in a traditional way of life. She began living life on her own terms from the start. Where ever other girls wore traditional Indian dressess. Santosh preferred short. Santosh did not yield to the traditions. In opposition to her family, she enrolled herself in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her education, she politely informed them of her plans to earn money by working part time to pay her school fees. This shows that she was a determined child. She developed a love for mountaineering. She saved money and enrolled herself in a course of mountaineering. She scaled Mt. Everest twice. This is the achievement of her heroic character.

 2. How did Santosh carve her own destiny?                                                                             

                                                                                                            Or

 “If I chose a correct and a rational path, the others around me had to change, not me”, said Santosh Yaday. How does her life justify her words?

Ans.Born to conservative parents in a patriarchal, gender-biased and rigidly conventional society, Santosh did not want to let norms dictate her life. She never wanted to adhere to the irrational, hackneyed customs and wanted to live life on her own terms. In fact, she believed that if she chose a correct and a rational path, others would have to change and align themselves to her choices. Averse to gender discrimination, she resisted the pressure to get married at the young age of sixteen. She declared that she would not marry at all if denied proper education.

Defying tradition, she got enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her schooling, she informed them that she would work part-time to manage her school fees. Realising their daughter’s determination, they had to submit.

Taking up mountaineering as her career was also an independent decision. However, she tried her best not to hurt her parents and wrote a letter of apology to her father for not having sought his permission before joining the Nehru Institute of Mountaineering in Uttarkashi. Thus, in spite of all the odds, Santosh chose for herself a path which was absolutely unthinkable and unheard of for girls in an orthodox society. She, thus, managed to carve her own destiny.

3. Santosh decided to fight the system in her own “quiet way”, says the author. How did Santosh rebel but quietly?

Ans.Santosh was a very rational, progressive, and sensible girl, who wished to shape her life herself. Though it was. not easy for a girl to fight the rigid system of those times, Santosh was confident that if she chose a correct and rational path, she would be able to change things around her. She waited patiently for the right moment to take up the issues with the orthodox, irrational and hackneyed traditions that obstructed her aspirations and her goals. For example, she opposed her parents’ decision to marry her off at the early age of sixteen and got herself enrolled in a school in Delhi. When her parents refused to pay for her education in the city, she told them politely that she would earn money for her fees by working part-time. She quietly made it clear that she was determined to overcome all obstacles. Finally, her parents had to surrender.  Her decision to take up mountaineering  as a career was also handled very boldly and fearlessly by her. She took admission in  Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering without seeking the permission of her parents. Her parents had no choice but to accept her decision. Thus, Santosh rebelled against the orthodox, conservative system in a quiet but sure way.

4. Santosh had all the qualities of a good mountaineer. Comment.

 Ans.Mountaineering is a challenging career which demands great physical and mental strength. It requires boldness, fearlessness, sturdiness and faith in one’s abilities. Santosh Yadav was, in fact, made for mountaineering as she was endowed with all the qualities that are pre-requisites for this career. Just within a span of four years of her training in climbing, Santosh successfully scaled Mt. Everest. Again she repeated this feat in less than a year’s time and became the only woman in the world to have scaled the Everest twice. All this was made possible with her climbing skills, physical fitness and mental strength. Her iron will, physical endurance and mental toughness infused her with immense confidence. Her resistance to cold and altitude proved to be added advantages. All these qualities, coupled with her team-spirit and her concern for her fellow climbers made her not only a good mountaineer but also a very popular one among her superiors and her fellow climbers.

5. Santosh is not only a good mountaineer but also a genuinely good human being. Discuss.

Ans.Santosh Yadav proved her mountaineering skills quite early in her career. She displayed an unflinching will and a fearless mind that fought a rigid, orthodox society to rise to the top. But the stern will and bold decisions did not smother her qualifies of co-operation and concern for others.

 That Santosh is endowed with a caring heart is obvious from the fact that she took great care of a climber at the South Col. Though, the climber could not be saved, Santosh’s concern for him was really commendable. In another incident, she saved the life of a fellow climber, Mohan Singh by sharing her own oxygen with him. This sense of sacrifice and team-spirit won for her the esteem of her team-mates. Moreover, Santosh’s heart overflowed with patriotism when she unfurled the national flag on the top of Mt. Everest. Her concern for the purity of the environment also proves that she is a good human being. Such is her love for nature that she brought down five hundred kilograms of rubbish from the Everest. Thus, Santosh is blessed with the human qualities of both head and heart.

6. Imagine you are Santosh Yaday. You are feeling uncomfortable about enrolling yourself for climbing without seeking your father’s permission. Write a letter of apology to your father politely explaining your situation.

 Ans.Kasturba Hostel

Maharani College

Jaipur

17th May 1988

Dear Father

Both Mom and you must be looking forward to my visit during the holidays after the college semester. However, Pm afraid we all shall have to forego the pleasure of each other’s company this summer. I’m very sorry for it but let me explain the situation.

I have got myself enrolled for training at Uttarkashi’s Nehru Institute of Mountaineering. Dad, my passion for climbing has got the better of me and I couldn’t resist this opportunity to get trainee as a mountaineer. Pm sure you’ll understand and forgive me. I assure you both, that I’ll prove myself in this field and make you all proud. I need your and Mama’s blessings.

 As for the holiday, my semester has ended today and I have to join the institute on the twenty first. So, I do not have enough g time to come home. I hope you’ll bear and forgive your dear daughter who loves you and respects you from the core of her heart.

Yours affectionately

Santosh

 

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