Chapter-10 The Beggar- Extra Questions and Notes

By | August 7, 2018

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 9th as Per CBSE Syllabus

                                                                Lesson Name- THE BEGGAR                        

By– Anton Chekhov

Introduction of the lesson- THE BEGGAR

INTRODUCTION

This is the story of Lushkoff, a beggar. He earns a little by telling lies and thus evoking sympathy in his listeners. One day he comes across Sergei, who does not give him alms but offers to give him work. Lushkoff is weak and unwilling to do the laborious job of chopping wood. But the job is somehow done. He gives up begging. Years later when Sergei comes across Lushkoff, he is no longer a beggar but a respectable notary. Then he discloses the fact that it was Scrgei’s maidservant who had chopped the wood for him. This act of her kindness had influenced him so much that his whole life was changed.

(यह लशकॉफ नामक एक भिखारी की कहानी है । वह झूठ बोलकर एवं अपने श्रोताओं के मन में सहानुभूति पैदा करके थोड़ा –बहुत कमाता है । एक दिन उसकी मुलाकात सरजई से होती है जो उसे भीख नहीं देता, मगर उसे काम देने की पेशकश करता है । लशकॉफ कमजोर है और लकड़ी काटने का मेहनती काम करने की उसकी इच्छा नहीं है । मगर किसी तरह काम हो जाता है । वह भीख मांगना छोड़ देता है। कई साल बाद जब सरजई  लशकॉफ से मुलाकात होती है तो वह अब भिखारी नहीं, बल्कि सम्मानजनक नोटरी है । तब वह भेद खोलता है कि उसके लिए सरजई की नौकरानी लकड़ी काटा करती थी । उसके इस नेक काम ने उसको इतना प्रभावित किया कि उसका सारा जीवन बदल गया ।)

Introduction (2):

Some people get into bad habits and find it difficult to quit on their own. Compassion, concern and care from fellow humans go a long way in reforming such people. There is always hope for a renewed and better life if one gets kindness from others.

Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson. Analysis of THE BEGGAR

THEME

The story is based on the theme of transformation of a depraved alcoholic through kindness, compassion and selflessness. Olga’s words and noble deeds changed Lushkoff’s heart. He gave up drinking and mended his truant ways. Another theme that runs through the story is gratitude. Lushkoff had become weak because of alcoholism and was no longer able to work. He resorted to telling lies and begging in order to survive. But when he received kindness, he acknowledged it with gratitude and remained indebted to Olga for life.

Justify the title of THE BEGGAR

TITLE

The story is about the reformation of a beggar, Lushkoff who is helped by two different people in two different ways. The beggar is poor because he does not have any money and also because he does not have any integrity of character. He requires alms to feed himself.and also genuine help to feed his impoverished soul. A prosperous advocate, Sergei, and his noble cook, Olga, help the beggar, Lushkoff, to come out of his miserable life and live respectably. The title “The Beggar” is apt in that it highlights the plight of a beggar to the readers and make them understand that beggars are unfortunate people who need more than money.

Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- THE BEGGAR

                                                                WORD-MEANINGS

 (PAGE 62 : induced = inspired; प्ररित किया ; copecks = Russian ,currency, रूसी मुद्रा ; lodging = putting up at a place, रहने का स्थान ; swear = take oath,कसम खाना ; intrigues = tricks,चालें ; calumny = defamatory  statement ,निंदाजनक कथन ;  ragged = torn,फटा हुआ ; fawn = young one of deer,हिरण का बच्चा ; suppliant  = application ,आवेदक ; mendicant = beggar, भिखारी ;  expelled = shunted out,निकाल देना ; mumbled = grumbled, बुडबुड़ाया ; taken aback = amazed, हैरान ; flushed = turned red, लाल हो जाना ; creature = living being, प्राणी ; disgust = dislike ,नफरत I

[PAGE 63] : Swindling = cheating,धोखा देना ; fiction = imagination ,कल्पना ; choir= group of singers ,गायक ; chop = cut, काटना ; hastened = hurried,जल्दी करना ; scarecrow = figure to frighten away birds in a field,खेत में पक्षियों को डराने वाली आकृति ; shrugged = pulled back ,उचकाना ; perplexity = confusion ,परेशानी ; irresolutely = hesitatingly,झिझकते हुए ; obvious =clear, स्पष्ट ; gait = walk, चाल ; consented = agreed, मान गया ; trapped = caught, पकड़ा गया ; undermined = weakened , कमजोर करना ; vodka = Russian wine, रूसी शराब ; slightest = least ,बहुत कम ; inclination =willingness , इच्छा ; glared = stared, घूर कर देखा ; wrathfully = angrily, गुस्से से ; shoved = pushed, धकेलना ; banged = shut with noise , जोर से बंद किया  I

[PAGE 64] : Pseudo = unreal, अवास्तविक ; log = large piece of wood, लकड़ी का गट्ठा ; spat = spat, थूका ; scold = rebuke, डाँटना ; billet = thick piece of wood, लकड़ी का बड़ा टुकड़ा ; tapped = stuck with a sound ,ठक – ठक की आवाज़  ; feebly =weakly,कमजोरी से ; wavered = shook, हिला ; cautiously =with caution ,सावधानी से ; vanished = disappeared, गायब हो गया ; spoiled = useless,बेकार ; menial = physical, शारीरिक ; waif = homeless person, बेघर व्यक्ति I

 [PAGE 65] : Shovel (v) = lift with a tool,बेलचे से उठाना ; sober = serious,गंभीर ; rugs = mats,चटाइयाँ ; mattresses =quilts. cushions, etc,रजाइयाँ ,गद्दे आदि ; hauling = carrying,उठाना ; gloomy =sad,उदास ;  shivered =trembled,कांपना ; embarrassed =perplexed, परेशान ; carters =persons driving carts ,छकड़ा गाड़ी चालक ; jeered = made fun of, मज़ाक उड़ाया ; tattered = in rags ,फटेहाल ; curly = twisted , घुंघराले ; sealskin =made of the skin of seal,सील की खाल की बनी ; timidly = politely,विन्रमता से ; notary =notary, नोटरी l

[PAGES 66-67] :Godson = like one’s own son ,अपने बेटे जैसा ,धर्म पुत्र ; roasting = (here) rebuking ,डाँटना  ; dragged =pulled,खींचा ; indebted = under debt ,ऋणी ; strictly speaking = truly speaking,सच बोलते हुए ; sot = drunkard , शराबी ; miserable = unhappy,दु:खी ; ruin = destruction ,विनाश ; opposite = before,के सामने ; strain = (here) style,स्टाइल ; departed = went away ,विदा लेना I

Moral/ Message of the lesson – THE BEGGAR

MESSAGE

The story gives the message that it is through counselling and benevolence that a wayward can see his errors and mend his life. Sergei helps Lushkoff as he believes that honest labour can reform a person. Olga, on the other hand, helps Lushkoff without making demands on him. She chides him but also helps him to survive. Her humane approach proves more effective as it forces Lushkoff to realise his mistakes and reform himself.

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– THE BEGGAR / Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – THE BEGGAR

Summary:

One day advocate Sergei came across a beggar. He was dressed in very poor clothes. He was crying and requested Sergei to have pity on him. Ile told Sergei that he had the offer of a position in Kaluga, but he did not have money to get there. So he wanted some money to pay for the fare. Sergei looked at the beggar closely. Suddenly he remembered that he had seen him the previous day in Sadovya Street. Then he had told him that he was a student and had been expelled for not paying his fees. At first, the beggar denied the charge. But when Sergei rebuked him, he admitted that he earned his living by lying. He told Sergei that his name was Lushkoff and that he was out of work. Sergei refused to give him alms. But he said that he would give him work of chopping wood. He brought Lushkoff home. He called his maidservant Olga and told her to take him into the woodshed and get some wood chopped. Sergei could see from room that Lushkoff was weak as well as unwilling to do the chopping work. However, after one hour, Olga came and told Sergei that the wood had been chopped. Sergei gave Lushkoff half a rouble.

After getting wood chopped, Sergei was happy that he had helped a man. He had reformed a beggar. He told Lushkoff that he could come on the first of every month and chop wood for money. Thus Lushkoff came on the first of every month . Although he was so weak that he could hardly stand on his legs, yet there was always work for him and he did it. Sometimes, it was chopping of wood. At other times, he had to shovel snow, or to put the woodshed in order. Sometimes, he was asked to beat the dust out of mattresses and rugs. Every time he received from twenty to forty copecks. One day Sergei moved to another house. He hired Lushkoff to help in packing and hauling of furniture. This time, he was silent and sober. After the work was done, Sergei offered to find better work for him. Ile wrote a letter to one of his friends. He gave this letter to Lushkoff and told him that he would find the job of copying the written matter. In this way, Sergei helped Lushkoff. He was pleased at having put a man on the right path.

After that Sergei did not come across  Lushkoff for two years. Then one day, he came across Lushkoff  standing at the ticket window of a theatre, paying for a scat. He was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and sealskin cap . Sergei  recognised him. Lushkoff told him that now he was a notary and was piad  thiry five roubles a month Sergei was pleased to hear this. He congratulated Lushkoff for standing on own feet in life . At this, Lushkoff disclosed something to him.He said that it was not because of him, but his maidservant because at he had reformed himself. When he used to come to his house to chop wood, he could not do so because he was weak and inexperienced Then Olga would take pity on him and chop the wood for him. He told Sergei that he never chopped a single stick. It was all done by Olga. Her kindness transformed him. He stopped drinking and started earning his living by work. In this way, Olga’s kindness had changed his life.

Summary (2)

 One day a beggar came to Sergei, an advocate, and asked for help. The beggar had worn a fawn-coloured tattered overcoat and had dull, drunken eyes with red spot on either cheek. He told Sergei that he had been a village schoolteacher for eight years but had lost his job because of scheming and lies. He added that he now had an offer of a position in the province of Kaluga but no money to get there. He said he was ashamed to beg but circumstances compelled him to.

 Sergei looked carefully at the beggar and recalled that he had seen him earlier in Sadovya Street. At that time he had claimed to be a student who had been expelled. Sergei confronted the beggar but the latter denied having met him. This angered the advocate and he reprimanded the beggar for telling a shameless lie. He threatened to call the police and have him arrested for trying to cheat people.

 The beggar first refused to accept the accusation but soon admitted that he had been telling lies so that people would take pity on him. In fact he used to sing in a Russian choir and was sent away for his drunkenness. Speaking the truth would not get him anything and he didn’t know what else to do.

 Sergei told him that he must work and earn his living. The beggar pleaded that he was willing to work but did not know where to find it.

Sergei advised him to chop wood for him. The beggar agreed reluctantly, saying that those days even skilled wood-cutters found themselves sitting without food.

An assertive Sergei took the beggar to his cook Olga and asked her to take him into the shed and let him chop wood. Trapped by his own words, the beggar followed Olga half-heartedly. In fact, his health had been severely affected due to excessive intake of vodka and he did not at all feel like working hard.

 After leaving the beggar with Olga, Sergei hurried into the dining-room. From the window, he saw that the cook led the beggar to the woodshed and shoved him with her elbow before unlocking the door. Banging the door angrily, she flung down an axe at his feet and seemed to be scolding him. The beggar made failed attempts to cut the wood and blew at his freezing hands. When Sergei saw this, he felt sorry to have set such a tough task for an unfit drunkard.

 After an hour, Olga came in and told Sergei that the wood had all been chopped. A pleased Sergei asked her to give the beggar half a rouble and tell him to return on first day of each month to cut the wood. The beggar returned on the said day and again earned half a rouble. That day onwards, he would often come and do odd jobs like shovelling snow, putting the wood-shed in order or beating the dust out of rugs and mattresses. Every time he would earn twenty to forty copecks and once even got a pair of old trousers. When Sergei shifted house, the beggar was hired to help in packing and hauling of furniture. On that day, he was sober, gloomy, and silent. He hardly did anything and simply walked behind the wagons, hanging his head. He shivered in cold and suffered embarrassment, when other carters mocked at him.

 However, a happy Sergei sent for him and told him that he was pleased to see the positive change in him. He gave him a rouble as wages for his work and asked him his name. The beggar was Lushkoff.

Sergei asked Lushkoff if he knew how to write. On getting a positive response, Sergei gave him a letter addressed to his friend who would give some copying work. Sergei was very happy at having brought back a wayward to the right path. As a gesture of kindness, he tapped Lushkoff on the shoulder and shook hands too. After that day Lushkoff never returned to ask for work.

 Two years passed. One evening, Sergei noticed a well-dressed man beside him at the ticket window of a theatre. He was buying a ticket in the gallery and paid for it in copper coins. On a closer look, Sergei recognised that the man was Lushkoff. Delighted, Sergei inquired him about his well-being. Lushkoff told that now he was a notary and was paid thirty-five roubles a month as wages.

Sergei told Lushkoff that he was very happy because he had been able to push an astray on the right path. Lushkoff acknowledged Sergei’s ‘roasting’ and thanked him for pulling him out of a sinking pit. However, he said that the true credit for changing him went to Olga, the cook. A visibly surprised Sergei asked how this had come to be. Lushkoff then revealed that he had never chopped a single piece of wood. It was Olga who would chop it for him. All the while she would scold him and tell him that he would go to hell as there was no hope for him. She would also weep while adthonishing him. Lushkoff told Sergei that he could not explain how the change came to him but he can never forget Olga’s help. She set him right through her support and compassion.

 Lushkoff then took leave and departed.

Summary in Hindi/ THE BEGGAR

SUMMARY IN HINDI

एक दिन सरजई नामक वकील की मुलाकात एक भिखारी से हुई । वह बहुत ही गरीबीपूर्ण कपड़े पहने हुए था ।   वह चिल्ला रहा था और उसने सरजई से प्रार्थना की कि वह उस पर तरस खाए । उसने सरजई से कहा कि उसे कलूगा में नौकरी मिली है, मगर उसके पास वहाँ जाने के लिए पैसे नहीं हैं । इसलिए उसे किराए के लिए कुछ पैसे चाहिए थे । सरजई ने भिखारी को ध्यान से देखा । अचानक उसे याद आया कि उसने उसे पहले दिन  सडोव्या स्ट्रीट में देखा था । तब उसने उससे कहा था कि वह एक छात्र है और उसे फीस न देने के कारण निकाल दिया गया है । पहले तो भिखारी ने इस आरोप से इंकार किया । मगर जब सरजई ने उसे डॉटा, तो वह मान गया कि वह अपनी आजीविका झूठ बोलकर कमाता है । उसने सरजई को बताया कि उसका नाम लशकॉफ है और वह बेरोजगार है । सरजई ने उसे भीख देने से इंकार कर दिया । मगर उसने उससे कहा कि वह उसे लकड़ी काटने का काम दे देगा । वह लशकॉफ को घर ले जाया ।

उसने अपनी नौकरानी ओल्गा को बुलाया और उसे कहा कि वह उसे लकड़ी के शैड में ले जाए और उससे लकडी कटवाए । सरजई अपने कमरे से देख सकता था कि लशकॉफ कमजोर है और उसकी लकड़ी काटने की इच्छा नहीं है । लेकिन एक घंटे के बाद ओल्गा आई और उसने सरजई को बताया कि सारी लकड़ी कट गई है । सरजई ने लशकॉफ को आधा रूबल दिया ।

लकडी कटवाने के बाद सरजई को प्रसन्नता थी कि उसने एक व्यक्ति की सहायता की है । उसने एक भिखारी को सुधार दिया है । उसने लशकॉफ को कहा कि वह हर महीने की पहली तारीख को आकर पैसे के बदले लकडी काट जाया करे । इस प्रकार लशकॉफ़ हर महीने की पहली तारीख को आता था । यद्यपि वह इतना कमजोर था कि मुश्किल से ही अपनी टाँगों पर खडा हो पाता था, फिर भी उसके लिए सदा काम होता था और वह इसे करता था । कभी लकड़ी काटने का काम होता था । अन्य समयों पर बर्फ हटाने का काम होना था या लकड़ी के शेड को व्यवस्थित करने का काम होता था । कई बार उसे चटाइयों और गद्दों की मिट्टी झाड़ने का काम मिलता था । हर बार उसे बीस से चालीस कोपेक मिलते थे । एक दिन सरजई किसी अन्य घर में चला  गया । उसने लशकॉफ को फर्नीचर पेक करने और लादने के काम पर लगाया। इस बार यह खामोश एवं गंभीर था । जब काम हो चुका था, तो सरजई ने उसके लिए बेहतर काम तलाश करने की पेशकश की । उसने अपने एक मित्र  पत्र लिखा । उसने यह पत्र लशकॉफ को दिया और कहा कि वह उसे लिखे हुए काम की प्रतियाँ  बनाने का काम देगा । इस प्रकार, सरजई ने लशकॉफ की सहायता की । उसे एक व्यक्ति को सही रास्ते पर ले आने की खुशी थी ।

उसके बाद सरजई की मुलाकात लशकॉफ से दो साल तक नहीं हुई । तब एक दिन उसकी मुलाकात लशकॉफ से एक थिएटर की टिकट खिड़की पर हो गई, जहाँ वह एक सीट के लिए पैसे दे रहा था । वह मुड़े हुए फर के कॉलर वाला कोट एवं सील की खाल की टोपी पहने हुए था । सरजई ने उसे पहचान लिया । लशकॉफ ने उसे बताया कि अब वह एक नोटरी है और उसे 35 रूबल प्रतिमाह मिलते है । सरजई को यह सुनकर खुशी हुई । उसने लशकॉफ को जीवन में अपने पैरों पर खड़े होने की बधाई दीं । इस पर लशकॉफ ने उसे रहस्य की बात  बताई । उसने कहा कि ऐसा उसके कारण नहीं, बल्कि उसकी नौकरानी ओल्गा के कारण हुआ, जिसके फलस्वरुप उसने स्वयं को सुधारा । जब वह उसके घर  काटने आता था तो काट नहीं पाता था, क्योंकि वह कमजोर एवं अनुभवहीन था । तब ओल्गा उस पर तरस खाती र्या और उसक लिए लकड़ी  काट देती थी । उसने सरजई को बताया कि उसने कभी एक छड़ भी नहीं काटी । यह सब कुछ ओल्गा ने किया । उसकी दया ने उसे बदल दिया । उसने शराब पीना छोड़ दिया और काम करके रोजी कमाना आरंभ कर दिया । इस प्रकार, ओल्गा की दयालुता ने उसका जीवन बदल दिया ।

Following is the complete question bank for – THE BEGGAR
 Read the extracts and answers the questions that follow.

EXTRACTS FOR COMPREHENSION

Read the following extracts and answer the questions that follow in one or two lines.

(I)

 For eight years I was a village schoolteacher and then I lost my place through intrigues. I fell a victim to calumny. It is a year now since I have had anything to do.

1.Who is “I” in this extract? Whom is he telling about himself?

I here refer to the beggar, Lushkoff. He is telling advocate Sergei about himself.

2.What was his occupation and why did he lose it?

According to Lushkoff, he was a village schoolteacher and he lost his occupation because of scheming and lies against him.

3.What does he do now?

 He hasn’t had anything to do for a year now. However, he begs in order to survive.

4.What does the speaker expect from the listener?

The speaker appeals to the listener’s kindness and sympathy in order to get words of kindness and monetary help.

(II)

“This is dishonesty, my dear sir!” he cried angrily. “This is swindling -I shall send the police for you, damn you!”

1.Who speaks these lines to whom?

 Sergei, an affluent advocate, says these words to Lushkoff, an alcoholic beggar.

2.Why was the speaker angry?

The speaker, Sergei, was angry because Lushkoff was being dishonest and had been cheating people in order to get money as alms.

3.What, according to the speaker, was ‘dishonesty’ and ‘swindling’?

According to the speaker, Sergei, concealing real identity and telling lies by Lushkoff was dishonesty and swindling.

4.Why did the speaker threaten to send the police for the listener?

 The speaker, Sergei, threatened to send the police for the listener, Lushkoff, because the latter was reluctant to admit that he had adopted unfair means to gain sympathy and monetary help from people.

(III)

Olga glared wrathfully at her companion, shoved him aside with her elbow, unlocked the shed, and angrily banged the door.

1.Who was Olga and who was her companion?

 Olga was the cook of advocate Sergei and her companion was Lushkoff, the beggar.

2.How did Olga look at her companion and why?

 Olga looked at her companion, Lushkoff, with wrathful glare because his appearance with tattered clothes and drunken eyes was much too disgusting.

3.Why did Olga unlock the shed?

Olga unlocked the shed to take out the wood and give it to Lushkoff for chopping as instructed by her master, advocate Sergei.

4.Why did Olga bang the door angrily?

Olga banged the door angrily because the sight of the drunkard beggar repulsed her. By banging the door, she expressed her displeasure.

(IV)

On the first of the month the waif made his appearance and again earned half a rouble, although he could barely stand on his legs. From that day on he often appeared in the yard and every time work was found for him.

1.Who was the waif and where did he make his appearance?

 The waif was Lushkoff, the beggar, and he made his appearance at the house of advocate Sergei.

2.How did he earn half a rouble?

Lushkoff earned half a rouble by chopping wood for Sergei.

3.Why could he barely stand on his legs?

 Lushkoff could barely stand on his legs because his addiction to alcohol had made him very weak and he did not have any source of regular income to feed himself.

4.What work was found for him every time?

 Various odd tasks were found every time for Lushkoff. These included shovelling snow, putting wood-shed in order, and beating dust out of rugs and mattresses.

(V)

Pleased at having put a man on the right path, Sergei tapped Lushkoff kindly on the shoulder and even gave him his hand at parting. Lushkoff took the letter, and from that day forth came no more to the yard for work.

 1.What was Lushkoff’s path before Sergei put him on the right one?

 Before Sergei put him on the right path, Lushkoff was a wayward alcoholic who resorted to telling lies and swindling people.

2.Why did Sergei tap Lushkoff’s shoulder and shook hands with him?

 Sergei tapped Lushkoff’s shoulder and shook hands with him because he was pleased at having put a man on the right path.

3.What letter did Lushkoff get from Sergei? Why?

Lushkoff got a letter of recommendation from Sergei. It was addressed to Sergei’s friend so that Lushkoff would get some copying work to do from him.

4.Why didn’t Lushkoff return to the yard after that day?

 Lushkoff did not return to the yard after that day because he had reformed his ways and went on to become a notary.

(VI)

 You spoke finely then, and I shall be indebted to you to my dying day; but, strictly speaking, it was your cook, Olga, who saved me.

1.Who is “I”? Who is he talking to and where?

“I”here is the reformed Lushkoff and he is talking to advocate Sergei, his former employer and mentor. Both of them were at the ticket window of theatre at the time of this conversation.

2.Why will the speaker be indebted to the listener?

Lushkoff shall be indebted forever to Sergei because the latter had spoken finely to him when he was passing through a rough phase of life as a beggar.

3.How did Olga save the speaker?

 Olga, the cook, saved Lushkoff by her words and her noble deeds. She would grow sad at his plight and reprimand him for his waywardness, but cut wood on his behalf, suffer misery, and shed tears for his sake.

4.What opinion do you form of the speaker from this statement?

 This statement reveals that the speaker, Lushkoff, had become a sensitive, humble and grateful soul to acknowledge the good deeds of his benefactor. He was polite but straightforward and honest in his demeanour.

Main Characters of the Story

Lushkoff

 Lushkoff is a beggar who tells blatant lies about his plight to arouse the sympathy of others and get alms in return. His clothes are torn and untidy and his eyes are dull and drunken. He lacks both physical and emotional strength because alcohol has made him weak. He compromises his dignity and integrity just to satiate his urge to drink. This depraved habit cost him his job as a singer in a Russian choir. However, he does have some positive values like keeping his word for the sake of shame and pride. He quietly takes all the scolding and curses from Olga because he knows that he is wrong. He accepts the humiliating jeering from other carters for the same reason. His will-power to reform seems to have been lost to his addiction but his latent desire to modify himself is finally fuelled by the kindness of Olga.

 This character reminds the readers that hope should not be lost because even the most depraved recover if they get appropriate and selfless support.

Sergei

Sergei is an accomplished and prosperous advocate. He has a keen eye – he recalls having met Lushkoff earlier. He is a stem, straightforward man who hates lies. He is short-tempered and reprimands Lushkoff mercilessly for swindling. He believes in hard work and refuses to give Lushkoff any money unless the latter works for him. He is assertive and makes Lushkoff undertake the hard task of chopping wood. He does not leave anything to itself and hence watches Lushkoff cutting wood to make sure that the drunkard reforms through hard work. He supports the poor beggar and gives him work every time the latter comes asking for it. He is also kind because he begins to consider Lushkoff as his godson. He is genuinely happy to see a reformed Lushkoff.

 Sergei displays just one weak trait and that is his tendency to self-eulogise. He emphasizes his own contribution in reforming Lushkoff without giving any thought to the possibility of other factors having helped the man.

 Overall, Sergei is a character who is somewhat vain about the good that he does.

Olga

 Olga is Sergei’s cook. She appears to be ill-tempered but her heart is full of kindness. She shoves Lushkoff aside with her elbow while unlocking the shed and angrily bangs the door. She also flings the axe at his feet and spats angrily. She scolds him, curses him but also sheds tears for him and suffers misery for his sake. She obeys her master and takes the drunkard, scarecrow of a beggar that Lushkoff appeared to be, to the wood-shed without any complaints. Outwardly she expresses disgust for Lushkoff but helps him to reform himself. She is inwardly a gentle and caring person. She shows human kindness and affection to the beggar. She does not just pity him but actually cares for him. Her compassion is evident when she chops wood for Lushkoff, so that he could earn some money to feed himself and stay alive. Indeed, it is Olga’s efforts that finally give Lushkoff a lease of life. Lushkoff too remembered her with gratitude for her words and her noble deeds and is eternally grateful to her.

 Very Short Answer Type Important Questions

Additional Very Short Answer Type Questions

1. What was the name of the beggar?

Ans. The name of the beggar was Lushkoff.

2. Who did Lushkoff beg from?

Ans. He begged from Sergei.

3. What was Sergei’s profession?

Ans. Sergei was an advocate.

4. What did Sergei remind about the beggar on seeing him?

Ans. Sergei reminded that he had seen him the previous day in Sadovya street.

5. What work did Sergei offer the beggar?

Ans. He offered the beggar the work of chopping wood.

6. Who was Olga ?

Ans. Olga was a maid-servant at Sergei’s home.

7. What did Sergei give Lushkoff after the wood was chopped?

 Ans. He gave him half a dollar.

8. When did Lushkoff used to visit Sergei’s home ?

Ans. Lushkoff used to visit Sergei’s home on the first of every month.

9. Where did Sergei meet Lushkoff after an interval of two years ?

Ans. He met him at the ticket window of a theatre.

10. What did Lushkoff tell Sergei about his profession when he met him after two years?

Ans. He told him that now he was a notary and was paid thirty five roubles a month.

 11. Who would chop woods for Lushkoff ?

Ans. Olga would chop woods for Lushkoff.

 12. What changed Lushkoff’s life ?

Ans. Olga’s kindness towards Lushkoff changed her life.

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Q.1. How did Sergei recognise the beggar?

Ans. Sergei looked at the beggar. His face appeared familiar to him. He tried to recollect where he had seen him. Suddenly, his eyes fell on the beggar’s shoes. One shoe was high and the other was low. Now he clearly remembered where he had seen the beggar before. He had seen the beggar in the Sadovya Street

2. The beggar was a liar. What two lies did he tell Sergei?

Ans. When the beggar met Sergei for the first time, he told him that he was a student and had been expelled from the college. When he met Sergei, for the second time, he told him that he had been offered a position in Kaluga, but he had no money for the fare to get there

 Q.3. What kind of work was given to Lushkoff initially? Why did he agree to do it ?

Ans. Sergei refused to give alms to Lushkolf, the beggar. lie offered to gise him work. He took him home and gave him the work of chopping wood. Lushkoff agreed to do this work, not because he was hungry and scanted work. He agreed to do it because of pride and shame and because he had been trapped by his own words.

Q.4. How did Olga treat Lushkoff in the beginning? Why did she do this ?

Ans. In the beginning, Olga treated Lushkoff callously. She called him a drunkard. She rebuked him. Then she would sit before him and grow sad. She looked into his face and wept. Then she chopped wood for him. She did so because she felt pity for him. Secondly, she wanted to put him on the right path.

Q.5. Where did Sergei send Lushkoff? What advice did he give him ?

Ans. Sergei wanted to give Lushkoff better, cleaner employment. His friend needed a copy writer. As Lushkoff was able to write, so Sergei sent him to his friend. Sergei advised him to work hard and not to drink. He asked him not to forget his advice

Q.6. Where did Sergei see Lushkoff after two years ? What work was he doing then ?

Ans. One day, after two years, Sergei came across Lushkoff standing at the ticket window of a theatre, paying for a seat. He was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and sealskin cap. Sergei recognized him. Lushkoff told him that now he was a notary and was paid thirtyfive roubles a month.

Q.7.  Was Lushkoff not good at chopping wood ?

Ans. No, Lushkoff was not good at chopping wood. He pulled a piece of wood towards him. Ile put it between his legs. lie hit the wood feebly with the axe. The piece of wood became unsteady and fell down. Ile again pulled it and struck it. The piece of wood again fell down. This shows that Lushkoff did not know how to chop wood.

8. Write a brief character-sketch of Olga.

 Ans. Olga was the maidservant of Sergei. She was stem looking. But she was kind at heart. She rebuked Lushkoff. But then she took pity on him as he was weak and hungry. She did the chopping work for Lushkoff. Olga’s kindness had great effect on Lushkoff. He gave up drinking and started taking interest in work. Thus Olga’s kindness saved Lushkoff’s life. 

Q 9. What plea does Lushkoff make to Sergei when he appears at his yard?

Ans:-Lushkoff pleads to Sergei to have pity on him. He says that he has not eaten anything for three days and does not have five copecks for lodging. He further tells Sergei that he had been a village school teacher for eight years and had lost his job due to scheming and lies.

Q10.Describe the physical appearance of Lushkoff when Sergei observes him in his yard.

Ans:- Sergei observed Lushkoff closely when the latter came to his yard asking for alms. At that time, Lushkoff had a ragged appearance. He had worn a fawn-coloured overcoat and his eyes were dull and drunken. There was a red spot on either cheek. He looked every bit a disgusting beggar.

Q 11. Why does Lushkoff want to go to Kaluga?

Ans:- Lushkoff wants to go to Kaluga because he claims that he has an offer of a position in this province, after having lived without work for nearly a year. However, he cannot go there because he does not have any money.

Q 12. Has Lushkoff become a beggar by circumstance or by choice?                  (Textual)

Ans:-Lushkoff has become a beggar not by choice but by circumstance. He was a singer in a Russian choir but was sent away for his drunkenness. Alcoholism had made him weak and he could not toil, so he took to begging for survival.

Q13. How did Sergei come to remember that he had met the beggar before?

Ans:-A close look at the beggar’s face made Sergei think that he had seen the man somewhere before. Then his eyes fell on his overshoes, one of which was high and the other was low. This made Sergei remember suddenly that he had seen this beggar in Sadovya Street a couple of days before.

 Q 14. Why was the beggar taken aback when Sergei asked if he remembered having met him earlier?

Ans:- The beggar was taken aback because he knew that his lies were going to be caught soon. The repercussions of extracting money by exploiting the sympathy of people could be very harsh for him. He could even be handed over to the police.

Q15. How did Sergei react when the beggar lied about his identity?

Ans:-Sergei got infuriated when the beggar lied about his identity. He turned from the ragged creature with an expression of disgust and reprimanded him for dishonesty and swindling. He threatened to call the police as well.

Q 16. What lies did Lushkoff tell people to beg?

Ans:- In order to beg alms and earn sympathy, Lushkoff told different lies to people. He would claim to be a student who had been expelled or a village schoolteacher who had lost his job because of intrigues and lies of others.

Q 17. What reason does Lushkoff give to Sergei for telling lies?                       (Textual)

Ans:- Lushkoff tells Sergei that he was telling lies because no one would help him if he told the truth about his drunkenness. Instead, lies helped him get both sympathy and money that he required desperately to keep himself alive.

Q18. What offer was made by Sergei to the beggar in order to discourage him from begging? Why?

Ans:- Sergei offered Lushkoff to chop wood for him and earn money instead of telling lies and begging. Sergei made this offer because he believed that people could be reformed by hard work and not by giving sympathy or alms.

Q19.Is Lushkoff a willing worker? Why, then, does he agree to chop wood for Sergei?                                                                                                                    (Textual)

Ans:-Luskhoff is not a willing worker since alcohol has made him very weak, both physically and emotionally. Still, he agrees to do the menial job of chopping wood because of his pride and shame. Earlier he had expressed his willingness to do any work provided he was offered one and now he could not go back on his words.

Q20. Who was Olga? What task did Sergei assign to her?

Ans:-Olga was Sergei’s cook. She appeared to be ill-tempered but eventually played an instrumental role in reforming Lushkoff with her words and noble deeds. Sergei told her to take Lushkoff to the wood-shed and make him chop wood for them.

Q21. How did Lushkoff follow Olga to the wood-shed? What did this reveal about his willingness to work?

Ans:- Lushkoff followed Olga in a gait that showed his reluctance to work. It was obvious that his strength had been destroyed by ‘vodka’ and he was too weak to do any type of hard physical labour.

Q22. Why did Sergei hurry into the dining-room? What did he see from there?

Ans:-Sergei hurried into the dining-room because he wanted to check the beggar’s behaviour while chopping wood. He saw both Olga and Lushkoff walking towards the shed. He also saw Olga’s expression of wrath towards the beggar and the manner in which he struggled to chop wood in acute cold.

Q23. How did Olga behave with the beggar while taking him to the wood-shed?

Ans:-Olga behaved with Lushkoff in a very shabby manner. She looked at him angrily and even shoved him aside with her elbow while unlocking the shed. She threw an axe at his feet and scolded him all the time as he tried to chop wood.

Q24. Who was the ‘pseudo-teacher’ and why did he sit on a log?

Ans:-The ‘pseudo-teacher’ was the beggar Lushkoff. He sat on a log, lost in his thought as his frail health did not allow him to undertake the hard task of chopping wood but he could not get away from it either.

Q25. Describe Lushkoff’s attempt to chop wood.

Ans:-In order to chop wood, Lushkoff irresolutely pulled a billet of wood towards him, set it up between his feet; and tapped it feebly with the axe instead of hitting it hard. As a result the billet wavered and fell down. He again pulled it to him, blew on his freezing hands, and tapped it with his axe cautiously. The billet again fell to the ground without being chopped.

Q26. How did Sergei feel after he saw Lushkoff chopping wood?

Ans:- Sergei didn’t feel angry anymore after he saw Lushkoff chopping wood. Instead he felt a little sorry and ashamed at having given the tough task of wood-chopping to Lushkoff who seemed to him a spoiled, drunkard and probably a sick man. It was difficult for him to do such a menial task in the severe cold.

 Q27. What remuneration was paid to Lushkoff for chopping wood for the first time? What additional offer was made at this time?

Ans:-Sergei paid a rouble as remuneration to the beggar for chopping wood and instructed Olga to tell him that if he wanted, he could come back and chop wood on the first day of each month.

 Q28. Why did Lushkoff return to the yard on the first of the month? Why did he reappear often?

Ans:-Lushkoff returned to the yard on the first of the month in order to chop wood and earn one rouble in return. He reappeared often because every time he used to be given odd jobs like shovelling snow, putting the wood-shed in order and beating dust out of rugs and mattresses. The money he thus got helped him survive.

Q29. When and why did Sergei hire Lushkoff? How did he appear at this time?

Ans:-Sergei hired Lushkoff when he moved into another house. He hired him to help in packing and hauling of the furniture. This time Lushkoff appeared sober but gloomy and silent.

Q30. Why did Lushkoff become embarrassed when he came to assist Sergei move to another house?

Ans:- Lushkoff became embarrassed when he came to assist Sergei move to another house because he could not help in any way. He simply walked behind the wagons hanging his head and shivered in the cold. The other carters mocked at his idleness, feebleness and his tattered fancy over-coat.

Q31. Sergei says, “I am happy that my words have taken effect.” Why does he say so? Is he right in saying this?                                                                                 (Textual)

Ans:-Sergei says so because Lushkoff looked sober and seemed to have helped in the packing and hauling of furniture. He is partially right in saying this because his constant support had at least given Lushkoff an option to quit his disgusting life as a beggar.

Q32. What revelation was made by Lushkoff to Sergei at the theatre?

Ans:- Lushkoff revealed to Sergei that he did not chop even a single stick of wood at his yard. All the toil was done by the good and noble cook, Olga, who tried to help him and underwent misery and shed tears for his sake.

Q33. “Thank you, too”. Why does Lushkoff say this to Sergei?

Ans:- Lushkoff says this to Sergei because although Olga was the one who had actually reformed him but Sergei’s contribution too was important. He had taken interest in the life of a disgusting beggar and helped him drag himself out of the mess he was in.

Q34. Where did Sergei send Lushkoff? What was his parting advice?

Or

Which cleaner employment did Sergei arrange for Lushkoff? How?

Ans:-Sergei sent Lushkoff to his friend with a letter of recommendation for some copying work. This was a cleaner employment in comparison to wood-chopping. As a parting advice, he told Lushkoff to work hard and not to drink.

Q35. How and why did Sergei express his pleasure before parting from Lushkoff?

Ans:-Sergei expressed his pleasure by tapping Lushkoff gently on the shoulder and shaking hands with him at parting. He expressed pleasure in this manner because he was convinced that the beggar was now a reformed person and deserved respect and honour.

 Q36. How did Sergei help Lushkoff to live respectfully?

Ans:-Sergei helped Lushkoff to live respectfully by giving him odd jobs every time he came to the yard. Now Lushkoff did not need to beg alms since he got money for all the little tasks that he was given by Sergei. Lastly, Sergei sent Lushkoff to his friend with a letter of recommendation for a cleaner employment as a copier.

Q37. Where did Sergei meet Lushkoff after two years? What did Lushkoff tell him about himself?

Ans:- Sergei saw Lushkoff after a period of two years at the ticket window of a theatre. Lushkoff was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and a worn sealskin cap. He was buying a ticket for a gallery seat for himself. He told Sergei that he was a notary and earned thirty-five roubles a month.

Q38. Lushkoff is earning thirty-five roubles a month. How is he obliged to Sergei for this?                                                                                                                                                                                                     (Textual)

Ans:-Lushkoff is obliged to Sergei for earning thirty-five roubles a month because the latter had paved way for this achievement. He had recommended Lushkoff to his friend and arranged the job of a copier for him.

Q39. Why did Sergei call Lushkoff his ‘godson’?

Ans:-Sergei called Lushkoff his ‘godson’ because he had given him a push along the right path and his efforts had lifted him out of the pit of begging. He had shown interest in Lushkoff’s life and had felt happy to see him reformed.

 Q40. Who does Lushkoff give the credit for reforming him? Why?

Or

Why does Lushkoff acknowledge Olga’s contribution in reforming him?

Ans:- Lushkoff is grateful to Sergei for employment but he gives true credit for his reformation to Olga, Sergei’s cook. Outwardly Olga is full of anger and spite, but her heart is full of human sympathy and kindness. While she severely scolds Lushkoff for being a miserable drunkard, she weeps for him and chops wood for him. She is the chief reason why Lushkoff gives up his bad habits and transforms into a hardworking man.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

ESSAY TYPE QUESTIONS

Q.1.Describe the first meeting between Sergei and Lushkoff. How did Sergei take pity on Lushkofl?

 Ans. One day advocate Sergei came across a beggar. He was dressed in very poor clothes. He was crying and requested Sergei to have pity on him. He told Sergei that he had the offer of a position in Katuga, but he did not have money to get there. So he wanted some money to pay for the fare. Sergei looked at the beggar closely. Suddenly he remembered that he had seen him the previous day in Sadovya Street. Then he had told him that he was a student and had been expelled for not payint his fees. At first, the beggar denied the charge But when Sergei rebuked him, he admitted that he earned his living by lying. He told Sergei that his name was Lushkoff and that he was out of work. Sergei refused to give him alms. But he said that he would give him work of chopping wood. He brought Lushkoff home. lie called his maidservant Olga and told her to take him into the woodshed and get some wood chopped. Sergei could see from room that Lushkoff was weak as well as unwilling to do the chopping work. However, after one hour, Olga came and told Sergei that the wood had been chopped. Set-cid gave Lushkoff half a rouble.

Q.2, Sergei brought Lushkoff home toget some wood chopped. flow did he help Afterthought

Ans. After getting wood chopped, Sergei was happy that he had helped a man. He had reformed a beggar. I le told Lushkoff that he could come on the first of every month and chop wood for money. %La Lushkoff came on the first of every month. Although he was so weak that he could hardly stand on his legs, yet there was always work for him and he did it. Sometimes, it was chopping of wood. At other times, he had to shovel snow, or to put the woodshed in order. Sometimes, he was asked to beat the dust out of mattresses and rugs. Every time he received from twenty to forty kopecks. One day Sergei moved to another house. He hired Lushkoff to help in packing and hauling of furniture. This time, he was silent and sober. Atrthehe:pcorkd was done. Sergei offered to find better work for him. He wrote a letter to one of his friends. He gave this letter to Lushkoff and told him that he would find the job of copying the written matter. In this way, Sergei  LushkotT. He was pleased at having put a man on the right path

Q.3. Describe the last meeting between Sergei and Luslikoff. How did Olga help Lushkoff to be a real man?

Ans. One day, after two years, Sergei came across Lushkoff standing at the ticket window of a theatre, paying for a seat. He was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and sealskin cap. Sergei recognized him. Lushkoff told him that now he was a notary and was paid thirty five roubles a month. Sergei was pleased to hear this. He congratulated Lushk off for standing on his own feet in life. At this Lushk off disclosed something to him. He said that it was not because of him, but his maidservant Olga that he had reformed himself. When he used to come to his house to chop wood, he could not do so because he was weak and inexperienced. Then Olga would take pity on him and chop the wood for him. He told Sergei that he never chopped a single stick. It was all done by Olga. Her kindness transformed him. He stopped drinking and started earning his living by hard work. In this way, Olga’s kindness had changed his life

 Q4. During their conversation Lushkoff reveals that Sergei’s cook, Olga, is responsible for the positive change in him. How has Olga saved Lushkoff?                                                                                             (Textual)

 Or

What values did Olga exhibit while saving the life of Lushkoff?

Ans:-Olga, Sergei’s seemingly ill-tempered cook, had been the main motivating factor behind Lushkoff’s positive change. She saved him by rousing the positivity in him that had got suppressed due to his alcoholism. She scolded him, cursed him but also shed tears for him and suffered misery for his sake. Outwardly she expressed disgust for Lushkoff but went out of her way to help him reform himself. She risked the displeasure of her master, Sergei, by hiding the truth about the odd jobs assigned to Lushk off. She gave true humane affection to him and showed both pity and concern. Her affection is exhibited by the fact that she chops wood for him, so that he can earn some money to feed himself and stay alive. It is Olga’s sincere and selfless efforts that finally give Lushk off a lease of life. Lushk off too remembers her with gratitude for her kind words and her noble deeds.

Q5. Sergei’s sympathy was as important as Olga’s noble deeds that reformed Lushkoff. Discuss.

Ans:- Lushkoff gave the credit of his reformation to Olga but it is true that Sergei’s sympathy towards him was also important. If Sergei had not taken the initiative to assign work to Lushkoff and had instead handed him over to the police, the beggar’s life would have ended in a disaster. Sergei, like Olga, went out of his way to uplift the ragged beggar by making him do odd jobs and paying him in return. Sergei was not obliged in any way to spend money on a beggar in this manner but it was his concern for Lushkoff that he made sincere efforts to reform him. Sergei also arranged a ‘cleaner employment’ of a copier for Lushkoff by sending him to his friend with a letter of recommendation. Again, it was Sergei who brought Lushkoff to Olga. If this had not been done, Olga would not have been able to help him. Hence, the contribution of Sergei in the reformation of Lushkoff was as important as that of Olga.

Q6. How was Lushkoff, the beggar different from Lushkoff, the notary?

Ans:-Lushkoff, the beggar used to resort to lies in order to get sympathy and money from people. He had a repulsive and disgusting appearance. He wore a ragged fawn-coloured overcoat and his eyes were dull and drunken. Each of his cheeks had a red spot. One of his overshoes was higher than the other. He was hated for his dishonesty and swindling. He was very weak both physically and emotionally because of alcoholic habits. He did not have any self-respect or dignity and quietly took all the jeering from others. Lushkoff, the notary, in contrast, looked like a gentleman. He wore a coat collar of curly fur and a worn sealskin cap. He was paid thirty-five roubles a month for his ‘clean employment’. He was a respectable and responsible person now, not the alcoholic who had stooped to telling lies and begging alms for survival. He now had both a reformed soul and an improved life.

 Q7. What are the different ways in which the writer refers to Lushkoff? Why?

Ans:- The writer refers to Lushkoff by numerous derogatory terms. He calls him a suppliant, mendicant, beggar, ragged creature, swindler, scarecrow of a beggar, pseudo-teacher, spoiled, drunken, sick man, waif, miserable creature, unlucky man, and unhappy one. He does so to convey to the reader the miserable  plight into which Lushkoff had sunken himself owing to his alcohol addiction. These derogatory terms not only highlight a character marred by alcoholic habits but also amplify his improvement later in the story. This technique of employing contrast is used by the writer to make the reader realise that alcoholism ruins an individual completely. His reformation thus gains significance because of varied adjectives that indicate his depravity. It also emphasises the impact of compassion and concern while rehabilitating an addict. It eventually builds faith that transformation is possible if a person is made to realise his mistakes and is given proper support and effective counselling.

Q8. Imagine you are advocate Sergei. You meet Lushkoff after a gap of two years and are happy to see him as a reformed man. Write a letter in about 150 words to your friend Antonio Banderas to whom you had sent Lushkoff with a letter of recommendation.

In your letter you should write:

  • when and where you met Lushkoff
  • what revelation he made about Olga
  • how you felt after learning the truth

Ans:-

(Date)

 (Address)

Dear Antonio

Today is a day of pleasant surprises for me. I met Lushkoff, who I had sent to you two years ago with my letter of recommendation. I am extremely happy to share with you that he is now a notary who earns thirty-five roubles a month.

 I met him by chance at the theatre and was delighted to see his transformed appearance. He was dressed well and looked good. During the course of our conversation, he made a surprising revelation. He told me that he had never cut a single stick of wood when I had assigned him that task. It was actually my cook, Olga, who would chop it for him. The noble deeds and kindness of the woman reformed him and he quit drinking forever. I salute the spirit of my cook Olga whose selfless service saved a precious life. Her values of humility and mercy have made me realise that compassion has greater worth than money. I must admit that I was a bit startled by this revelation. However, I am genuinely happy because I had honestly wanted Lushkoff to return to the right path.

 May God bless the kind Olga for her noble deed!

Hoping to see you for Christmas this year.

 Yours

 Sergei

QUICK REVIEW OF THE CHAPTER

1.What was the name of the beggar ?

 (A) Olga                                                                               (B) Lushkoff

 (C) Sergei                                                                            (D) none of the above

Ans. (B) Lushkoff

2. Lushkoff is in the habit of

(A) stealing                                                                         (B) telling lies                                    

(C) working hard                                                              (D) making excuse

Ans. (B) telling lies

3.What was Lushkoff in his earlier life ?

(A) a village school teacher                                           (B) a student

(C) a Russian choir singer                                              (D) none of the above

Ans. (C) a Russian choir singer

4.What work did Sergei give to Lushkoff ?

 (A) preparing notes for him                                        (B) chopping wood for him

(C) making money by begging for him                    (D) watching his home

Ans. (B) chopping wood for him

5.Who was Olga ?

(A) a beggar                                          (B) Sergei’s cook            

 (C) an advocate                                    (D) a wood chopper

Ans. (B) Sergei’s cook  

6.Did Lushkoff really want to chop wood?

(A) yes                                                     (B) no

(C) may be                                               (D) not known

Ans. (B) no

7.What did Sergei give Lushkoff for chopping wood.

(A) a pound                                               (B) a dollar

(C) a frank                                                 (D) a rouble

 Ans. (D) a rouble

8.What did Sergei offer to Lushkoff ?

(A) to come on every first day of the month        (B) to come on every first day of the week

(C) to come on every Sunday                                     (D) none of the above

Ans. (A) to come on every first day of the month

9.Who moved into another house ?

(A) Lushkoff                                          (B) Olga

(C) Sergei                                              (D) none of the above

 Ans. (C) Sergei

10.What did Lushkoff become later ?

(A) an advocate                                     (B) a bus conductor

(C) a doctor                                           (D) a notary

Ans. (D) a notary

11.How much did Lushkoff earn per month working as a notary ?

(B) twenty roubles                                 (D) twenty-five roubles                 

 (C) thirty roubles                                  (D) thirty-five roubles

Ans. (D) thirty-five roubles

12.Who called Lushkoff his godson ?

(A) Sergei                                                 (B) Olga

 (C) both (A) and (B)                                 (D) none of the above

Ans. (A) Sergei

 13.Who used to chop wood for Lushkoff ?

(A) Sergei                                                  (B) Olga

 (C) both (A) and (B)                                  (D) none of the above

Ans. (B) Olga

 14.Who set Sergei actually on a right path ?

 (A) Sergei                                                 (B) the police

 (C) Lushkoff himself                                 (D) Olga

Ans. (D) Olga

15.Who is the author of the lesson `The Beggar’ ?

(A) Bill Bryson                                       (B) Anton Chekhov

(C) Zan Gaudiose                                  (D) 0 Henry

Ans. (B) Anton Chekhov

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