Class 10 English 2020-21 Sample Paper |Solved | PDF Download

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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER (2020-21)

ENGLISH – Language and Literature

CLASS-X (Rationalized syllabus)

Time allowed: 3 Hrs.                                                      Maximum Marks: 80

General Instructions:

1.This paper is divided into two parts: A and B. All questions are compulsory.

2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary.

Read these instructions very carefully and follow them.

3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.

Part A (40 Marks)

                                                                   READING                                   (20 marks)          

 Read the passage given below.

1.The world is big but in a sense, it starts from me. Knowledge and awareness about my own self has to precede my knowledge of things other than me. If I want the external environment to appreciate value. I need to do it by myself, first. In order to make the atmosphere around me green, I have to be green myself, in belief and action.

2. From dusk to dawn and dawn to dusk, our every activity leaves its footprint on the environment and ecology. It is a 24 x 7, eternal phenomenon. A laboured consciousness of having to go green in all possible areas is required in each one of us. It is, after all, our own self-interest and that of our descendants. The conscious application of change a few is going to become a habit and one’s culture in due course. Though we read and hear a lot off green initiatives, we hardly tweak our routines to suit the larger picture.

3. Greenery in the surroundings prevents dust and noise pollution. The way we water and manure plants also matter. Water is also a fast depleting resource. Sprinklers are one example to use and conserve it. Compost from biowaste can be used as manure for the plants which is cost—effective and eco-friendly. We can also contribute to the preservation of water bodies by not dumping our garbage in them. The use of public transport systems in the place of individual modes can reduce carbon footprint.

4. ‘Reuse’, ‘Recycle, ‘Re – engineer’ and ‘Renew’ are the mantras. Let us appreciate, support and contribute our might to the promotional efforts of the community in this direction. Remember, my ecology is also the community, society, and the nation that I care for which in turn cares for me. In other words, all these seemingly outward initiatives done for others are going to make my life more comfortable ultimately.

5. I have to be, therefore, concerned about what sort of environment I am responsible for, for my own sustenance, livelihood, and progress. As long as my impact is positive, my presence will be welcome. If it is otherwise, I am going to be shunned. It is either ‘Embrace’ or ‘Embarrass’.

6. Green initiatives are anti—scorch earth. Air, water, and soil need to be conserved for the thriving of mankind in the future. The increasing onslaughts on the quality of air and soil need to be reversed. The indiscriminate exploitation of water — consumable water is only 0.3% of freshwater — needs to be stopped. The earth ought not to shrink further, continue to breathe easy. Mother earth looks for only love and cares from her children and nothing more in return for all the wealth she has so generously showered on us.

On the basis of your reading answer any ten of the following questions.       (1 x 10 = 10)    

(i) The writer emphasises on knowing the

(a) external environment

(b) atmosphere

(c) world

(d) self

(ii) Choose the option that best captures the central idea of the passage from the given quotes.

central idea of the passage


(c) Option 3                           (d) Option 4                 
(a) Option 1                          (b) Option 2

(iii) Which of the following are the ways in which we can help in maintaining the environment?

1.Planting trees

2. Using bio manures

3. Using power saving devices

4. Carpooling

5. No more building

6. Reducing research

 (a) 1 and 2            (b) 1,2,3 and 4            (c) 1.5 and 6             (d) All of these

(iv) The societal behaviour can help in maintaining the environment if we

 (a) plant trees                                         (b) use bio-manure

(c) realise social obligation                   (d) All of these

(v) Our life can become more productive if we

 (a) focus on our environment

(b) reuse, recycle and renew

(c) do more promotional efforts

(d) Both (a) and (b)

(vi) Why should one be concerned about the environment?

(a) For better sustenance

(b) For the betterment of culture

(c) For betterment of self

(d) For future generations

(vii) How does the author want to impact his environment?

(a) Negatively

(b) Positively

(c) Neutrally

(d)Socially

(viii) According to the author, ones ecology includes

 (a) flora and fauna

(b) community, society and nation

(c) everything that surround you

(d) one’s own self

(ix) Which of the following will be the most appropriate title for the passage?

(a) Knowledge and Awareness

(b) Green Initiatives

(c) Making the Green Initiative a part of our Lives

(d) Environment Conservation

(x) The phrase “contribute our might” refers to the contribution towards

(a) saving the flora and fauna

(b) reducing pollution

(c) development of the nation

(d) maintenance of the environment

(xi) Select the option that makes the correct use of ‘thriving’ as used in the passage, to fill in space.

(a) It is a centre of trade and sport.

(b) Fruit farming is an industry.

(c) Try a large variety of fruit dishes in an environment that is small yet cozy at the same time.

 (d) Villanueva is a clean and place.

(xii) Choose the option that correctly states the meaning of ‘might’, as used in the passage.

1.A very small amount

2. Power

3. Ability

4. Permission

5. Request

(a) I and 2            (b) 2 and 3            (c) 3 and 4            (d) 1 and 4

2. Read the passage given below carefully.                                                                        (10)

1.Coronaviruses were discovered in the 1960s. The name ‘corona virus’ is derived from the Latin corona, meaning crown or halo. The new type of coronavirus outbreak came to light on 31st December 2019 when China informed the World Health Organization of a cluster of cases of pneumonia of an unknown cause in Wuhan city in Hubei Province. Subsequently, the disease spread to more Provinces in China and to the rest of the world. The WHO has declared it a pandemic. The virus has been named SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is now called COVID-19.

2. Some of the symptoms of the coronavirus are fever, cough, runny nose, sore throat, headache, and trouble breathing. These symptoms are very much like those people have with a cold or the flu. The virus can be more serious in some people, especially if they are sick or have a weak immune system, like elderly people.

3. The virus appears to spread mainly from person to person. The transmission occurs when someone comes into contact with an infected person. For example, a cough, sneeze, or handshake could cause transmission. There is no specific vaccine or medication to cure the disease, but generally, symptoms will go away on their own. A set of preventive measures are usually followed in case someone gets infected. This includes keeping infected people in quarantine for a certain period, generally fourteen days.

To protect you from the virus, here are six recommendations to follow: 

  • Avoid contact with people who are already infected. .
  • Wash your hands well and regularly with soap and water or use hand sanitizer.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth if you haven’t washed your hands. .
  • Clean and disinfect surfaces and objects that people touch a lot. .
  • Stay home when you are sick.
  • Cover your cough or sneeze with a tissue.

Data of Top Five Countries (As on 25th August 2020)

Affected with Corona Virus

Affected with Corona Virus

Answer any ten of the following questions on the basis of the passage you have read.     (1 x10 =10)

(i) The word ‘corona’ in Latin means ………….

(a) square                 (b) crown or halo

(c) crowd                  (d) round

(ii) When did China inform about the new virus?

(a) On 31st Dec 2019

(b) On 30th Dec, 2019

(c) On 30th Nov, 2019

(d) On 31st Dec, 2019

(iii) The first case of this virus was reported in

(a) The Hubia city of China

(b) Beijing, China

(c) New Delhi, India

(d) Hubei Province of Wuhan city in China

(iv) What does the word ‘Pandemic’ mean in the passage?

(a) A disease prevalent over a city

(b) A disease prevalent over a state

(c) A disease prevalent over a whole country of the world

(d) A disease prevalent over a few cities

(v) What is the name of the virus which causes corona?

(a) SAARC-CoV-19

(b) COVID-19

(c) SAARS-CoV-19

(d) SARS-COV-2

 (vi) Which organization declared the virus as a pandemic?

(a) World Health Department

(b) World Health Organisation

(c) World Health Organisation

(d) World’s Health Organisation

(vii) ………….  is one of the symptoms of COVED- 19

(a) Sore throat                       (b) High BP

(c) High Blood Sugar             (d) Rashes on the skin

(viii) According to the passage, which country has the maximum coronavirus cases?

(a) India                                 (b) Pent

(c) United States of America (d) Brazil

(ix) Based on your understanding of the passage, choose the option that lists the ways in which we can protect ourselves tram the ‘iris.

 (a) 1,4 and 5

(b) 2,5 and A

(c) 1.3 and 4

(d) 3,2 and 6

 (x) Which of the following is TRUE regarding the passage?

(a) It suggests a cure to the disease.

(b) It tell us about the new pandemic.

 (c) According to it, the pandemic is natural.

(d) China has reported the highest number of cases of infected people.

(xi) The quarantine suggested in the passage is for the period of

(a) 10 days                (b) 14 days

(c) 7 days                   (d) 1 month

 (xii) According to the passage, who are more at risk of the disease?

(a) Old people

(b) Weak people

(c) Children

(d) All of these

                                                     Literature Textbooks                        (10 Marks)                        

3. Read the extracts given below and attempt ANYONE, by answering the questions that follow. (1 x 5= 5)                   

(A)

I had to go to dirty and shadowy corners of the city to seek out my victims. Some of the larger and more self-confident ones even beat me up.

(i) Who is ‘I’ in the given lines?

(a) A lawyer

(b) A police officer

(c) A peon

(d) A doctor

 (ii) Choose the option that lists the set of statements that are NOT TRUE according to the given extract.

1.He was a lawyer.

2. He was loved by everyone.

3. He loved his work.

4. He wanted to go to his hometown.

5. He was beaten up by criminals.

6. He was in training period.

(a) 2,3 and 5                     (b) 2 and 4

 (c) 3 and 5                       (d) 1,4 and 6

(iii) Pick the option that correctly classifies fact/s (F) and opinion/s (O) given below.

Pick the option that correctly classifies fact/s

(a)F-2,3 and 0- 1,4               (b) F-1,2,3, 4

(c) 0- 1, 2,3.4                         (d) F-2 and 0- 1,3,4

(iv) The narrator had to go to a

(a) village

(b) luxurious hotels

(c) dirty and shadowy corners of the city

 (d) sophisticated site in city

(v) What does ‘seek out’ mean here?

(a) To answer

(b) To interpret

(c) To look/find

(d) To understand

Or

(B) “Natalya Stephenova is an excellent housekeeper, not bad looking, well-educated. What more do I want? But I’m getting noise in my ears from excitement. (Drinks) And it’s impossible for me not to marry. In the first place, I’m already 35—a critical age so to speak. In the second place, I ought to lead a quiet and regular life”.

(i) Who is the speaker of the given lines?

(a) Chubukov                             (b) Ivan

(c) Ivan’s brother                      (d) Chubukov’s friend

(ii) When the speaker says, ‘What more do I want?’, he means that

(a) he wants to get married soon.

(b) Natalya is a good match for him.

(c) he and Natalya are both quarrelsome.

(d) Natalya would add to his glory.

(iii) What does the given lines tell us about the speaker?

(a) He suffered from many illnesses

(b) He lived a very social life

(c) He wanted a beautiful wife

(d) He lived a very quiet and regular life

(iv) The statement that is TRUE about the speaker, according to the passage is

(a) He is an old man.

(b) He suffers from attacks of excitements.

(c) He wants to make Natalya his business partner.

(d) He wants to travel to the world.

(v) The extract uses the phrase, And it’s impossible for me ‘ Which of the following expressions is incorrect with respect to the word ‘impossible’?

 (a) Option 1             (b) Option 2              (c) Option 3             (d) Option 4

impossible

4. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. (1 x 5 = 5)

(A)                                                          Has given my heart

A change of mood

And saved some part

Of a day I had rued. (Dust of snow)

(i) What is the poet likely to say before the event?

(a) ‘Go away’

(b) ‘I am glad to meet you’

(c) ‘This is so beautiful’

 (d) ‘I am very happy today’

(ii) What has changed the poet’s mood?

(a) Dust of snow

(b) The hemlock tree

(c) The beauty of the crow

(d) The natural landscape

(iii) How has the poet’s mood changed?

(a)Regret-wonder                               (b) Sad-anxiety

(c) Sorrowful-happy                          (d) Wonder- Happy

(iv) How was the poet’s day going before?

(a) Very happy

(b) Very regretful

(c) Very pleasant

(d) Very sad

(v) Name the poetic device used in the line “Has given my heart”.

(a) Alliteration

(b) Metaphor

(c) Oxymoron

(d) Simile

Or

They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God,

Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with

the mania of owning things.

Not one kneels to another, nor to his kind that

lived thousands of years ago,

(Animals)

(i) The word that DOES NOT indicate characteristics of human beings is

(a) selfishness            (b) dissatisfied                (c) peaceful             (d) materialistic

(ii) Why does the poet get sick?

(a) Because humans are very religious

(b) Because humans commit crimes and then cry

(c) Because humans commit crimes

 (d) Because humans do crimes in the name of god

(iii) What does the poet mean by ‘a mania of owing things’?

(a) A hunger for riches

(b) A madness of living in luxury

(c) A never-ending desire to possess things

(d) A limited material resource

(iv) What does the poet tell us about ‘they’?

(a) They are all equals

(b) They are not materialistic

(c) They are not hypocrites

(d) All of these

(v) Name the poetic device used in the given lines?

(a) Simile              (b) Alliteration

(c) Oxymoron          (d) Anaphora

                                                         Grammar                                                          (10 Marks)

5. Fill in the blanks given below with the help of options that follow. (1 x 3 = 3)

Dear Darshan, I have some wonderful news for you. Charan (i) …………..  at last. He (ii)…………  with us for five days now. He looks very different, but he (iii) …………… a lot, so it is not surprising. He had become much thinner and he has lost the good looks that he had when he was a little boy.

(i)(a) returned              (b) had returned             (c) is returning       (d) will return

(ii)(a) is                        (b) is going to be            (c) will be               (d) ought to be

(iii) (a) had suffered     (b) was suffering            (c) suffered            (d) suffers

6. Choose the correct options to fill in the blanks to complete the narration. (1 x 3 = 3)

fill in the blanks

Ram and Shivani were talking to their grandfather. He (i)……….  about our ancestors. He told them that they were not different from them. He also told them that according to research, learning from the first-hand experience like visiting the museum helps One retain information for a long time. To this, Shivani (ii)………….  she remembers what she (iii)………….  evolution at the Natural History Museum last year.

(i) (a) was scolding them                    (b) was telling them

(c) was enquiring from them               (d) was teaching them

(ii) (a) added that                                (b) replied that

(c )said that                                        (d) answered that

(iii) (a) heard about                             (b) gained about

(c) learnt about                                   (d) had seen about

7. Fill in the blanks by choosing the correct option for any four of the six sentences given below. (1 X 4 = 4)

(i) He said that he…………… get up early in the morning.  

(a) must                      (b) would            (c) can            (d) is to  

(ii) Kushal asked me,…………. you see the cricket match on T.V. last night?’

(a)will                          (b) did                (c) shall           (d) are

 (iii) My principal ……………… me not to conduct any test the next day.

 (a) requested             (b) asked           (c) suggested  (d) ordered

(iv) I ………….him to stay there.

 (a) begged                 (b) ordered         (c) enquired    (d) requested            

(v) The rag-pickers of India …………a pitiable sight.

(a) present                  (b) presented     (c) will present (d) presenting

(vi) He applied for and was………….. legal aid by the Labour Mini

(a) offered                   (b) granted        (c) allowed       (d) awarded

  Part – B (40 Marks)

                                                                        Writing                          (10 Marks)                   

8. You have recently purchased a digital camera from a retail store. When your0ar returned home, you found that it did not work. You called the customer care about this problem but did not get any satisfactory response. Write a letter to the retail manager explaining your situation. (100-120 words) (5)

Or

You have received a letter from your bank, asking you to acknowledge receipt of a new bank card. However, the card was missing from the envelope. Write a letter to the bank’s head office explaining the situation. (100-120 words)

9. Given alongside is a graph that pertains to the percentage of the population living below the poverty line across different states of India in two years: 1973-74 and 1999-2000. Use the information provided to write a paragraph on the age-old problem of poverty in India. Mention the regional trends and the way the scenario has changed over the years. (100-120 words) (5)

poverty in India

Note: Uttar Pradesh includes the present Uttarakhand. Madhya Pradesh includes Chhattisgarh and Bihar includes Jharkhand.

Or

Gautam was alarmed to see the graph that tracked the rising levels of Carbon dioxide in the air of his city, Kanpur. He decided to write a paragraph on the data to show his alarm and painted the present picture in order to caution people against environmental pollution. Write the analytical paragraph for Gautam in 100-120 words.

people against environmental pollution

                                                    Literature Textbooks                                   (30 Marks)

10. (a) Answer any two of the following questions in 20-30 words each. (2 x 2 = 4)

(i) Was everyone really as brave as they claimed? Justify your answer. (The Tale of Custard the Dragon)

(ii) How did Valli save money for her first bus journey?

(iii)’Paper has more patience than people. Elucidate. (From the Diary of Anne Frank)

(b) Answer any two of the following questions in 20-30 words each.  (2 x 2 = 4)

(i) Do you agree that Tricki was in better hands of the surgeon who offered him no food but plenty of water, than with rich mistress?

(ii) Bholi found her teacher to be different from others. How?

(iii)How did Hari Singh make money though he was not paid by Anil?

11. (a) Answer any two of the following questions in 40-50 words each. (3 x 2 = 6)

(i) What impression do you form of the postmaster who answered Lencho’s letter?

(ii) At his swearing-in, what did Nelson Mandela pledged to do?

(iii)What will the boy learn from the loss of the ball? (The Ball Poem)

(b) Answer any two of the following questions in 40-50 words each.               (3 x 2 = 6)

(i) Why did Jeanne not recognize her friend Madame Loisel?

(ii) What other interests, besides Science, did Richard Ebright pursue?

(iii)What happened to Jaffers when he tried to catch the invisible scientist?

12. Answer the following question in 100-120 words. (5)

The characters Natalya and Lomov lose their temper on trivial issues. It shows their poor skills at anger management. Suggest some ways that help you in maintaining a cordial relationships with people around you.

Or

“So the world is afflicted with death and decay, therefore the wise do not grieve, knowing the terms of the world,” says Buddha.

The chapter ‘The Sermon at Benaras’ justifies this statement with the help of the story of Kisa Gotami. Elucidate.

13. Answer the following question in 100-120 words. (5)

Sometimes deception is a way of life. Explain this statement by citing facts from the lesson ‘The Thief’s Story’.

Or

Griffin misused his great discovery as a scientist. Discuss with reference to the story ‘Footprints Without Feet.

ANSWERS:-

1.(i) (d) self

(ii) (b) Option 2

(iii) (b) 1, 2, 3 and 4              

(iv) (d) All of these

(v)(b) reuse, recycle and renew’                

(vi) (a) For better sustenance

(vii) (b) positively                                         

(viii) (b) community, society and nation

(ix) (c) Making the Green Initiative a part of our Lives

(x) (d) maintenance of the environment

(xi) (b) Fruit farming is a industry.

(xii) (b) 2 and 3

2. (i) (b) crown or halo

(ii) (a) On 31st Dec, 2019

(iii)(d) Hubei Province of Wuhan city in China

(iv) (c) A disease prevalent over a whole country of the world

(v) (d) SARS-CoV-2

(vi) (a) Sore throat

(vii)(c) World Health Organisation

(viii) (c) United States of America

(ix) (b) 2, 5 and 6

(x) (b) It tell us about the new pandemic.

(xi) (b) 14 days

(xii) (d) All of these

3. (i) (a) A lawyer

(ii) (a) 2, 3 and 5

(iii)(c) 0- 1, 2,3,4

(iv)(c) dirty and shadowy corners of the city

(v) (c) To look/find

Or

(i) (b) Ivan

(ii) (b) Natalya is a good match for him.

(iii)(d) He lived a very quiet and regular life

(iv) (b) He suffers from attacks of excitements.

(v)(b) Option 2

4. (A) (i) (a) ‘Go away’

 (ii) (a) Dust of snow

(iii)(c) Sorrowful-happy

(iv) Very regretful

 (v) (a) Alliteration

Or

 (B) (i) (c) peaceful

(ii) (b) Because humans commit crimes and then cry

(iii)(c) A never ending desire to possess things

(iv) (d) All of these

 (v) (d) Anaphora

5. (i) (b) had returned                      (ii) (c) will be                           (iii) (a) had suffered

6. (i) (b) was telling them                (ii) (a) added that                    (iii) (c) learnt about

7. (i) (b) would                                 (ii) (b) did                                (iii) (d) ordered             

(iv) (d) requested                            (v) (a) present                         (vi) (b) granted

8. 450, Sector-20

Chandigarh

March 1, 20XX

The retail manager

Chandigarh

Subject Complaint regarding the digital camera

Sir/Madam

I am writing this letter to complain about the digital camera that I bought from your retail store last Tuesday on 22 February, 20XX.

I had purchased the latest technology digital camera of Canon brand from your store which was working tine when I purchased it but when I reached my home. I found that there seemed to be a problem with the camera lens. Moreover, the shutter mechanism was also faulty. After I found discrepancies. I immediately called customer care at your retail store. The concerned representative refused to replace the camera and was also not friendly enough to listen to anything.

I, therefore, request you to kindly interfere in the matter and help me either getting a replacement of the digital camera or getting the full refund amount as soon as possible.

Thanking You

Yours faithfully

Ramesh Kumar

Or

14 / 8, Dharma Colony

Mumbai

23 August 20XX

Head office ABC Bank

Mumbai

Subject: Missing or stolen debit card

Sir/ Ma’am

I am writing in connection with a missing or stolen debit card from your bank. This is an urgent matter as the bank card could prove dangerous in the hands of the wrong person.

Just yesterday. I received a letter from your bank’s head office. It stated that my new bank card was enclosed and asked me to acknowledge the receipt. However, when the envelope arrived in my mailbox, it was in a shattered (poor condition) state. More importantly, the debit card which was supposed to be included was missing. I checked and rechecked around the mailbox, but found nothing. l am concerned that someone has gone through my mail and possibly stolen the card.

For this reason, I request that you cancel the existing debit card immediately. The debit card in question is related to my account number 64XXXXXXXXX at your pqr branch.

Thanking you

Yours faithfully

Raveena Khurana

9.                                             Poverty: A Perennial Problem in India

Poverty in India has become one of the major problems that our country faces today. Be it landless labourers, rag pickers, vendors, or beggars, all of them fall under the category of ‘poor’. Even though there has been a decrease in the population living below the poverty line, the problem still persists.

The given data compares the percentage of the population living below the poverty line across different states of India within two time-spaces 1973-74 and 1999.2000 The decrease of the poor populations is evident in all of the states. It comes as an encouraging note that in two of the states the decline has been drastic. Gujarat and West Bengal have seen a decrease from 48% to 15% and 63 % to 27% respectively in about 26 years. At the same time, many states including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Orissa show a slow decline.

Thus, a lot needs to be done to completely eradicate this social evil from the country.

Or

Air Pollution- The Deadly Air

Air Pollution is a serious issue affecting our planet today, yet many people continue to turn a blind eye thinking that it’s not that serious.

The given graph shows how alarming the issue of air pollution is specifically in the city of Kanpur. No doubt, the people of Kanpur have been suffering from many respiratory diseases. While in 2000, the air pollution levels were not very low, the quality of air was way better than what we are inhaling. The years after 2005 to 2010 saw a decrease in the levels of carbon dioxide which might be amounted to the raising awareness regarding the issue. But this also falls short after 2010, when the quality of air was constantly declining and the percentage of carbon dioxide was ever on increase.

With environmental awareness, the level of carbon dioxide has seen a slow decline. This decline indicates that there is still a lot of changes that need to be implemented to make our environment pollution-free.

10. (a) (i) No, everyone was not really as brave as they claimed. Belinda and her three pets, excluding Custard, were very proud of their bravery but when the pirate came only Custard had the courage to face him.

 (ii) To save money for her first bus journey, Valli had to sacrifice many of her desires. She resisted the temptation of buying balloons, toys, etc in the village fair. She also didn’t go on the merry-go-round to collect the amount required for the bus-journey.

(iii) The statement ‘Paper has more patience than people’ given by Anne Frank means that people are not always interested in listening to what you are telling them. They get bored but it is not so with paper. You can go on writing whatever you like, and as long as you like.

(b) (i) Yes, I agree that Tricki was in the better hands of the surgeon as he treated him well. He gave him the diet as per his need and avoided over-feeding him as his affectionate mistress did. The surgeon was taking good care of him.

(ii) Bholi found her teacher different from others as others had always neglected Bholi and made fun of her. But, her teacher was different. She was calm, her manner of comforting and touch was full of affection.

(iii) Hari Singh made some money while working for Anil even though he was not paid by him. He kept the change he got after buying things for Anil. Anil was very aware of this but never asked him to give the accounts allowing Hari to do so.

11. (a) (i) The postmaster who answered Lencho’s letter was indeed a very kind-hearted man. He not only donated a part of his own salary but also convinced other employees as well as his friends to contribute to help Lencho. He did not want to shake Lencho’s firm faith in God.

(ii) At his swearing-in, Nelson Mandela pledged to liberate the people of South Africa from the claws of poverty, hunger, suffering, and discrimination on various grounds. He also pledged to abide by the new Constitution and work for the welfare of the people of his nation.

(iii) The poet points out that with the loss of the ball, the boy will learn the toughest lesson of his life. He will learn to accept the harsh realities of life that one day we will lose our loved ones and our loved things. One must move on from the losses of life.

(b) (i) Jeanne could not recognize Madame Loisel because she had completely changed in appearance. She resembled an old, exhausted, and crude woman of a poor household. Her hair was done badly and her skirt was uneven. She had lost all the charm of her youthful days.

(ii) Richard Ebright was an all-rounder. Other than Science, he was interested in collecting rocks, coins, and fossils. He was also interested in star-grazing and astronomy. He was also a good debater, canoeist, and expert photographer.

(iii) When constable Jaffers tried to catch Griffin (the invisible scientist) he became invisible by removing his clothes. Jailers found himself struggling with someone who couldn’t be seen. He was hit by blows thrown by Griffin and soon was knocked unconscious.

12.Both the characters Natalya and Lomov lose their temper on trivial issues. They are constantly arguing and hurling abuses at each other over small matters. They both get angered easily and constantly belittle each other. This shows that they have poor skills at anger management.

To maintain cordial relationships with others, we must learn to control our anger. It not only ensures a good relationship but also reduces the risk of health problems such as heart diseases blood pressure etc. The way in which one can control anger includes many steps. Always take few deep breaths to keep the stress away. Before retaliating always take some time to cool/minimize your anger. One should drink cold water to calm ones nerves.

If both the characters should have followed certain steps to control their anger, the fuss that was created would not have happened.

Or

The Chapter ‘Sermon at Benaras’ justifies that death and decay are inevitable to life Those who know about this are wise and do not grieve. This fact is justified with the story of Kisa Gotami She was devastated by the death of her only son and wandered door to door, seeking help. Someone directed her to Sakyamuni, the Buddha, who asked her to bring a handful of mustard seeds. This raised hope in Gotami’s heart that her son could be revived.

 But the condition imposed by Sakyamuni was that the seeds should be from a house where people had not lost a loved one to death. Kisa Gotami’s futile search made her realise the bitter truth that sorrows are a part and parcel of life and one can attain peace only by acceptance.

Buddha says that everything in this world is subject to death. He further says that the world is deeply affected by suffering, disease or pain Inevitably there is death and decay, therefore the wise do not grieve, knowing the terms of the world. Neither from weeping nor from grieving will anyone obtain peace of mind.

13. It is true that for some people, deception is a way to lead life. People today use various means of deception by making excuses as a new way of making money.

In the chapter, ‘The Thief’s story’ Anil was the most trusting person Hari Singh had ever met. But he took undue advantage of his trust. He was a thief and couldn’t be expected to be honest with Anil. He came to Anil with a false identity. Anil had blind faith in human nature. He employed him just out of sympathy and compassion. He trusted him and handed over all the financial transactions to him without any verification. He even ignored his misdeeds. But Han stole the money from him and planned to run away.

However, the trust Anil had in Hari affected Hari so much that he decided to leave his lifestyle of deception to become an honest man.

Or

Griffin made the great discovery that taking certain drugs could make a person invisible. However, he did not put this discovery to any good use for mankind Instead; he robbed and hurt people by becoming invisible. In London, he set his landlords’ house on fire and attacked a shopkeeper.

In the village of! ping, he fought with his landlady and pushed her with a chair. He even stole money from the clergyman’s house. He hit the village constable, Mr Jaffers and knocked him down His behaviour was criminal and immoral.

A scientist should work for the benefit of society and not for their selfish needs. If Griffin had put his discovery for good use, he would have won fame along with many laurels. However, his selfish activities makes him an immoral person.

 

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