Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus
Chapter-7 English Language and Literature
Lesson Name- The Adventure
By- Jayant Narlikar
Introduction of the lesson- The Adventure
The story of The Adventure hinges on a particular historical event. It is the story of a historian Gangadharpant who wonders what might have happened if the Marathas had not granted a concession to the East India Company to stay on in Bombay and not sought their help in running their research wing of science and technology. These steps cost the country and the Maratha ruler, dear. The British expanded their influence and dominance in India. A little error of the Maratha soldiers in the Battle of Panipat also would have turned the course of history. Mr Gaitonde reads an extract from Bakhar about the narrow escape of the Vishwas Rao in the battle against Abdali. This sets him thinking. He meets with a collision and for two days he travelled in the past and future. He clarifies certain points when he discussed them with Rajendra Deshpande. Rajendra gave a scientific explanation of how and why the transition took place from the present to past and future. The lesson is a wonderful combination of history and science.
Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- The Adventure
Speed along–moving fast, वेग से भाग रही थी; a considerably–a lot, काफ ी; roared–screamed as it rolled on, शोर करती जा रही थ ी; browse through–read for enjoyment, मन बहलाने के लिए पढ़ना; eventually– Finally, अंततः; assuming—taken for granted. मानकर चलन ा; tunnel—passage built underground. सुरंग; permits—permission slips, आज्ञा पत्र: presume—think, guess. अनुमान लग ा; factually—Indeed. वस्तुतः ventured—asked. पूछ ा; flavour—taste, स्वाद; tiny—small, छोटे आकार क ा; Union Jack—the British flag,इंग्लैण्ड का ध्वज; destination—endpoint, मंजिल; handfulof—a few, कुछेक; emerged—came out.बाहर निकला; imposing—impressive,शानदार ;letters—writing on,लेख ;proclaimed—announced, told,बताना ; identity—mark of recognition, पहचान; landmarks—notable signs or marks, विशेष स्थान; shocks—jerks, आघात; wound up—finished, packed up,समाप्त हो चुकी थ ी; flourishing—prospering, पनप रही थी ;
Shook–हिलाय ा; blow—shock, आघात; make his way—reach, पहुँचा ;riddle—puzzle,पहेली ; grabbing—eating, खाकर ;relief—comfort, राहत ; evidently—it Was clear, स्पष्ट था ;occured—taken place, घटित हुआ ; converged—reached a point,पहुँचे ;precise—exactly,सही –सही; handsomely—finely,भव्य तरीके से ; routed—defeated, पराजित हुआ ; chased—pushed, भगाया गया ; triumphant—victorious, विजयी ; blow by blow account—systematic description, क्रमबद्ध विवरण ; elaborated—worked out, gave, विस्तृत विवरण दिया ; consequences—results, परिणाम ; avidly—eagerly, keenly,रूचिपूर्वक;
Morale booster—promoter. मनोबल बढ़ाने वाल ा; supremacy—lordship, प्रभुसत्त ा; shelved—put aside. एक तरफ कर दिय ा; expansionist—widening its range of hold. विस्तार करन े; eventfully—succeeded after a struggle, संघर्ष के बाद पहुँच ा; relegated—pushed down, नीचे गिरा दिया गय ा; eventually—finally, अंतत ः; dismay—depair. निराश; met its match—found its strong opponent. प्रबल विरोधी पाय ा; acumen—mental keenness.बुद्धि प्रखरत ा; valour—bravery; expanded—spread, बढ़ाय ा; rivals—opponent, प्रतिद्वन्द ी; puppet—weak, ineffective figurehead ruler, हाथों की कठपुतल ी; regime—rule, शासन; de facto–virtual, real, वास्तविक; astute—crafty. Shrewd. धूर्त, घाघ; dawning—spreading, taking birth, जन्म लेता हुआ; aid–help, सहायत ा, enterprise—bold undertaking. उधम; gradually—by and by; transition—change, परिवर्तन; wielded—exercised managed; figurehead—a nominal head, rubber stamp, नाम मात्र का अध्यक्ष; appreciate—admire, understand, प्रशंसा करन ा; retain—keep, बनाये रखना ;
Outpost–चौक ी; subcontinent—a land with several countries, उपमहाद्वीप; lease—licence,पट्ट ा; expire—end, finish, अंत होने वाला ;journals—magazines, पत्रिकाएँ; clue—hint, संकेत ; seldom—rarely, बिरले ही ; relied on—trusted, भरोसा करना ; evidence—proof, प्रमाण; entertaining—interesting, रोचक; graphic—vivid, विस्तृत; doctored accounts—manipulated, untrue. असत्य विवरण; melee–confused light,दंगा,भिड़ंत; elite—select body, श्रेष्ठ योद्ध ा; emerged—came out: magnificent—grand.भव्य ; shoved—thrust, ठूँस लिया ; absent–mindedly—unknowingly, अनजाने में ; frugal—economical, सस्ता ; stroll—walk, सैर ; throng—crowd.भीड़ ,audience—listeners, श्रोतागण ; staring—looking,ताक रहे थे ;mesmerised—hypnotized, सम्मोहित होकर ; unoccupied—empty, vacant, खाली ; stirred—moved. उद्वेलित कर दिय ा; magnet–चुम्बक लोह ा; vacate—quit leave,छोड़ द ो; symbolic— सांकेतिक; dignitary—person of high rank; abolished—did away with, खत्म कर दिय ा; hostile—opposing, विरोधी ;target—object a mark to fire at, निशाना ; valiantly—bravely: sacrilege—spoiling a holy place, अपवित्रीकरण ;dumbfounded—speechless, confused,बेजुबान ;prior to—betfore,पूर्व ; collision—accident, टकराव;
Catastrophe theory-pertaining to a sudden ruin of calamity,विध्वंस वाली अवधारणा ; implication–hidden meaning, निहित अर्थ ; smugly–In a self satisfied manner, आत्म संतुष्ट भाव से ; running amok–going mad. पागल की तरह दौड़ना;triumphantly–with a sense of victory, विजय भाव से ; evidence–proof, प्रमाण ; grave–serious. गंभीर ; Inadvertently–unknowingly, अनजाने में ; error–mistake,गलती ; omen–presage,शकुन ; fantasy–imagination, कल्पना या अनुमान ; motioned–told him by movement of hand, इशारा किया ; obviously–clearly, स्पष्ट रूप से ; strain–pressure, दबाव;rationalise–to explain with reason, तर्क संगत व्याख्या करना ; fantastic–odd,विचित्र ;
Catastrophe-theory, a turning point, the point at which the tables were turned and the rain set in,विनाश की घड़ी की अवधारणा ; seminar–meeting to discuss or study a particular topic with a teacher, शिक्षालय; disparity–difference, inequality, अंतर ; armour–a defensive covering, कवच;morale–spirit,मनोबल juncture–the point of time, संकटकाल ; melee–confusion, disorderly state of troops, भीड़भाड़; crucial–critical, नाजुक ; rout–defeat; utter–total, पूर्णरूपेण ; impetus–encouragement, momentum. प्रोत्साहन; unique–strange, अनूठी; speculation–mental view, guess, अटकलबाज़ी; okay–alright; take issue with-beg to differ, disagree; expectantly–anxiously, बेसब्री से; via–through: manifestations–revelations, अभिव्यक्ति; constituent–composing, संघटक; particles–small parts, भाग; startling–surprising, चौंका देने वाल ा; predicted–told beforehand, पूर्वानुमान लगाना
Assertion–claim, affirmation, दावा ; specified–definite, निर्दिष्ट; quote odds–give stray examples; determinism–definiteness; quantum–the required amount or portion, मात्र; Ignoramus–Ignorant, अज्ञानी ;alternative– विकल्प वाले ; marshall–arrange suitably, क्रमबद्ध करना; orbiting–moving round, परिक्रमा करता हुआ ; nucleus–central part,केंद्रक,नाभिक ; Interjected–Intervened, टोक दिया ; identity–recognise, know, पहचानना ; radiation–throwing of rays, किरण फेंकना ; transitions–change; pulse–throbbing, स्फुरण ; macroscopic–visible to naked eyes, द्रष्टिगोचर होने लायक ; microscopic–very small, not visible to naked eye; radically–basically,तत्वरूप में ; fantastic—odd, विचित्र ; alternatives–substitutes, विकल्प ; viable–capable of living, practicable, व्यवहार्य ; bifurcation–split in two parts,विभाजन ; token—sign, mark, symbol, लक्षण चिन्ह; interaction—process of meeting and affecting one another, अन्योन्य क्रिया ; collision–मुठभेड़ ;neurons—nerve cells, तंत्रिकाएँ ; trigger–a lever for firing a gun, घोड़ा ; recouting—recalling. याद करना; speculating—guessing, अनुमान लगान ा; grave–serious, गंभीर; rudely interrupted–badly disturbed
Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– The Adventure/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – The Adventure
The Jijamata Express train was running on Pune-Bombay route even faster than the Deccan Queen. The first stop came in 40 minutes. Then there was the Western Ghat section which Professor Gaitonde knew quite well. The train then passed through Kalyan station. it was, however, Gangadharpant’s first visit to Bombay.
Professor Gaitonde worked out a plan of action in Bombay. He was a historian who had published five volumes. He planned to go to a big library and find out what historical events had led to the present state of affairs. Next, he would return to Pune to have a long talk with Rajendra Deshpande for further clarification.
The train stopped beyond the long tunnel. At a small station called Sarhad, an Anglo-Indian ticket checker entered the compartment. The professor had a fellow traveller Khan sahib. Who was on way to Peshawar. Khan told gained that from Sarhad began the British Raj. The words painted on the blue carriages were Great Bombay metropolitan railway. The Union Jack was also painted on each bogey.
The train finally stopped at Victoria terminus. The station was neat and clean. The staff Was mostly made up of Anglo-Indians and Parsees. Gangadhar walked out of the station. He found himself standing in front of Head Quarters of East India Company. He hadn’t expected this. The company had been wound up after 1857 according to the history book. Yet here he found the company alive and flourishing. He wondered how and when it had happened.
He walked along Hornby Road. Lie found British firms and offices of British banks there. He then entered Forbes building. He wished to meet Mr Vinay Gaitonde, working there. The receptionist was sorry to say that there was no such person on the staff. This was a blow but not totally unexpected. If he himself was dead in the world, his son could not be alive.
He wanted to go to the Town Hall library. He took a quick lunch and reached there.
He now got all the five volumes he himself had written up to the death of Aurangzeb. There was no change in history. The change had occurred only in the last volume. He turned over the pages and came to the exact points where history had taken a different turn. The Battle of Panipat was fought between the Marathas and Abdali. Abdali was defeated and chased back to Kabul. The victorious Maratha army was led by Sadashivrao Bhau and his nephew, young Vishwasrao. This victory established the supremacy of the Marathas in northern India. The East India Company got the message to keep functioning for the time being. Its Influence was reduced to three cities—Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
For political reasons, the Peshwas kept the puppet Mughal rule alive in Delhi. But in the 19th century, the Maratha rulers recognised the importance of science and technology. They set up their own centres of study and research. The East India Company grabbed the opportunity to extend its influence. It offered help as well as expertise.
The 20th century brought about further changes. India moved towards democracy and the grip of Peshwas grew weak. Gangadharpant began to admire the India that he had seen. He felt that India gave concession to Fast India Company from a position of strength and for commercial reasons. The Marathas leased out Bombay to the British in 1908. The lease was to expire in the year 2001. He could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was seeing around him.
He decided to find out how the Marathas won the Battle of Panipat. He found the clue in Bakhar. He read the three-line account of how close Vishwasrao had come to being killed. The young general guided his horse to the scene of actual fighting. A shot brushed past his ear, and he luckily escaped death.
The librarian reminded Gangadhar that it was time to close the library. The professor put some notes into his right pocket. Absent-mindedly he put the Bakhar also into his left pocket.
He put up for the night in a guest house. After a frugal meal, he set out for a walk towards the Azad Maidan, where a lecture was in progress. But table and chair on the dais were unoccupied. It was the presidential chair. The professor sank into that chair. There were protests. He proceeded with his lecture. But the audience was in no mood to listen. They hit him with tomatoes and eggs. It was his 999th lecture. He kept on talking. He was removed bodily and was thereafter seen nowhere.
When he finally met Rajendra at Pune, he had no Idea where and how he had spent the past two days. He had met with a road accident and collided with a truck. At that time he was thinking of that crucial moment when history could have taken a U-turn. He produced a page torn out of a book to establish that his imagination was not running amuck. The book Bakhar was, however, lost somewhere in the Azad Maidan. Rajendra read that account how vishwas rao was hit by the bullet. It was material evidence. The professor’s account was not a mere fantasy or a trick being played by his mind.
Rajendra tried to rationalise gaitonde’s experience. He called it a catastrophic experience. This theory could be aptly applied to the Battle of Panipat. The two armies of the Marathas and Abdali were equally matched. So a lot depended on the leadership and the morale of the soldiers. The point at which Vishwas Rao, the heir-son of the Peshwa, was killed, proved to be the turning point. His uncle was also perhaps killed. The loss of their two leaders killed the fighting spirit of the Maratha troops and they suffered defeat.
But Rajendra pointed out that Vishwas Rao was saved and the Maratha troops won the battle. Similar statements are made about the Battle of Waterloo which Napoleon could have won.
Rajendra then explained the second point—we experience the reality directly with our senses. But It is limited to what we see. There are other manifestations of reality. Take the example of the atom and its particles. Their behaviour cannot be foretold definitely. If an electron is fired from source, it won’t go in the given direction as does a bullet from a gun. In one world the electron is found here, in another itis over there. The observer bases his experience on one finding. But other worlds exist just the same. The electron can make a jump from high to low energy level. Such transitions are common. In other words, the professor also had made a move from one world to another and back again. So far as reality is concerned, all alternatives are true but the observer can see only one of them at a time. Professor Gaitonde was able to experience two worlds or periods of history although only one at a time. The one was his present, the other was where he had spent two days after the accident. He travelled neither to the past nor to the future. He was in the present, but he was experiencing a different world of what might have been.
But the professor wanted to know why he made the transition. Rajendra explained that perhaps at the time of the accident, he was thinking about the catastrophic theory and its role in wars. Perhaps he was wondering about the Battle of Panipat. The professor admitted that he had been wondering what course history would have taken if the result of the Battle had gone the other way. In fact, that was going to be the topic of his thousandth presidential address. But he wasn’t going to deliver that thousandth lecture. He had tried to do that at the Azad Maidan where he was hooted down. So he had informed the organisers of the Panipat seminar about his inability to attend it.
Summary in Hindi
जीजामाता एक्सप्रेस गाड़ी पुणे-मुम्बई मार्ग पर डेकन क्वीन गाड़ी से भी तेज गति से भाग रही थीI 40 मिनटपश्चात पहला स्टॉप आयाI फिर शुरू हो गया पश्चिमी घाट खण्ड जिससे प्रोफ़ेसर गेटोण्डे भली-भाँतिपरिचित थेIफिर गाड़ी कल्यान स्टेशन से गुजरीIयह प्रोफ़ेसरगेटोण्डेअथवा गंगाधरपंत की पहली बम्बई यात्रा थीI
प्रोफेसर ने बम्बई के लिए कार्य योजना बनाई I वह इतिहासकार थे तथा उन्होंने पाँच खण्डो में भारत का इतिहास लिखा था उनकी योजना थी कि बम्बई में किसी बड़े पुस्तकालय में जाएँगे तथा पता लगाएँगे कि किस कारणों से देश की वर्तमान दशा हुई थी I इसके पश्चात्वह पूना लौटकर राजेंद्र देशपाण्डे से इसके खुलासे की विषय पर लम्बी बात करेंगेI
गाड़ी लम्बी सुरंग से गुज़रने के बाद एक छोटे स्टेशन सरहद पर रुकी, एक ऐंग्लो इंडियन टिकट निरीक्षक ने डब्बे में प्रवेश कियाI प्रोफ़ेसर के एक सहयात्री थे खान साहब जो पेशावर जा रहे थेI खान नेउन्हें बताया कि सरहद स्टेशन से ब्रिटिश राज शुरू होता है Iरेल के नीचे डिब्बे पर भी लिखा था–‘ग्रेट बाँम्बे मेट्रोपालिटन रेलवे’ I हर डिब्बे पर इंग्लैण्ड का नीला ध्वज भी चित्रित थाI
गाड़ी अंततः विक्टोरिया टर्मिनल पर रुकी Iस्टेशन तो साफ-सुथरा था पर कर्मचारी अधिकतर ऐंग्लो इंडियन या पारसी थेI गंगाधर स्टेशन के बाहर निकलेI उन्हें सामने ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी का मुख्यालय दिखाई दिया उन्हें ऐसी आशा न थी I कम्पनी ने तो अपना बोरिया बिस्तर 1857 के पश्चात बाँध लिया था, ऐसा इतिहास की पुस्तकें कहती है पर यहाँ तो उन्हें कंपनी जीवित तथा फलती-फूलती दिखाई दी उन्हें हैरानी हुई यह कब और किस प्रकार से हुआI
वह हार्नबाई रोड पर चले Iवहाँ उन्हें ब्रिटिश दुकानें तथा ब्रिटिश बैंकों के दफ्तर दिखाई दिएI वह फिर फोर्ब्स भवन में गएIवहाँ उन्होंने अपने बेटे विनय गेटोन्डे के बारे में पूछा जो वहाँ कार्यरत का स्वागत परिचारिका ने खेद व्यक्त किया कि इस नाम का कोई भी व्यक्ति उस कार्यालय की किसी भी शाखा में काम नहीं कर रहा हैIयह एक आघात था पर पूर्णतया अपेक्षित नहीं थाI यदि वह स्वयं ही संसार से कूच कर चुके हैं तो फिर उनका बेटा किस प्रकार से जीवित रह पाएगाI उनकी इच्छा टाउन हॉल पुस्तकालय में जाने की हुईI उन्होंने शीघ्रता से लंच खाया तथा वहाँपहुँच गएI उन्होंने स्वरचित इतिहास के पाँचों भाग मँगवालिएIइस इतिहास में औरंगजेब की मृत्यु तक कोई परिवर्तन नहीं हुआ था Iजो परिवर्तन हुआ वह अंतिम पुस्तक की अवधि में हुआ उन्होंने पन्ने पलटे और उसी स्थान पर पहुँच गए,जहाँ से इतिहास ने नई करवट ली थीI पानीपत का युद्ध मराठों तथा अब्दाली सेनाओं के बीच हुआ थाI अब्दाली हारा था तथा उसे काबुल तक खदेड़ दिया गयाIविजयी मराठी सेना का नेतृत्व कर रहे थेसदाशिवराव भाऊ एवं उनके भतीजे युवा विश्वासरावI इस विजय ने मराठों की प्रभुत्व पूरे उत्तरी भारत में फैला दी Iईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी को समझ में आ गया कि वह कुछ समय तक शांति से बैठेंIउस कम्पनी का प्रभुत्व केवल तीन जगहों तक ही सीमित था-बम्बई, कोलकाता तथा मद्रासI
राजनीतिक कारणवश पेशवाओंने दिल्ली में मुगल शहंशाह को बनाए रखा Iपर 19वीं शताब्दी में मराठा शासकों ने विज्ञान तथा प्रौद्योगिकी के महत्व को समझाIउन्होंने अपने ही अध्ययन एवं शोध केंद्र बना लिए Iईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी ने अपना प्रभाव बढ़ाने के लिए इस अवसर का लाभ उठाया Iउसने पेशवाओं की मदद की तथा उन्हें विशेषज्ञ भी दिए I
बीसवीं सदी में अनेक परिवर्तन हो गएI भारत भी लोकतंत्र की ओर मुड़ गया तथा पेशवाओं की पकड़ कमजोर हो गई Iगंगाधरपंत उस भारत की प्रशंसा करने लगा जिसे उसने देख रहा थाI उसे लगा कि ईस्ट इंडिया कंपनी को सुविधाएँ जो दी वह शक्तिवान की हैसियत से दी तथा व्यवसायिक लाभ के लिए दी मराठों ने बम्बई को अंग्रेजी कंपनी को 1908मेंसौंपा था यह पट्टा 2001 में समाप्त होने वाला था Iवह जिस देश को जानता था उसकी तुलना उससे किए बिना न रह सका जिसे वह देख रहा थाI
उन्होंने यह पता लगाने का निर्णय किया कि मराठों ने किस प्रकार पानीपत की लड़ाई जीतीI उन्हें यह सुराग ‘बाखर’ पुस्तक में मिल गयाI उन्होंने तीनपंक्तियों का एक विवरण पढ़ा कि किस प्रकार से विश्वासरावमृत्यु से बाल-बाल बचा था इस युवक ने अपना घोड़ा उसभीड़ की ओर दौड़ा दिया जहाँ मारकाट चल रही थीI एक गोली उसके कान के पास से निकल गई और वह सौभाग्य से बच गयाI
लाईब्रेरीयनने गंगाधर को बताया कि पुस्तकालय के बन्द होने का समय हो आया है Iप्रोफ़ेसर ने कुछ नोट्स अपनी दाईं जेब में रख लिएIअनजाने में उन्होंने ‘बाखर’ पुस्तक भी अपनी बाई जेल में डाल ली I
रात ठहरने की व्यवस्था उन्होंने गेस्ट हाउस में कर ली Iथोड़ा सा भोजन करके वह आजाद मैदान की ओर टहलने के लिए चल दिए वहां कोई सभा चल रही थी Iकोई व्यक्ति भाषण दे रहा थाI पर मंच पर रखीएक कुर्सी और मेज खाली पड़ी थीI यह अध्यक्ष की कुर्सी थी Iप्रोफ़ेसर जाकर उस कुर्सी पर बैठ गएI इसका विरोध हुआ Iपर प्रोफ़ेसर ने अपना अध्यक्षीय भाषण शुरू दिया पर श्रोतागण सुनने के मूड में नहीं थेI उन्होंने वक्ता के ऊपर टमाटर अंडे फेंकेI प्रोफेसर का यह 999 वाँ भाषण था Iवह बोलते रहेI उन्हें सशरीर उठाकर नीचे ले जाया गयाI उसके पश्चात उनकी खोज खबर नहीं मिलीI
जब प्रोफेसर पूना की राजेन्द्र देशपाण्डे से मिले तो उन्हें कोई जानकारी न थी कि उन्होंने पिछले दोदिन कहाँ बिताएI उनकी टक्कर सड़क पर एक ट्रक से हो गई थी उस समय वह एक नाजुक क्षण के बारे में सोच रहाथाजब इतिहास एक करवट ले सकता था I उन्होंने अपनी जेब से पुस्तक काफाड़ा गया वह पृष्ठनिकाल लिया ताकि राजेंद्र को बता सकें कि उनकी कल्पना की उड़ान नहीं मर रही हैI पर ‘बाखर’ पुस्तक आजाद मैदान में कहीं गिर गई थी राजेंद्र ने वह विवरण पढ़ा कि किस प्रकार से विश्वासराव को गोली लगी थी यह तो ठोस प्रमाण था I प्रोफ़ेसर का विवरण उनकी कल्पना पर आधारित नहीं था, उनकेमस्तिष्क की कोई कलाबाजी का परिणाम न थाI
राजेन्द्र ने गेटोन्डे के अनुभव का विश्लेषण करने का प्रयास किया Iउन्होंने इसे विनाशकारी अनुभव बताया Iइस सिद्धांत का उपयोग पानीपत की लड़ाई से भी किया जा सकता था I मराठा तथा अब्दालीकी सेनाएँ बराबर टक्कर की थी इसलिए सब कुछ उनके नेतृत्व तथा सैनिकों के मनोबल पर निर्भर करता था जिस क्षण पेशवा के बेटे उत्तराधिकारी विलासराव की मृत्यु हुई, उसने लड़ाई का रूख ही पलट दिया Iउसके चाचा भी शायद शहीद हो गएIइन दो नेताओं की मृत्यु ने मराठा सेना के मनोबल को तोड़ दिया और उन्हें पराजय का मुंह देखना पड़ाI
पर राजेन्द्र ने बताया कि विश्वासराव तो बच गए थे तथा मराठा सेना विजयी रही थीं इसी प्रकार के कथन वाटरलू के युद्ध के बारे में भी कहे जाते हैं Iजिसे नेपोलियन जीत सकता थाI
फिर राजेन्द्र ने दूसरी बात स्पष्ट की I हम लोग यथार्थ का अनुभव इंद्रियों की मदद से सीधे करते हैं Iपर यह अनुभव उसी पर निर्भर करता है जो हम देख पाते हैंI इस यथार्थ के दूसरे रूप भी होते हैं Iअणु तथा उनके अन्दर के कणों का उदाहरण लोI उनका व्यवहार कभी भी पहले से निश्चित रूप से बताया नहीं जा सकता I यदि कहीं से एक इलेक्ट्रॉन छोड़ा जाए, तो वह किसी एक निश्चित दिशा में नहीं जाएगा जैसे बंदूक की गोली जाती है Iएक क्षेत्र में इलेक्ट्रॉनइस जगह पाया जाता है तो दूसरे क्षेत्र प्रदेश में दूसरे स्थान पर Iदेखने वाला तो अपना अनुभव एक ही जानकारी पर आधारित करता है I पर अन्य क्षेत्र भी तो अस्तित्व में होते हैं इलेक्ट्रॉन अधिक ऊर्जा से कम ऊर्जा वाले स्तर में छलाँग लगाता है ऐसे स्थान परिवर्तन सामान्य होते हैं Iदूसरे शब्दों में प्रोफेसर ने भी एक दुनिया से दूसरी में छलाँग लगा दी थी तथा पुनः वापस आ गए थे Iजहाँ तक वास्तविकता का प्रश्न था, सभी विकल्प सही होते हैं पर देखने वाले को एक समय में उनमें से एक ही दिखाई देता हैI
प्रोफ़ेसर गेटान्डे ने इतिहास की दो जगहों का अनुभव लिया था, पर एक बार में एक ही समय का अनुभव लियाI एक तो उनकी वर्तमान दुनिया थी दूसरी वह जहाँ उन्होंने दुर्घटना के पश्चात 2 दिन गुजारे थे उन्होंने न तो अतीत की यात्रा की, नही भविष्य की I वह तो वर्तमान में रह रहे थे, दूसरी दुनिया वह थी जहाँ उन्होंने दुर्घटना के बाद दो दिन गुजारे थेI वह थे तो वर्तमान में पर अनुभव उस भिन्न स्थिति का ले रहे थे जो पैदा हो सकती थीI
पर प्रोफेसर ने जानना चाहा कि उन्होंने यह स्थान परिवर्तन किया क्यों I राजेन्द्र ने बताया कि दुर्घटना के समय वह विनाश के कगार वाली थ्योरी के विषय में सोच रहे थे I शायद वह पानीपत के युद्ध के परिणाम के बारे में सोच रहे थे Iप्रोफेसर ने स्वीकार किया वह सोच-सोच कर परेशान थे कि यदि पानीपत की लड़ाई का परिणाम उल्टा होता तो इतिहास क्या करवट ले लेता Iवास्तव में यही तो उनके 1000वें अध्यक्षीय भाषण का विषय होना था पर वह अब अपना हजारवाँभाषण नहीं देंगे Iउन्होंने यह प्रयास आजाद मैदान में भाषण देकर किया था पर वहाँ उन्हें दूर कर दिया गया था Iइसलिए अब उन्होंने पानीपत गोष्टी के आयोजकों को सूचित कर दिया है कि वह पहुँचने में असमर्थ हैI
Following is the complete question bank for The Adventure
Short Answer Type Questions (30 to 40 words)
1.What sort of ‘Adventure’ has been narrated by Jayant Narlikar?
Ans. The adventure of Professor Gangadharpant was not real or physical. He was a historian. He wanted to know what would have happened if the Marathas had lost the Battle of Panipat. For two days during his unconsciousness, he visited the new Bombay and had a bitter experience in Azad Maidan.
2. Who was Professor Gaitonde? What was his plan in Bombay?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde or Gangadharpant was a historian. He had written five volumes on history. But his research work was still going on. He was on his way to Bombay. He planned to go to a big library and consult the history books there to find out how the present state of affairs was reached.
3. What was Gangadharpant’s experience on way to Bombay?
Ans. Gangadharpant travelled by the Jijamata express along the Pune-Bombay route. His plan was to consult some history books at the library. At Sarhad station, an Anglo-Indian checked the permits. That was the place where the British Raj began. He got the company of one Khan Sahib on the train. He noticed that the city was quite different from what he had known about it.
4. What was Gangadhar’s experience when he reached a small station Sarhad?
Ans. It was Gangadhar’s first visit to this new Bombay. Every blue carriage carried the words Greater Bombay metropolitan railway’ and also a small Union Jack painted on it. It gently reminded him that he had entered the British territory. An Anglo-Indian checked the train permits of the passengers.
5. What had Professor Gaitonde not expected in Bombay?
Ans. Professor Gaitonde was prepared for many shocks but he had not expected to see the domination of East India Company in Bombay. History books said that the company had been wound up after 1857. But here in Bombay it still seemed to be alive and flourishing. He found a different set of shops and departmental stores and big bank buildings as in England.
6. What for did Professor Gaitonde enter the Forbes building? What was his experience there?
Ans. The professor went to Forbes building to meet Vinaya gained, his own son. The receptionist searched through the telephone list and directory of employees. There was no one bearing that name. It was a big blow. He felt that so far everything had been shocking and surprising so the blow of non-existence of his son was not totally unexpected.
7. What did the professor do in the Town Hall library?
Ans. The professor asked for the history books he himself had written. There was no change in the events up to the death of Aurangzeb. The change had occurred in the last volume. He read the description of the Battle of Panipat. Abdali was defeated by the Maratha army led by Sadashiv Rao Bhau and his nephew Vishwas Rao. This event led to a power struggle. It established the supremacy of the Marathas. The British company was reduced to pockets of Influence near Bombay. The Marathas set up their science research centres. They accepted the help of English experts.
8. What is the professor’s opinion was the cause of expanding British influence in India?
Ans. Professor Gangadhar felt glad to learn that the white men could not have expanded their hold if the Marathas had not allowed them for commercial reasons to stay on in Bombay. That lease was to expire in 2001 according to the treaty of 1908.
9. What did the professor wish to find out in history books?
Ans. He wanted to find the answer to his question about how the Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat. He found a clue in the book on history titled Bakhars. Vishwasrao had a narrow escape from being killed by a bullet that brushed past his ear. This boosted the morale of the Maratha army and they fought bravely.
10. What two things did the professor put into his pockets at the Town Hall?
Ans. He put some notes in his right pocket and the book, the ‘Bakhar’, into his left pocket.
11. What bitter experience did the professor have at the meeting in Azad Maidan?
Ans. A lecture was in progress when the professor reached Azad Maidan. Seeing the presidential chair vacant, he occupied it swiftly. The audience protested. They said the chair was symbolic. But when the professor began to address the gathering, he was physically removed from the dais.
12. How did Bakhar’s account of the Battle of Panipat differ from what other history books said?
Ans. All the history books said that the Maratha army had lost the battle. Vishwasrao was hit by a bullet and he fell. That broke the morale of the army. That was not what the professor’s own copy of the Bakhar said. It said that Vishwas Rao had a narrow escape as the bullet brushed past his ear. The professor was dying to know the facts.
13. How did Rajendra rationalise the professor’s experience?
Ans. Rajendra tried to explain the professor’s experience on the basis of two scientific theories. The professor had passed through a catastrophic experience. The Maratha and the Abdali army were well matched. So a lot depended on the morale of the troops and the leadership. The point at which Vishwas Rao was killed, proved to be the turning point. They lost their morale and suffered defeat. But the Bakhar’s page presented an opposite view. It said that the bullet missed Vishwas Rao, and that boosted the morale of the soldiers. The professor was thinking of this aspect when he was hit by the truck.
14. How did Rajendra try to explain the mystery of reality?
Ans. We normally experience reality directly with our senses. But what we see is not the whole truth. That is proved if we take the example of an electron. Fired from a source, it can go in any direction, breaking all laws of physics. This is called lack of determination in quantum theory. The professor, said Rajendra, had made a transition from one world that he knew to another that could have been. The observer can experience one reality, but alternative realities also exist. The professor had also experienced a different world without any physical movement when he became unconscious after being hit by a truck.
15. ‘But why did I make the transition?’ What explanation did Rajendra give to the professor?
Ans. Rajendra guessed that the transition must have been caused by some interaction. Perhaps the professor had been thinking at the time of collision about the catastrophic theory and its role in wars. The professor admitted that he had been wondering at that time what course history would have taken if the Marathas had won the Battle of Panipat.
16. Why did Gangadhar decide to cancel his thousandth address?
Ans. Gangadhar informed the organisers of the Panipat seminar that he won’t be able to keep his commitment. The reason was his bitter experience at the Azad Maidan meeting when the hostile crowd refused to listen to him and threw eggs and tomatoes at him.
Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-
Long Answer Questions
1. Describe Gangadharpant’s journey by train from Pune to Bombay.
Ans. Professor Gaitonde (Gangadharpant) travelled from Pune to Bombay by train. The Jijamata express had its first stop at Lonavala. The ghat section was quite familiar to him. The train passed through Kalyan.
He made a plan of action in Bombay. He was a historian. He had written five volumes. He planned to go to a big library and read history books to find out how the present state of affairs had been reached. Thereafter, he would discuss his findings with Rajendra Deshpande.
The train stopped beyond the long tunnel at a small station, Sarhad. An Anglo-Indian checked the permits. This was the place where the British Raj began. Pant had not been to this Bombay before. He talked with his fellow passenger Khan sahib. The professor got some information on life in British India. He also noticed the words written and the Union Jack painted on the carriage. He had not expected all that.
2. Give a brief account of Professor Gaitonde’s stay and study of history books at Town Hall library. What riddle was he keen to solve?
Ans. In Bombay, the professor went to the Town Hall library. He asked for the five volumes he had written. Up to the death of Aurangzeb, there was no change in history. The change had taken place in the last volume. Turning over the pages, he reached the exact point where history had taken a different turn. It was the Battle of Panipat in which the Maratha army had defeated Abdali. The victorious army was led by the young Vishwasrao. Thereafter began the power struggle in India. It was his own style of writing.
The Maratha victory dampened the spirit and plans of the East India Company. its influence was reduced to Bombay region. In the 19th century, the Peshwas needed the help of the British at their centres for science and technology. They gave an opportunity to the company to extend its influence. Then came democracy. The professor could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.
3. How did Rajendra Deshpande apply his theory of catastrophic experience regarding the Battle of Panipat?
Ans. Gangadharpant narrated to Rajendra his experience at the Azad Maidan meeting. For two days he was in a coma. He had met with an accident. He had now returned to the world he was familiar with. He asked Rajendra to explain where he had spent those days.
He admitted that just before the collision he had been thinking of the catastrophic theory and how it could change the course of history. He produced a page from the Bakhar to prove that his mind was working normally. The page described that Vishwasrao had not escaped the bullet, he had rather been hit and killed by the bullet. It was just contrary to what his own history book said. And he wanted to know the facts.
4. How did Rajendra explain the concept of reality with the example of movement of an electron?
Ans. Rajendra Deshpande tried to rationalise the professor’s experience on the basis of two scientific theories. It was true that Gangadharpant had passed through a strange catastrophic experience. The juncture at which Vishwas Rao was killed in the Battle of Panipat proved to be the turning point. The Maratha soldiers lost their morale and fighting spirit. They lost the battle.
Rajendra then moved to his second point about reality. Reality is not exactly what we experience directly with our senses. Reality can have other manifestations also. For example, the electron does not follow the laws of science when it moves. It is called the lack of determinism in quantum theory. The electron can be found in different places, and each is real. It happens by making a transition. The professor had also experienced two worlds—one that was present, the other that might have been.