Ch – 3 Democracy and Diversity Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 29, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Civics

Chapter- 3 Democracy and Diversity

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts

A STORY FROM MEXICO OLYMPICS

Very Short Answers:-

1.Mention the racial similarity between Tommie Smith and John Carlos.

Ans. Both, Tommie Smith and John Carlos were African-Americans.

2.Why did Tommie Smith receive his medal wearing black socks and no shoes?

Ans. He tried to draw international attention towards racial discrimination in the United States.

3.Which university has recently installed the statues of Tommie Smith and John Carlos in its campus?                                                 

Ans. In 2005, the San Jose State University installed the statues of Tommie Smith and John Carlos in its campus.

4.Differentiate between Civil Rights Movement and Black Power Movement. Give one difference.

 Ans. Civil Rights Movement was a non-violent movement and was run during 1954-68 while Black Power Movement believed in violence and was run during 1966-75.

5,Who are represented by the term ‘African-American’?

Or

 Who are African-Americans?                                                   

Ans. African-American is the term used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and early 19th century

6.Name the two athletes who raised the issue of Civil Rights in the Mexico Olympics

 Ans. They were Tommie Smith and John Carlos.

7.Which event in the USA is referred to as the Black Power Movement (1966-75)?

Ans. In the 1968 Olympic medal ceremony, the US athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black poverty and racial discrimination.

8.Who led the Civil Rights Movement in USA?

 Ans. Martin Luther King (Junior).

Long Answers:-

1.What do you mean by Black Power Movement?

Ans. (1) The Black Power Movement emerged in 1966 and lasted till 1975, which was a more militant anti-racist movement, advocating even violence if necessary to end racism in the US.

 (2) In 1968 Olympics held at Mexico City. The two men standing with clenched fists upraised and heads bowed, while the American National Anthem was played, are the US athletes, Tommie Smith and 1%-i Carlos. They are African-Americans.

(3) They had won the gold and bronze medals respectively. They received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent Black poverty.

 (4) The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement.

(5) But their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in the US. W.          

2.How do American athletes show their anger towards racism in 1968 Olympics ?

Ans. (1) In 1968, Olympic games were held at Mexico City.                   

(2) Tommie Smith and John Carlos, African-Americans, were the US athletes. They had won the gold and bronze medals respectively in the 200 meter race and raised the civil rights issue.

(3) (i) They received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent Black poverty.

(ii) With this gesture, they tried to draw International attention to racial discrimination in the United States. The black-gloved and. raised clenched fists were meant to symbolize Black Power.

(iii) The silver medalist, white Australian athlete, Peter Norman. wore a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony to show his support to the two Americans.

(iv) The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement. But their action succeeded in gaining international attention for the Civil Rights Movement in the US.

Short Answers:-

1.Distinguish between Civil Rights Movements (1954-1968) and the Black Power (1966- 1975) Movement in the USA.

Or

State any three important feature of Civil Rights Movement of USA during 1954-1968.

Ans.

2.What action was taken by International Olympic Association against each of the three Olympians, Carlos, Smith and Norman Peter?

Or

 What were the consequences of Tommy Smith and Johan’s reaction to social discrimination?

Or

Describe the consequences of Smith and Carlos reaction to the racial discrimination.

Or

 What consequences did Smith and Carlos have to face after their reaction to the racism discrimination?                                      

Ans. (1) The International Olympic Association held Carlos and Smith guilty of violating the Olympic spirit by making a political statement.

(2) The medals given to Carlos and Smith were taken back.

(3) Back home, they were subjected to a lot of criticism.

(4) Norman too, suffered for his action and was not included in the Australian team for the next Olympics.

3.Taking the example of Carlos, Smith and Norman explain how social differences divide similar people from one another but also unite very different people.

Or

 How did the African-American athletes in Mexico Olympics 1968 try to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States ?                                                                    

 Ans. (1) John Carlos and Tommie Smith, both were African-American athletes. They were different from Peter Norman, who was an Australian and white.

 (2) Carlos and Smith received their medals wearing black socks and no shoes to represent black poverty. With this gesture, they tried to draw international attention to racial discrimination in the United States. This was supported by Norman by wearing a human rights badge on his shirt.

(3) They were also similar in some other ways — they all were athletes who stood against racial discrimination. Thus, some differences can unite very different people.

DIFFERENCES, SIMILARITIES, DIVISIONS

Very Short Answers:-

1.Mention one impact of migration.

 Ans. Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community.

2.Give one example to show that cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.

Ans. In Netherlands, class and religion cut across each other as both Catholics and Protestants are equally rich and poor. They have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.

3.Give one example to show that political competition along with the religious and ethnic lines lead to disintegration.                             

 Ans. The case of Tamil and Sinhala communities can be taken as one such example.

4.What term is used for a society where there are no significant ethnic differences?

Ans. A society where there are no significant ethnic differences but has similar kinds of people are called homogeneous society.

5.Give example of people belonging to different social groups sharing differences and l.siarities cutting across the boundaries of countries.  

Ans. Carlos and Smith were similar in one way as African-Americans, and thus different from Norman who was white. But, they were all similar in other ways i.e., they all were athletes who stood against social discrimination.

6.Highlight the case of Netherlands in reference to cross cutting of social differences.

Ans. In the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut across each other. Catholics and protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich. The result is that they have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not have so in the Netherlands.

Short Answers:-

1.Explain cross-cutting of social divisions with an example.

Or

Explain the cross-cutting differences with suitable examples.                                   

 Ans. (1) If social differences cross-cut one another, it is difficult to put one group of people against the other.

(2) For example, in Netherlands, class and religion tend to cross each other but Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich and have no conflicts.

(3) Cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.

2.Explain with examples different forms of social differences

Or

What is meant by overlapping of social differences? Explain with the help of examples.

Or

Compare overlapping and cross-cutting social differences with one example each.

Ans.         Overlapping Differences                                                      Cross-cutting Differences         

3.How far do the emergences of social differences lead to social division? Explain by giving a suitable example.

Or

Why do social differences emerge in a society? Does every social difference lead to social division? Explain with the help of an example. 

Ans. (1) Differences occur in a society for the following reasons: (i) This may be because of accident of birth. For example, being male or female, tall or short, different complexions, physical abilities or disabilities, etc.

(ii) This may be because of our own choice. For example, to follow a particular religion or not, to choose an occupation or get involved in any cultural or game activity.

(2)Every social difference does not lead to social division. Some differences can unite very different people. For example, Carlos and Smith, both were African-American and different from Norman, who was white. But, they were also similar in some other ways —they all were athletes who stood against racial discrimination.

4.Explain with examples the two bases for the origin of social differences.

Or

Explain the origins of social differences.                                             

Ans. The origins of social differences are as follows :

1.(i) They are mostly based on accident of birth. We belong to our community simply because we were born into it. We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives. For example, being male or female, tall or short, different complexions, physical abilities or disabilities, etc.

(2) Some of the differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists whereas some follow a religion other than the one in which they were born. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part.

(3) Social differences are also created by economic inequalities existing in the society. For example, rich and poor persons from the same family often do not keep close relation with each other for they feel they are very different.

5.”Every social difference does not lead to social division.” Explain the statement.

Or

“Social differences divide similar people from one another but they also unite very different people.” Justify the statement with suitable arguments.

 Ans. (1) Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people. People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.

(2) For example Carlos and Smith, both were African-American and different from Norman, who was white. But, they were also similar in some other ways — they all were athletes who stood against racial discrimination.

(3) Likewise, it is also possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other. Thus, social difference can be integrating also.

6.”Social divisions exist in most of the countries.” Explain.

Or

Why do social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries? Explain with examples.                                               

Or

How far is it correct to say that social divisions exist only in big countries like India?

Ans. (1) Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries. It does not matter whether the country is small or big.

 (2) India is a vast country with many communities. Belgium is a small country with many communities.

 (3) Even those countries such as Germany and Sweden that were once highly homogeneous, are undergoing rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the .world.

(4) Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community.

(5) In this sense, most countries of the world are multi-cultural and having social divisions;

7.”Social division takes place when some social differences overlap with other differences. Justify the statement with the help of any three suitable examples.

Or

 When does a social difference become a social division? Explain any three situations.

Ans. (1) When some social differences overlap with other differences, social division takes place. Here, one kind of difference becomes more important than the other. Then the people start feeling that they belong to different communities. This results into social division among people.

 (2) In US, there was social division of blacks and whites because the blacks tended to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

 (3) In India, Davits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.

Long Answers:-

1.What is meant by overlapping social difference? Explain its impact.  

Ans. (1) Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.

(2) When one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

(3) The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

(4) (i) Overlapping social differences leads to a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict : Northern Ireland region of the United Kingdom has been, for many years, the site of a violent and bitter ethno-political conflict. Its population is divided into two major sects of Christianity: 53 per cent are Protestants, while 44 percent are Roman Catholics. The Catholics were represented by Nationalist parties who demanded that Northern Ireland be unified with the Republic of Ireland, a predominantly Catholic country. The Protestants were represented by Unionists who wanted to remain with the UK, which is predominantly protestant.

(ii) Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of a country: Political competition along religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

2.Why is it so that religious differences created social division in Northern Ireland and failed to do the same in Netherlands? Explain.

 Ans. (1) If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other. It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides on a different issue.

 (2) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.

(3) Consider the cases of Northern Ireland and the Netherlands. Both are predominantly Christian divided between Catholics and Protestants.

(4) In Northern Ireland, class and religion overlap with each other. Catholics and Protestants are about equally likely to be poor or rich. The result is that Catholics and Protestants have had conflicts in Northern Ireland, while they do not do so in the Netherlands.

3.How do overlapping and cross-cutting of differences create social divisions? Explain.

Or

When and how do social differences lead to social divisions? What are the social circumstances when it becomes easier to accommodate them?                                                                       

Ans. The social diversity can take different forms in different societies.

(1)(i) Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.

(ii) Situations of this kind produce social divisions, when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

 (iii) The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the Us because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

(2)(i) If social differences cross cut one another, it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other.

(ii) It means that groups that share a common interest on one issue are likely to be in different sides on a different issue.

 (3) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions while cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.

4.”Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions.” Justify the statement with an example.

 Ans. (1) Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.

(2) For example, in our country, Davits tend to be poor and landless. They often face discrimination and injustice.

(3) Similarly, the difference between the Blacks and Whites, becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

 (4) Situations of this kind produce social divisions when one kind of social difference becomes more important than the other and people start feeling that they belong to different communities.

(5) Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions while cross-cutting social differences are easier to accommodate.

5.Explain the causes of social differences.

Ans. Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries of the world.

(1) Social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it. We all experience social differences based on accident of birth in our everyday lives.

(2) Some of the differences are based on our choices. Most of us choose what to study, which occupation to take up and which games or cultural activities to take part in. All these lead to formation of social groups that are based on our choices.

(3) Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.

6.Differentiate between social difference and social division with the help of examples.

Ans. (1) (i) The social differences are mostly based on accident of birth. Normally, we don’t choose to belong to our community. We belong to it simply because we were born into it.

(ii) But all kinds of social differences are not based on accident of birth. Some of the differences are based on our choices. For example, some people are atheists. They don’t believe in God or any religion.

(iii) Every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people. People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.

(2)(i) Social division takes place when some social difference overlaps with other differences.

(ii) The difference between the Blacks and Whites becomes a social division in the US because the Blacks tend to be poor, homeless and discriminated against.

POLITICS OF SOCIAL DIVISIONS

Very Short Answers:-

1.Give one positive way in which social divisions affect politics.

Ans. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

Short Answers:-

1.Suggest any two measures to check the social divisions.

 Ans. (1) People should think that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity.

(2) Political leaders should raise the demands of any community in a rational way. It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.

2.Explain with example the role of political leaders to determine the outcome of politics of social divisions.

 Ans. (1) The outcome of politics of social divisions depends on how leaders of political parties raise the demands of any community.

 (2) It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.

(3) For example, the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka. Political leaders should not promote such type of demand.

(4) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

(5) If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.

3.’Reaction of the government to the demands of different groups is a crucial factor in determining the outcome of social divisions.’ Explain the statement.                                               

Or

 Discuss the three factors which are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics on social divisions.                                                                                       

 Ans. The three determinants of the outcome of social division in politics are as follows:

 (1) Firstly, how people perceive their identities. If it is singular and exclusive, then it becomes very difficult to accommodate. It becomes easier when identities are multiple and complementary with the national identity.

(2) Secondly, it depends on demands raised by political leaders. If it is within constitutional framework then, it is easier to accommodate.

(3)Thirdly, it is determined by reaction of the government to the demands of differ/it groups. If the rulers share power and accommodate demands of minority, social becomes less threatening for country.

4.How do marginalized and deprived people react to social injustice ? Explain.

 Ans. (1) People who feel marginalized, deprived and discriminated, have to fight against the injustices.

 (2) Such a fight often takes democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful manner and seeking a fair position through elections.

 (3) Sometimes, social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequality and injustices. The struggle against such inequalities, sometimes, takes the path of violence and defiance of state power.

5.Describe the three factors which determine the outcome of the politics of social divisions.

Or

 Explain the three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions.

Ans. (1) How people perceive their identities: if people see their identities in singular and exclusive terms, it becomes very difficult to accommodate. It is much easier if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity.

(2) How political leaders raise the demands of any community: It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework and are not at the cost of another community.

 (3) How the government reacts to the demands of different groups: If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country. But if they try to suppress such demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite.

6.Explain with example the role of political leaders to determine the outcome of politics of social divisions.                                                          

Or

 Explain the three factors that determine the outcome of politics of social divisions. What role do the political leaders play in this area?                                                                                             

Ans. Role of political parties:

 (1) The outcome depends on how leaders of political parties raise the demands of any community.

(2) It is easier to accommodate demands that are within the constitutional framework.

(3) They are not at the cost of another community.

 (4) For example, the demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka.

(5) In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

7.How is political expression of social divisions in democracy beneficial?

Ans. Political expression of social divisions in a democracy is beneficial in the following ways:

(1) This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

(2) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

(3) People who feel marginalized deprived and discriminated fight against the injustices. Such a fight often takes the democratic path, voicing their demands in a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.

8.”In a democracy, political expression of social division is very normal and can be healthy.” Justify this statement with suitable arguments.

Or

 “Assertion of social diversities need not be seen as a source of danger.” Support the statement with any three suitable arguments.                                               

Ans. (1) In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

(2) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy

(3) The struggle against differences, sometimes, takes the path of violence and defiance of state power. However, history shows that democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.

Thus, assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger.

9.”Social division of one kind or another exists in most countries.” In the light of the above statement, mention a few bases of social division in India.

Ans.  (1) On the basis of caste. 

(2) On the basis of religion.

 (3) On the basis of language.

(4) On the basis of region.

 (5) On the basis of community.

10.”We all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social groups.” In the light of the above statement, give examples to show that we have different identities in different contexts.

Ans. (1) As a student, I am a St. Stephanie.

 (2) Religiously, I am a Hindu.

 (3) Regionally, I am Maharashtra.

(4) Linguistically, I am Marathi speaking person.

(5) By caste, I am Kshatriya.

(6) By nationality, I am an Indian.

Long Answers:-

1.Do you think that social divisions are always dangerous? Explain.

Ans. (1) Every social difference does not lead to social division. Also, social divisions are not always dangerous.

(2) Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people. People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.

 (3) People belonging to the same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community, because their caste or sect is very different. It is also possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other.

(4) Rich and poor persons from the same family often do not keep close relations with each other for they feel they are very different.

 (5) Thus, we all have more than one identity and can belong to more than one social group. We have different identities in different contexts. In this sense most countries of the world are multi-cultural.

2.In a democracy, every expression of social divisions in politics is not disastrous.” Establish the truth of the statement with the help of an example.

Ans. (1) At first sight, it would appear that the combination of politics and social divisions is very dangerous and explosive. But, social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries of the world. Wherever they exist, these divisions are reflected in politics.

(2) Democracy involves competition among various political parties tends to divide any society. But, it is not always disastrous.

(3) In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

 (4) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

(5) In a democracy, it is only natural that political parties would talk about these divisions, make different promises to different communities, look after due representation of various communities and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities.

3.How do social divisions affect politics of a country? Explain.

 Ans. (1) Social divisions of one kind or another exist in most countries of the world. Wherever they exist, these divisions are reflected in politics.

(2) Democracy involves competition among various political parties. Their competition tends to divide any society. If they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, it can make social divisions into political divisions and lead to conflict, violence or even disintegration of a country.

 (3) It is also true that in a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

(4) The outcome of politics of social divisions depends on how people perceive their identities, it depends on how political leaders raise the demands of any community and  depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups.

 (5) This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express their grievances and get the government to attend to these.

4.’Why is the combination of politics and social divisions considered to be very dangerous and explosive?” Explain.  

Or

Why do some people think that it’s not correct to politicize social divisions? Give three reasons-

Or

Flow does combination of politics and social division become very dangerous and explosive? Explain with suitable examples.                                                                                          

Ans. (1) In the case of Sri Lanka, the politics of social division between Sinhala and Tamil led to disastrous Civil War which continued for decades.

(2) Similarly, Northern Ireland has been, for many years, the site of violent and bitter ethno-political conflict.

 (3) The population of Northern Ireland is divided into Protestants and Roman Catholics (minority). Roman Catholics are represented by Nationalist Party who demanded for its unification with the Republic of Ireland. The Unionist Party (Protestants) wanted to remain with the UK. This led to a Civil War and fight with the UK forces. So, it is true to say that the combination of politics and social division is dangerous and highly explosive.

5.”Democracy has deep values for maintaining harmonious social life and accommodating social divisions.” Justify the statement by highlighting any three values attached to it.

Ans. (1) Social harmony : Really, democracy has deep values for maintains harmonious social life and accommodating social divisions.

(2) Social justice: People who feel marginalized, deprived and discriminated, fight against the injustices. Such a fight often takes the democratic path, voicing their demands a peaceful and constitutional manner and seeking a fair position through elections.

(3) Freedom of expression: Political expression of social divisions in a democracy beneficial This allows various disadvantaged and marginal social groups to express grievances and get the government to attend to these. Expression of various kinds of soc divisions in politics often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.

6.Countries of the world have become multi-cultural and social diversity ha„ added values it. Explain the statement.                                                                                  

Ans. (1) Diversity : Even those countries in the world such as Germany and Sweden, that were once highly homogeneous, are undergoing rapid change with influx of people from other parts of the world. Migrants bring with them their own culture and tend to form a different social community. In this sense, most countries of the world are multi-cultural.

 (2) Economic prosperity : Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or better economic opportunities.

(3) Social accommodation and national integrity : It is much easier to accommodate socially if the people see that their identities are multiple and are complementary with the national identity. History shows that democracy is the best way to fight for recognition and also to accommodate diversity.

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