Ch – 1 Power Sharing Extra Questions and Notes

By | September 28, 2018

Complete NCERT Book Page wise Solution Class 10th as per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Civics

Chapter- 1 Power Sharing

The following page provides you NCERT book solutions for class 10 social science, social science class 10 notes in pdf are also available in the related links between the texts.

BELGIUM AND SRI LANKA

Very Short Answers:-

1.Which language is mainly spoken in the Flemish region of Belgium?

Ans. Dutch language

2.Belgium is surrounded by which group of countries?

Ans. Belgium is surrounded by France, the Netherland, Germany and Luxembourg.

3. What is the language spoken by the people residing in the Wallonia region of Belgium?

 Ans. French language is spoken by the people residing in the Wallonia region of Belgium.

4.Which community in Belgium was relatively rich and powerful?

Ans. The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful.

5.Which two ethnic groups are in majority in Belgium?

Ans. Dutch and French-speaking ethnic groups are in majority in Belgium.

6.Which language is spoken by majority of Sri Lankans?

Ans. The Sinhala language

7.Mention the two major social groups in Sri Lanka.

Ans. The major social groups are: the Sinhala-speakers (74 per cent) and the Tamil-speakers 18 per cent.

Short Answers:-

1.What were the two main causes of resentment in Belgium in 1960? How was the conflict solved?  

Or

“Existence of Dutch and the French speaking people in Belgium created an ethnic tension.” Elaborate the statement.                                                                                                                          

 Ans. (1) The two main causes of resentment in Belgium in 1960 were as follows :

(i)The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by majority Dutch-speaking community, who got economic and educational benefit much later.

(ii) In the capital city Brussels, the Dutch-speaking people constituted minority and was dominated by French-speaking community.

(2) The conflict was solved by recognizing the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities. Thus, the Belgian leaders took the path of equal opportunity and representation for every community in government. There was vertical division of power and community government formed regarding educational, linguistic and cultural issues.

2.Describe the ethnic composition of Belgium.

Or

 Assess ethnic problem in Belgium.           

Or

How is the ethnic composition of Belgium very complex? Explain.                    

Or

 Assess the reasons for ethnic problem in Belgium.                                

Or

 Explain the ethnic composition of Belgium.                                              

 Ans. (1) The ethnic composition of this small country is very complex. The population of this country is of over 10 million people which live in areas of 30,000 sq. km.

 (2) This country is linguistically divided into two main languages: Dutch and French.

 (3) Its 59 per cent of population live in Flemish region and speak Dutch language and another 40 per cent Belgians speak French. Remaining one per cent of the Belgians speak German. In the capital city 80% people speak French while 20 per cent are Dutch speaking.

MAJORITARIANISM IN SRI LANKA

Very Short Answers:-

1.After independence, Sri Lanka witnessed the supremacy of which community?

Ans. Sinhala community

2.Name the major religion of Sri Lanka.                                                          

Ans. The major religion of Sri Lanka is Buddhism.

3.Which country has adopted Buddhism as its official religion?

Ans. Sri Lanka has adopted Buddhism as its official religion.

4.What is majoritarianizm?

Or

What is meant by majoritariarism?                       

Ans. Majoritarianism is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.

5.Identify the South-Asian country where majoritarianism is in practice.

Ans. Sri Lanka

6.How was majoritarianism practiced in Sri Lanka?                               

 Ans. In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language and government followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.

7.How and when was Sinhala recognized as the official language of Sri Lanka?

Ans. By passing an act in 1956, Sinhala was recognized as the official language of Sri Lanka.

8.Which cook munity in Sri Lanka enjoys majority?

 Ans. The Shalala community

9.What is meant by ‘Tamil Elam’?

Ans. By 1980s several Tamil political organizations were formed in Sri Lanka demanding an independent Tamil Elam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

10.How many years after India’s independence did Sri Lanka emerge as an independent country ?                                                                       

Ans. Sri Lanka emerged as an independent country in 1948, one year after the India’s Independence.

Short Answers:-

1.Describe any three majoritarian measures adopted by the democratically elected Sri Lankan government to establish Sinhala supremacy. Explain how these measures were against the values of democracy.

Or

 Do you think that the steps taken by Sri Lankan Government to establish the supremacy of Sinhala’s will be long lasting? Give your view point.                                                                     

Or

Criticize the majoritarian measures adopted by the Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy.                                                                                                                        

Or

 Describe any three majoritarian measures taken by the Sri Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy.                                                                                                                              

Ans. (1) Measures: The following majoritarian measures were adopted by the Sri Lankan Government to establish Sinhala supremacy:

(i)In 1956, an Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language.

 (ii) The government followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university positions and government jobs.

(iii) A new constitution stipulated that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism.

(2) Against: (i) The government measures, coming one after the other, gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils.

 (ii) They felt that the constitution and government policies denied them equal political rights discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests.

(iii) As a result, the relations between the Sinhala and Tamil communities strained over time.

 (iv) The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict. It soon turned into a civil war.

2.Write three provisions of the Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956. What were the consequences of Civil War in Sri Lanka?

Or

Explain the consequences of the ‘Majoritarian’ policies adopted by the Sri Lanka Government.

Or

 Evaluate the steps taken by Sri Lankan Government, which turned out to be the milestones of majoritarianism in Sri Lanka.                                                                                

 Ans. (1) Consequences: As a result, thousands of people of both the communities have been killed. Many families were forced to leave the country as refugees and many more lost their livelihoods. By 1980s several Tamil political organizations were formed demanding an independent Tamil Elam (State) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka.

 (iii) The distrust between the two communities turned into widespread conflict.

 (iv) The Civil War has caused a terrible setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country.

3.What were the reasons for the alienation of Sri Lankan Tamils? What was the effect of this on the country?  

Or

 Highlight the reasons for the increase in the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils after independence.                                                                                                               

Or

Why do the Sri Lankan Tamils feel alienated in spite of their long stay in Sri Lanka?

Ans. Following were the reasons that made Sri Lankan Tamils to feel alienated:

 (1) Immediately after its independence Sri Lankan government adopted majoritarian policies which established the dominance of Sinhala’s over all other ethnic groups in the country.

(2) By the 1956 Act, Sinhala was made the only official language disregarding Tamil.

(3) For university positions and government jobs, Sinhala applicants were preferred.

 (4) The Constitution stipulated that the State shall protect and foster Buddhism.

 (5) These measures gradually increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils. This feeling led to strained relations between Sinhala and Tamil that later led to a prolonged Civil War in the country.

4.Explain three measures taken by Sri Lanka, according to an Act passed in 1956.

Or

Write three provisions of the Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956.                                     

Or

Describe any three provisions of the Act which were passed in Sri Lanka in 1956 to establish Sinhala supremacy.                                                                 

Or

Explain the three measures taken by Sri Lanka, as per the Act passed in 1956.          

Or

 Elaborate three features in an Act passed by Sri Lankan Government in 1956.

Ans. (1) The Act was passed to recognize Sinhala as the only official language, thus, disregarding the Tamils.

(2) The government followed preferential policies that favored Sinhala applicants for university position and government jobs.

 (3) The new Constitution stipulated that the State shall protect and foster Buddhism.

5.Mention any three demands of Sri Lankan Tamils?

Or

 How can the ethnic problems be resolved in Sri Lanka? Suggest any three measures.

Or

Which three demands of the Sri Lankan Tamils accepted and met with, can settle the ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka for good? Explain.                                                                               

 Ans. Demands of Sri Lankan Tamils were as follows:

(1)The Constitution and government policies should not deny them equal political rights.

(2) Tamils should not be discriminated against them in getting jobs and other opportunities and ignored their interests.

(3) Tamils should also be an official language.

 (4) They should have regional autonomy and equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs.

(5) The trust between the two communities should be restored.

6.What is majoritarianism? How has it been adopted in Sri Lanka?

Or

 What is majoritarianism? How has it increased the feeling of alienation among the Sri Lankan Tamils? Explain.                                                    

 Ans. (1) Majoritarianism is a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in whichever way it wants, by disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority.

(2)It has been adopted in Sri Lanka in the following ways :

(i) By passing an Act in 1956, which recognizes Sinhala as the only official language and further Buddhism as a State religion to be protected and fostered and, thus disregarding language and culture of minority Tamils.

(ii) The government adopted preferential policies that favored majority Sinhala’s over minority Tamils in government jobs and university positions, thus discrimination of Tamils.

ACCOMMODATION IN BELGIUM

Very Short Aswers:-

1.The community government in Belgium is a good example of which form of power sharing?

Ans. Power sharing among different social groups.

2.Which type of policy was constitutionally adopted by the government of Belgium to honor the diversities?                                                                   

Ans. The policy of community government was constitutionally adopted by the government of Belgium to honor the diversities.

3.What is a ‘Community Government’?  

 Ans. Community Government is elected by people belonging to one language community—Dutch, French and German-speaking, there is no matter where they live.

4.Why was the Constitution of Belgium amended four times between 1970 and 1993?

Ans. The Constitution of Belgium was amended four times between 1970 and 1993 to work out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country

5.Which is the third unique type of government practiced in Belgium?

Ans. Community Government

6.In which city is the Headquarters of the European Union located?

 Ans. Brussels

7.Which type of powers does the community government of Belgium enjoy?

Ans. Community government’, is elected by people belonging to one language community — Dutch, French and German-speaking, and has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

Short Answers:-

1. Why power sharing is desirable? Explain giving any three prudential reasons.

Ans. The power sharing is desirable because of the following prudential reasons which emphasize on its better outcomes:

(1) Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, it is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

 (2) Its absence results into imposition of will by majority community. In the short run, it appears attractive. But in the long run, it undermines the unity of a nation.

 (3) The domination of majority is not only oppressive for minority but also ruins majority.

2.”Both Belgium and Sri Lanka are democracies but they follow different systems of power-sharing”. Support the statement by giving three points of difference.

Or

 In which three ways is the political system in Belgium different and innovative from other countries? Explain.                                                                                                  

Or

Compare the different ways in which the Belgians and the Sri Lankans have dealt with the problem of cultural diversity.                                                                                                                         

Ans. Difference in power sharing of Belgium and Sri Lanka:

 (1) In Belgium, the government does not follow preferential policies in matters of jobs and education while in Sri Lanka the government follows preferential policies in matters of government jobs and education.

(2) In Belgium, there is a special government called ‘community government’ to look after the cultural, educational and language related issues whereas in Sri Lanka the major political parties are not sensitive to the language and culture of the Tamils.

 (3) In Belgium, there is no discrimination between different religions but in Sri Lanka Buddhism is the official religion.

Long Answers:-

1.Describe the tension that existed between the Dutch and the French speaking people in Belgium.                                                                 

                                                                                        Or

Explain the causes of tension that existed between Dutch and French speaking people in Belgium.                                                                                         

Ans. (1) Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent live in the Flemish region and speak Dutch language. Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French.

 (2) Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. Some special laws require the support of majority of members from each linguistic group. No single community can make decisions unilaterally.

(3) The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later.

 (4) This led to tensions between the Dutch-speaking and French-speaking communities during the 1950s and 1960s.

(5) The tension between the two communities was more acute in Brussels. Brussels presented a special problem: the Dutch-speaking people constituted a majority in the country, but a minority in the capital. In the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent are Dutch speaking.

2.Why was Brussels chosen as the headquarters during the formation of European Union?

Ans. (1) The Ethnic composition of this small country is very complex. Of the country’s total population, 59 per cent live in the Flemish region and speak Dutch language. Another 40 per cent people live in the Wallonia region and speak French. Remaining one per cent of the Belgians speak German.

(2) In the capital city Brussels, 80 per cent people speak French while 20 per cent are, Dutch speaking.

(3) The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later.

(4) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation. The French speaking people accepted equal representation in Brussels because the Dutch-speaking community has accepted equal representation in the Central Government.

(5) This helped to avoid civic strife between the two major communities and a possible division of the country on linguistic lines. That was why, when many countries of Europe came together to form the European Union, Brussels was chosen as its headquarters.

3.Why did Belgians amend their Constitution four times? Explain.

Ans. (1) Between 1970 and 1993, they amended their constitution four times so as to or out an arrangement that would enable everyone to live together within the same country. The arrangement they worked out is different from any other country and is very innovative.

 (2) The minority French-speaking community was relatively rich and powerful. This was resented by the Dutch-speaking community who got the benefit of economic development and education much later diversities.

 (3) The leaders of Belgium recognized the existence of regional differences and cult

(4) Constitution prescribes that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers shall be equal in the Central Government.

(5) Some powers of the Central Government have been given to State governments of the two regions of the country. The State governments are not subordinate to the Central Government. Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.

4. How did Belgium Examine. Accommodated the regional differences and cultural Diversities?

Or

 Which three basic elements of Belgium model of power sharing make it innovative?

                                                                                        Or

 What positive things do you see in the accommodation made in Belgium? Explain.

Or

How do elements of Belgium model of power sharing make it unique and innovative? Explain.

Or

Illustrate three elements of Belgian model of accommodation.

Or

 Explain the three ways by which Belgium has accommodated the existing regional differences and cultural diversities.                                                                                                               

 Ans. Following are the three elements of the Belgian model of power sharing:

 (1) The central government consisted of equal number of representatives from Dutch and French-speaking people.

 (2) Many powers of the central government have been given to state governments of the two regions of the country. The state governments are not subordinate to the central government.

(3) Apart from the Central and State Governments, there is a third kind of government. This ‘community government’ is elected by the people belonging to one language community —Dutch, French and German-speaking—no matter where they live. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.

5.Highlight any three measures adopted by the Belgian Government to accommodate regional and cultural diversities.

Or

 How has Belgium succeeded to overcome its ethnic problems? Explain with examples.

Or

Which type of policy was constitutionally adopted by the Government of Belgium to honor the diversities?                                                                                                

Ans. The Belgian leaders amended their Constitution four times and worked out an innovative arrangement as follows:

 (1) The number of Dutch and French speaking ministers shall be equal in the central government. No single community can take decisions unilaterally.

 (2) The state governments are not subordinate to the Central Government as many powers of the Central Government have been given to State governments.

(3) Brussels has a separate government in which both the communities have equal representation.

 (4) Apart from the Central and State Government, there is a third kind of government called the ‘community government’ elected by people belonging to one language community

(5) This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language, related issues.

FORMS OF POWER SHARING

Very Short Answers:-

1.What does the system of checks and balances’ ensure in power sharing?

Ans. The system of checks and balances ensures that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power.

2.Give one example to explain horizontal distribution of power in the Indian context.

 Ans. In India, Judges are appointed by the executive. They can check the functioning of executive and laws made by the legislature.

3.What is vertical distribution of power?

 Ans. When power is shared among governments at different levels by division of power involving higher and lower levels of government, it is called as vertical division/distribution of power.

4.Explain one difference between horizontal and vertical power sharing.

Ans. In horizontal power sharing, power is shared among different organs of government whereas in vertical power sharing, power is shared among governments at different levels.

5.What is horizontal power sharing?                              

Ans. When power is shared among different organs of government, such as legislature, executive and judiciary, placed at the same level and they exercise different powers, it is called as horizontal power sharing.

6.At which level of government in India, 1/3rd of seats are reserved for women?

Ans. In India, government at the local level, such as the municipality and panchayat, 1/3rd of seats are reserved for women.

7.What is meant by the system of ‘checks and balances’?         

 Ans. The system of checks and balances is the arrangement of power sharing among different organs of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary, in such a way that none of the organs can exercise unlimited power and each organ checks the others.

8.Why is power sharing desirable?

Ans. Power sharing is desirable to give due respect to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.

9.Mention any one characteristic of power sharing.

Ans. Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups which leads to violence and political instability; power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

10.What is the prudential reason behind power sharing?

Or

 Give one prudential reason behind power sharing.

Ans. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups and is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

Long Answers:-

1.Describe with example the way in which power can be shared among different social and linguistic groups.

Ans. (1) Power may also be shared among different social groups, such as the religious and linguistic groups. It helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

(2)(i) In India, there are constitutional and legal arrangements whereby socially weaker sections and women are represented in the legislatures and administration — the system of ‘reserved constituencies’ in assemblies and the parliament of our country.

(ii) This type of arrangement is meant to give space in the government and administration to diverse social groups who otherwise would feel alienated from the government.

(iii) This method is used to give minority communities a fair share in power.

 (iv) ‘Community government’ in Belgium is a good example of this arrangement. ‘Community government’ is elected by people belonging to one language community — Dutch, French and German-speaking — no matter where they live and has the power regarding cultural, educational and language-related issues.

2.Do you agree with the statement that power sharing is keeping with the spirit of democracy? Give reasons.

Or

How far do you agree with the statement that power sharing is keeping with the ‘spirit of democracy’?

 Ans. (1) The idea of power sharing has emerged in opposition to the notions of undivided political power. It was felt that if the power to decide is dispersed, it would not be possible to *take quick decisions and to enforce them.

(2) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. One basic principle of democracy is that people are the source of all political power. In a democracy, people rule themselves through institutions of self-governance and due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society.

 (3) A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects.

 (4) People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

(5) A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquires a stake in the system.

(6) Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies. Therefore, it follows that in a democracy political power should be distributed among as many citizens as possible.

3.What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies?

Or

Explain any three forms of power sharing among different organs of government in India.

Or

 How is power shared in modern democracies? Explain.                                     

Or

 Explain three form of power sharing in India. State any two benefits of power sharing.

Or

In what way the political power is shared among different organs of the Government? Explain.

Or

 Describe any three forms of power sharing in modern democracies with examples.

Ans. Following are the major forms of power sharing in the modern democracies:

(1) Among different organs of government: The different organs of government like legislature, executive and judiciary have power and they mutually exercise control over each other.

 (2) Among governments at different levels: Power is divided between Union and State governments and further between the local bodies.

(3) Among different local bodies: Different religions, linguistic, tribal and minority groups share powers in different degrees. This may be democratic as in Belgium or constitutional as in India.

 (4) By political parties, pressure groups and social movements: In the coalition government, small political parties are more important and powerful. Secondly, in the form of pressure group, the traders, farmers, industrialists and workers’ association exercise power on government.

4.Tower sharing is the very spirit of democracy.” Justify this statement with five suitable points.

Or

 ‘Sharing of powers makes a country more powerful and united’. Justify the statement.

Ans. (1) Power sharing helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups.

(2) Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

(3) Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

 (4) A legitimate government is one where citizens, through participation, acquire a stake in the system. While prudential reasons stress that power sharing will bring out better outcomes, moral reasons emphasize the very act of power sharing as valuable.

 (5) in a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society. Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.

5.Why is power sharing desirable? Explain moral reasons in this regard.  

Ans. (1) Power sharing : (i) Power sharing is good because it helps to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. Since social conflict often leads to violence and political instability, power sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order.

(ii)Power sharing is the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. People have a right to be consulted on how they are to be governed.

(iii) In a good democratic government, due respect is given to diverse groups and views that exist in a society. Everyone has a voice in the shaping of public policies.

(2)Moral reasons : (i) It is the very spirit of democracy.

(ii) It generates confidence among different sections of the society.

(iii) It is based on the principle of equality.

(iv) It strengthens the bonds between the people and helps in keeping the nation integrated.

 (v) It respects people’s right to equal opportunity.

Short Answers:-

1.What is meant by horizontal distribution of power? Explain any two merits of this form of power sharing.

Or

Explain the horizontal distribution of power and any three merits of this form of power sharing.                                                                                                            

Or

 What is horizontal distribution of power? Explain any two advantages of this form of power sharing.                                                                                                                               

 Ans. (1) When power is shared among different organs of government, such as legislature, executive and judiciary, placed at the same level and exercise different powers, it is called as horizontal distribution of power.

(2)(i) This type of distribution of power ensures that none of the organs exercises unlimited power.

(ii) Each organ checks the other hence; this is called a system of checks and balances.

(iii) This system develops a balance of power among various institutions.

2.Explain the vertical division of power by giving examples from India.

  Ans. (1) When power is shared among governments at different levels by division of Power involving higher and lower levels of government, it is called as vertical division of power.

(2)(i) In India, this is done by a general government for the entire country, which is called as Union or Central Government and governments at provincial or regional level, which are called as State Governments.

(ii) The Indian Constitution has clearly laid down the provisions for distribution of power. This division of power is further extended to levels of government lower than state governments, such as municipality and panchayats.

3.How is power shared among different organs of the Government? Explain.

Ans. (1) Power is shared among different organs of government such as legislature, executive and judiciary.

 (2) It is horizontal distribution of power because it allows different organs of government placed at same level to exercise different powers. This separation of power ensures that none’ of the organs can exercise unlimited power.

(3) It is also called as system of checks and balances because each organ checks others. This results into a balance of power among various institutions. For example, ministers and government officials are responsible to Parliament. Similarly, judges who are appointed by executives, can check the functioning of executives through legislature.

4.Horizontal distribution of power is often referred to as a system of ‘checks and balances’. Justify.                                                                                                     

Ans. (1) Under horizontal distribution of power, power is shared among different organs of the government such as legislature, executive and judiciary. This system is also called system of ‘checks and balances’

(ii)Reasons: (i) All three organs of the government are placed at the same level.

(ii) The power distribution ensures that no organ enjoys unlimited powers.

(iii) Each organ exercises a check on the others. Thus, this results in a balance of power.

5.Compare the horizontal and vertical power sharing in modem democracies.

Or

Differentiate horizontal and vertical power sharing in modern democracies.

Ans. In modern democracies, power sharing arrangements can take many forms. The most important are:

(1) Horizontal power sharing: When power is shared among different organs of government, such as legislature, executive and judiciary, placed at same level and exercise different powers, is called as horizontal power sharing. It is also called as system of checks and balances because each organ checks others, to balance power.

(2) Vertical power sharing: When power is shared among governments at different levels, it is called as vertical power sharing because of division of power from higher to lower level. In India, it is Central or Union Government at the country level and State Governments at provincial levels.

(3) Power sharing: may also be among different social groups through constitutional and legal arrangements for representation of socially weaker sections and women in legislatures and administration.

6.’Attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration’. Explain

 Ans. (1) The one factor crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions depends on how the government reacts to demands of different groups.

(2) Sometimes social differences can take the form of unacceptable level of social inequality “‘injustice. The struggle against such inequalities sometimes takes the path of violence and defiance of state power

(3) If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community, social divisions become less threatening for the country.

(4) But if they try to suppress such a demand in the name of national unity, the end result is often quite the opposite. Such attempts at forced integration often sow the seeds of disintegration.

 (5) The demand for ‘only Sinhala’ was at the cost of the interest and identity of the Tamil community in Sri Lanka. In Yugoslavia, the leaders of different ethnic communities presented their demands in such a way that these could not be accommodated within a single country.

One thought on “Ch – 1 Power Sharing Extra Questions and Notes

  1. khushi

    thank u very much sir u helped me a lot in my boards

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