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Sample Question Paper 2018-19
SOCIAL SCIENCE– Class — IX
Full Term Exam Set- 2- (Solved)
Maximum Marks: 80 Time 3 hours
(I)There are 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Marks for each question are indicated against the question.
(iii) Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short Answer type Questions. The answer these questions should not exceed 30 words limit. Each question carries one mark.
(iv) Question from serial number 8 to 18 is 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
(v)Question from serial number 19 to 25 is 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
(vi) Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B) 26 (A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attaches the map inside your answer book.
1. Who was the author of ‘The Red Revolution’? (1)
Ans. R.S. Avasthi.
2. What was the advantage of the Enclosure Movement to landowners? (1)
Ans. The rich farmers were able to expand the land under their control.
3. Which island group of India lies to its South-East? (1)
Ans. Andaman and Nicobar.
4. Which is the oldest part of the Indian landmass? (1)
Ans. The Peninsular plateau is the oldest landmass of India.
5. In which state is Gir Forest located? (1)
Ans. Girl Forest is located in Gujarat.
6. Which form of government allows people to choose their rulers? (1)
7. When was PMRY started? (1)
8. Which groups of French society benefited from the revolution? Which groups were forced to relinquish power? (3)
Ans. All the groups which formed the third estate were benefited from the revolution. These groups included workers, businessmen, merchants, court officials, lawyers, teachers and doctors etc.
The classes which formed the privileged sections of society like the nobility and clergy were forced to give up their executive powers.
9. What was Stalin’s Collectivization Programmed? (3)
Ans. In 1927-1928, Soviet Russia was facing an acute problem of grain supplies. The peasants refused to sell the grains at the price fixed by the government. Stalin believed that the peasants had surplus grain, but we’re holding it back, expecting higher prices. so, he introduced the concept of collective farms (Kolkhoz). To develop these farms, it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks, take away land from peasants and establish state-controlled large farms.
From 1929, all peasants were forced to work in Kolkhoz. The profit was shared by the peasants who worked on the land. Those who resisted collectivisation were severely punished. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation but treated such peasants unsympathetically.
10. Mention the main features of the occupational structure of India. (3)
Ans. The distribution of the population according to different types of occupation is referred to as the occupational structure. It also describes how people are engaged in the different sector of the economy namely, primary, secondary and tertiary.
In India, about 64% of the population is engaged only in agriculture. The proportion of population dependent on secondary and tertiary sectors is about 13% and 20% respectively.
There has been an occupational shift in favour of secondary and tertiary sectors because of growing industrialisation and urbanisation in recent times.
11. Describe the vegetation of high altitudes. (3)
Ans. In mountains areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation.
(i) The wet temperature type of forests is found between a height of 1000 and 2000 meters. Evergreen broad-leaf trees, such as oaks and chestnuts predominate.
(ii) Between 1500 and 3000 meters, temperate forests containing coniferous trees like pine deodar, silver fir, spruce and cedar are found. These forests cover mostly the southern slopes of the Himalayas, places having high altitude in southern and north-east India
(iii) At high altitudes, generally, more than 3600 metres above the sea level, temperate forests and grasslands give way to the Alpine vegetation. Silver fir, junipers, pines and birches are the common trees of these forests.
12. Mention the main features of the Himalayas. (3)
Ans. (i) The Himalayas, geologically young and structurally fold mountains stretch
(ii) The Himalayas represent the loftiest and one of the most rugged mountain barriers of the world. They form an arc, which covers a distance of about 2400 km.
(iii) Their width varies from 400 km in Kashmir to 150 km in Arunachal Pradesh.
(iv) The altitudinal variations are greater in the eastern half than those in the western hall.
13.”Democracy provides a method to deal with differences and conflicts.” Illustrate. (3)
Ans. In any society, people are bound to have differences of opinions and interests. These differences are particularly sharp in a country like ours which has an amazing Social diversity. People belong to different regions, speak different languages, practise different religions and have different castes. They look at the world very differently and have different preferences. The preferences of one group can clash with those of other groups. Democracy provides the only peaceful solution to this problem. In a democracy, no one is a permanent winner. No one is a permanent loser. Different groups can live with one another peacefully. In a diverse country like India, democracy keeps our country together.
14. Mention the main functions of a constitution. (3)
Ans. A constitution does many things:
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have the power to make which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
15. “The voters make many choices in India”. Illustrate. (3)
Ans. In an election the voters make many choices:
(i) They can choose who will make laws for them.
(ii) They can choose who will form the government and take major decisions.
(iii) They can choose the party whose policies will guide the government and lawmaking.
16. What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? (3)
Ans. (i) Multiple cropping is the most common way to increase production on a given piece of land. More than one crop is grown on a piece of land during the year.
(ii) Modern farming methods also help to increase the yield per hectare.
(iii) Use of HYV seeds, fertilizers and pesticides also help to increase production.
17. Describe ‘disguised unemployment’ with suitable example. (3)
Ans. In disguised unemployment people appear to be employed. They have an agricultural plot where they find work. This usually happens among family members engaged in agricultural activity. The work requires the service of five people but engages eight people. Three people are extra. These three people also work in the same plot as the others. If these three people are removed the productivity of the field will not decline. The field requires the service of five people and the three extra people are disguised unemployed.
18. How is poverty-line determined in India? (3)
Ans. While determining the poverty line in India, a minimum level of food requirement, clothing, footwear, fuel and light, educational and medical requirement etc. are determined for subsistence.
The present formula for food requirement while estimating the poverty line is based on the desired calorie requirement. The accepted average calorie requirement in India is 2400 calories per person per day in rural areas and 2100 calories per person per day in urban areas. On the basis of these calculations, for the year 2011-12, the poverty line for a person was fixed at Rs. 816 per month for rural areas and Rs. 1000 for urban areas.
19. Describe the ideology of racial hierarchy that was produced by Hitler in Germany under his Nazi ideology. (5)
Ans. (i) Nazi ideology was synonymous with Hitler’s worldview. According to this, there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy.
(ii) In this view blond, blue-eyed, Nordic German Aryans were at the top, while Jews were located at the lowest rung.
(iii) The Jews, Gypsies and blacks were regarded as impure and undesirable. They were widely persecuted.
(iv) Russians and Poles were considered subhuman, and undeserving of any humanity Civilians from these countries were captured and forced to work as slave labour.
(v) Nazis wanted only a society of ‘pure and healthy Nordic Aryans’. They alone were considered ‘desirable’. This meant that even those Germans who were seen as impure or abnormal had no right to exist.
(vi) From 1933 to 1938 the Nazis terrorised, pauperised and segregated the Jews, compelling’ them to leave the country.
20. Why did the Masan face the problem of continuous loss of their grazing lands and the colonial rule? Give reasons.
Ans. One of the problems the Maasias have faced is the continuous loss of their grazing Lands. Before colonial times, Maasailand stretched over a vast area from northern Kenya to steppes of Northern Tanzania.
(i) In the 19th century, European imperial powers scrambled for territorial possessions in Africa, slicing up the region into different colonies.
(ii) In 1885, Massailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika and Maasai were pushed into a small area in southern Kenya and North Tanzania. They lost about 60% of their pre-colonial lands.
(iii) From the late 19th century, the British colonial government in East Africa also encouraged local peasant communities to expand cultivation. As cultivation expanded pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields. So the Maasai lost their land.
(iv) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves.
(v) The loss of the finest grazing lands and water resources created pressure on the small area of land that the Maasai were confined within. Fodder was always in short supply Feeding the cattle became a persistent problem.
21. Describe the diverse relief features of the Northern Plain. (5)
Ans. The northern plain has been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems namely—the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries. The pair is about 2400 km long and 240 to 320 km broad, is a densely populated physiographic division. These vast plains also have diverse relief features. The Northern Plains can be divided into four regions.
(i) Bhabhar: The rivers, after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt of about 8 to 16 km in width lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks It is known as Bhabhar. All the streams disappear in this Bhabar belt.
(ii) Terai: South of Bhabar belt, the streams and rivers re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as terai.
(iii) Bhangar: The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. It lies above the floodplains of the rivers and presents a terrace—like a feature. This part is known as Bhangar.
(v) Khadar: The newer, younger deposits of the floodplains are called Khadar. They any renewed almost every year and so are fertile, thus, ideal for intensive agriculture.
22. What are the challenges to free and fair elections in India? (5)
Ans. The challenges to free and fair elections in India are as follows:
(i) Candidates and parties with a lot of money may not be sure of their victory but they do enjoy a big and unfair advantage over smaller parties and independents.
(ii) In some parts of the country, candidates with criminal connection have been able to push others out of the electoral race and to secure a ‘ticket’ from major parties.
(iii) Some families tend to dominate political parties; tickets are distributed to relatives from these families.
(iv) Very often elections offer little choice to ordinary citizens, for both the major parties are quite similar to each other both in policies and practice.
(v) Smaller parties and independent candidates suffer a huge disadvantage compared to bigger parties.
23. How can we secure our fundamental rights? (5)
Ans. If rights are like guarantees, they are of no use if there is no one to honour them. The fundamental rights in the constitution are important because they are enforceable. We have a right to seek the enforcement of the above-mentioned rights. This is called the Right to Constitutional Remedies. This itself is a Fundamental Right.
This right makes other rights effective. It is possible that sometimes our rights may be violated by fellow citizens, private bodies or by the government. When any of our rights are violated we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a Fundamental Right we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of a state.
The Supreme Court and High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights. They can also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators.
24.Describe any five unfavourable effects of population growth in a country like India. (5)
Ans. (i) Excessive population growth leads to fewer education opportunities available for students due to limited educational resources available.
(ii) As family size becomes larger, poorer families go deeper into poverty, as the family income remains the same.
(iii) Increase in population causes unemployment, as more people need to be employed compared to the jobs available.
(iv) Population growth leads to excessive strain on the natural resources available like fuel, vegetation, water, minerals etc.
(v) Higher population growth causes pressure on land available for agriculture.
25. What are the problems of the functioning of ration shops? (5)
Ans. (i) The quality of the rationed articles issued to the poor is much less than what it should be. As a result, the poor have to depend on the market for their needs.
(ii) Some of the ration shop dealers resort to malpractices. They illegally divert the grains to the open market for better grains.
(iii) Some dealers do not open their shops regularly and the poor people cannot draw their ration quota timely.
(iv) Some dealers weigh less and cheat the illiterate poor.
(v) Some ration shops are unable to sell their poor quality grains, which become a problem for FCI.