Chapter-7.1 Animals- Extra Questions and Notes

By | April 26, 2019

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 10th as Per Latest CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 7 English Language and Literature- First Flight (Latest 2018-19)

­­­­ Animals

By Walt Whitman  

About the Author- Walt Whitman                

Walt Whitman – A Short Biography

                                                                About the Poet                                                                                                                              

Walt ‘Whitman was an American poet, essayist and journalist. He was born on 31 May 1819 in New York. He died on 26 March 1892. ‘Leaves of Grass’ 0 Captain! My Captain!’ and ‘Song of Myself’ are some of his great works. The present poem ‘Animals’ written in free verse, is one of the poems published in ‘Leaves of Grass’.

Introduction of the lesson- Animals

INTRODUCTION

 In this poem the poet, Whitman compares man to animals. He finds that man lacks many virtues that animals have. The poet says that he feels more at home with animals than human beings since they are selfish, false and always dissatisfied, while the animals are unselfish, true and more satisfied. They show their love for us.

Plot/ Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson/ Literary Analysis of Animals/ Main Idea

Central Idea of the Poem

The poet Walt Whitman tells frankly that he feels more comfortable and at home with animals rather than his fellow human beings. He has lost so much faith in the race of man that he wants to `turn’ and change his position with animals. Human beings have become mad running after material possessions. They are a bundle of complications, contradictions and confusions. Their conscience is not clear and so they suffer from nightmares and weep for their sins. Animals, on the other hand, are calm, self-contained and contented. They don’t run after material things other than their food. They don’t need to worship God as they never suffer from any sense of guilt or sin. Ancestors of human beings shared those tokens of love and understanding in the remote past. Unfortunately, humans have lost those virtues and tokens of love and understanding completely forever.

Style

 Like the best poetry of Walt Whitman, the poem ‘Animals’ is also written in irregular verse or the blank verse. This poem reflects Whitman’s ‘animism’. It is the spirit of animals that are meant to reflect the truth in humanity. He respects animals because they have retained those values and `tokens’ which humans seem to have already lost.

Summary in English- Animals

DETAILED SUMMARY

In this poem, the poet, Whitman compares man to animals. He finds that man lacks many virtues that animals have. The poet desires to live among the animals because they are calm and self-confident. They are well contented. They do not sweat and complain about their condition like human beings. They do not possess the mania of possessing things. No animals have to bow to another of their kind. They all are equal and remain satisfied. The poet has a deep desire to learn from animals. They do not have any kind of falsehood. The poet is much surprised at their quality. He wants to learn them though he had dropped them carelessly.

 DETAILED SUMMARY (2):-

1.Comfortable with Animals: The poet wishes that he would switch over his loyalty and faith from human beings to animals. He wants to live with them as he feels more comfortable in their company. Animals appear to be very peaceful, independent, self-sufficient and self-contained. He is fascinated by them. He stands and looks at them for a long time.

2. Animals don’t Sweat and Whine: Human beings are never satisfied with their condition. They are always demanding. Animals never worry themselves about their condition. Nor do they ever complain. They have a clear conscience. They enjoy a sound sleep at night. They never have to weep for their sins. On the other hand, humans suffer from a guilty conscience. Their misdeeds trouble their souls and they never enjoy a sound sleep at night. They weep over their sins and misdeeds and shed tears on them at night. Human beings pretend to show their love, faith and duty to God. Such pretentious and false worship make the poet sick. Animals never do such pretensions. They never display their love and duty to God. Actually, such issues are meaningless to them.

3. Animals Don’t Suffer from Mania of Owning Things: The poet doesn’t find even a single animal that may appear to be dissatisfied. There is no animal which suffers from the madness of possessing things. On the other hand, humans are never satisfied. They are competing with one another in the mad race for material possessions.

4. No Respect for Ancestors: No animal shows respect by kneeling down to another animal. Nor do they show any respect to the ancestors of their race. These are the pretensions of human beings and not that of animals. No one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth for them.

5. Poet Accepts Animals: Animals are straight forward. They show their relations to the poet. The poet responds to them positively too. He accepts them as they are. They have retained all those virtues which the ancestors of the human race shared with them in the past. Animals show those ‘tokens’ still in their possession. Unfortunately, humans had lost those virtues much earlier. The poet wonders how animals still retain them.

Main Points of the Poem

  1. The poet feels more comfortable and at home with animals.
  2. He doesn’t feel comfortable with human beings.
  3. He wants to move away from human beings and live with animals.
  4. Animals are calm and contented.
  5. They never weep over their miserable conditions as humans do.
  6. They never worship God and weep for their sins.
  7. They don’t suffer from the mania or madness of owning and possessing things.
  8. They don’t fall down on knees to show respect to others.
  9. Thousands of years ago, the ancestors of human beings possessed the qualities of love and kindness.
  10. Men have lost those ‘tokens’ of love but animals still retain them.
  11. Human beings are confused, greedy and overambitious while animals are not.

DETAILED SUMMARY in Hindi – Animals

SUMMARY IN HINDI

इस कविता में कबि विहाटमेन मनुष्य की तुलना पशुओ से करता है बह पाता है की मनुष्यो में उन बहुत से घुड़ो का अभाव है जो पशुओ में होते है कबि पशुओ के बीच में रहना चाहता है क्योकि बह सांत और आत्मविशवाश से पूर्ण होते है बे पूर्णतया संतुस्ट होते है बे पसीना नहीं बहाते है और मनुस्यो की तरह अपनी इस्तिथि के बारे में कभी शिकायत नहीं करते है उनमे बस्तुओ का संग्रह करने का उन्माद नहीं होता है.किसी पशु को अपने जैसे दूसरे पशु के सामने झुकना नहीं पढता है बे सभी सामान है और संतुस्ट रहते है कबि की बहुत इच्छा है कि बह पशुओ से सीखे उनमे किसी प्रकार का बनाबटी पन नहीं होता है कबि उनके गुढ़ से बहुत अधिक प्रभाभित है बह उनसे सीखना चाहता है यधपि उसने इन गूढो को लापरवाही से टाल दिया था. 

Following is the complete question bank for Animals

Animals Extra Questions and Answers

COMPREHENSION OF STANZAS

 Read the following stanzas and answer the questions that follow :

STANZA 1

I think I could turn and live with animals, they are

so placid and self-contained,

I stand and look at them long and long.

Questions :

(a) What is the poet’s wish?

 (b) How do the animals appear to the poet?

(c) What does he do thereafter?

(d) Who does ‘I’ refer to in the first line?

(e) Name the poem and the poet.

 Answers :

 (a) The poet wishes that he could live with animals.

(b) The animals appear to be calm, peaceful and self-confident.

(c) He stands and looks at them for long.

(d) ‘I’ refers to the poet.

 (e) Poem: Animals,

 Poet: Walt Whitman.

STANZA 2

They do not sweat and whine about their condition,

They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins,

They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God,

 Questions:

 (a) What is the attitude of the animals about their condition?

(b) Who lies awake in the dark and weep for their sins?

 (c) What do men make the poet sick?

(d) What is the attitude of the animals for their sins?

(e) Do the animals make the poet sick?

 Answers :

 (a) The animals do not perspire or complain about their condition.

 (b) People lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins.

(c) Men make the poet sick by discussing their duty to God.

(d) They do not weep for their sins.

(e) No, they don’t make the poet sick.

STANZA 3

Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with

the mania of owning things,

Not one kneels to another, nor to his kind that

lived thousands of years ago,

Not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth.

Questions :

(a) What mania do human beings suffer from?

(b) What is the attitude of human beings about those who lived thousands of years ago?

 (c) Who is unhappy over the whole earth?

(d) Who is the poet talking about?

 (e) Name the poem and the poet.

Answers :

(a) Human beings suffer from the mania of owning things.

 (b) They kneel to the images of those who lived thousands of years ago.

 (c) Human beings arc is unhappy over the whole earth.

 (d) The poet is talking about animals.

(e) Poem: Animals,

 Poet: Walt Whitman.

STANZA 4

So they show their relations to me and I accept them,

They bring me tokens of myself, they evince

them plainly in their possession

I wonder where they get those tokens,

Did I pass that way huge times ago and negligently drop them?

 Questions :                                                                                                            [H.B.S.E. March, 2017 (Set -C)]

(a) Who are ‘they’ here in the first line?

 (b) What are these ‘tokens of myself’?

 (c) What is the main point about animals here?

(d) What does the poet wonder about?

 (e) What does the poet accept?

 Answers :

 (a) ‘They’ here are the animals.

(b) These ‘tokens of myself’ are the love and affection of the animals towards the poet.

(c) The main point here is the difference between humans and animals.

(d) The poet wonders how the animals got those tokens of love and affection.

 (e) The poet accepts that the animals are related to him.

Stanza-5: (Page 83)

I think I could turn and live with animals, they are so placid and self-contain ‘d,

I stand and look at them long and long.

Word-Meaning: Tttrn— Change into, Placid— calm, Self-contained— self-satisfied, not dependent on others,

Paraphrase

The poet wants to change places. He wants to be converted to an animal from a human being. He wants to leave the company of men and start living with animals. Animals are so calm and self-satisfied. He is so much impressed with animals that he stands and goes on looking at them for a long time.

Questions:

(a) What does the poet think of turning into?

(b) Why does he want to live with animals?

(c) For what qualities are animals known?

(d) Why does he look at the ‘long and long’?

Answers:

(a) The poet thinks of turning into an animal.

(b) He is fed up with human beings and loves to live with animals for their noble qualities.

(c) Animals are calm, self-satisfied or independent.

(d) He is so impressed with animals that, he looks at the ‘long and long’.

Stanza-6: (Page 83)

They do not sweat and whine about their condition,

They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins,

 They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God,

Word-Meaning: Sweat— sweat after working hard, Whine— complain Mattingly/crying, Awake— don’t sleep, Sins— wrong deeds,

Paraphrase

Animals never sweat unnecessarily. Nor do they cry over their (miserable) condition. They enjoy full sleep at night. Their conscience is clear. They don’t weep over their sins keeping awake the whole night. They don’t make anyone (poet) sick by discussing their duty to God.

Questions:

(a) How do animals react to their condition?

(b) Do animals enjoy a sound sleep at night?

(c) What do humans do at night?

(d) Why don’t animals make the poet sick?

Answers:

(a) They never feel miserable at their condition but remain contented.

(b) Yes, they enjoy a sound sleep at night.

 (c) Human beings keep awake weeping over their sins and misdeeds.

(d) Animals don’t discuss what is their duty towards God and don’t make others sick by doing so.

stanza-7: (Page 83)

Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with the mania of owning things,

Not one kneels to another, nor to his kind that lived thousands of years ago,

Not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth

Word-Meaning: Demented— mentally sick, Kneels— bends down on knees, Mania— Obsession, madness,

Paraphrase

All animals are satisfied with their lot. No one is dissatisfied. No animal has the mania of collecting things. Animals don’t get mad in the race of owning things like humans. They don’t kneel down to show respect to others or to those who were born thousands of years ago. No animal considers himself more respectable than others (like human beings). Nor can you find any animal on this whole earth who is unhappy over his lot.

Questions:

 (a) Are animals remain dissatisfied with their lot?

(b) What is the mania that humans are demented with? Do animals suffer from this mania?

(c) Do they kneel down to show respect to their ancestors?

(d) How are animals compared with human beings?

Answers:

(a) No, animals are always satisfied with their lot.

(b) Animals don’t suffer from the mania of collecting things like human beings.

(c) No, they don’t kneel down to show respect to their ancestors.

(d) They don’t suffer from their inflated egos like human beings.

Stanza-8: (Page 83)

So they show their relations to me and I accept them 

They bring me tokens of myself, they evince them plainly in their possession.

Word-Meaning:  Tokens— symbols, Evince— show,

Paraphrase

Animals keep on showing and cementing their relations to the poet. The poet accepts those relations with them happily. They provide all token of noble virtues that are present in the poet. They show that they possess all these virtues in plenty.

Questions:

(a) What do animals show?

(b) Does the poet accept their relations?

(c) Explain the ‘tokens of myself’.

(d) What do they evince?

Answers:

(a) Animals show their relation to humans as well as to the poet.

(b) Yes, the poet accepts his relations with animals happily.

(c) It means all those noble virtues that are present in the poet.

(d) They show all those noble qualities which humans possessed once but given up now.

Stanza-9: (Page 83)

I wonder where they get those tokens,

Did I pass that way huge times ago and negligently drop them?

Word-Meaning:  Tokens- symbols, Huge times ago— long-long ago, Negligently— carelessly,

Paraphrase

The poet wonders from where animals got those noble virtues and tokens of love. The path of noble virtues which animals are still following even now, humans and the poet himself, have left negligently long-long ago.

Questions:

(a) What does the poet wonder here?

(b) What are those tokens?

(c) Do humans still possess those tokens?

 (d) How did humans leave that path?

Answers:

(a) The poet wonders how animals got those noble virtues and tokens of those noble qualities.

(b) Those tokens stand for all those noble virtues which are needed in mutual relationships.

(c) No, humans have lost all those ‘tokens’ of noble virtues.

(d) They lost the path leading to those noble virtues long ago, negligently.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS/ Quiz- Animals

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

1.What does Whitman want to turn from?

(A) human beings                                       (B) animals

 (C) good qualities                                      (D) all of the above

 Ans. (A) human beings

2. Whom does the poet wish to live with?

 (A) human beings                                     (B) animals

 (C) both (A) and (B)                                 (D) none of the above

 Ans. (B) animals

3. How do animals appear to the poet?

(A) calm                                                     (B) full of self-confidence

 (C) Well-contented                                 (D) all of the above

 Ans. (D) all of the above

4. Who is /are always complaining about their condition?

 (A) the poet                                             (B) animals

(C) human beings                                    (D) all of the above

 Ans. (C) human beings

5. Animals don’t do?

 (A) never sweat                                      (B) never complain about their condition

 (C) never weep for their sins               (D) all of the above

Ans. (D) all of the above

6. What mania do human beings suffer from?

 (A) possessing of things                       (B) good qualities

(C) contentment                                    (D) peace

 Ans. (A) possessing of things

7. What do the animals possess?

(A) kindness                                           (B) fellow-feeling for all

(C) sympathy                                         (D) all of the above

 Ans. (D) all of the above

8. According to Whitman who is greater?

(A) human beings                                 (B) animals

 (C) both (A) and (B)                             (D) none of the above

Ans. (B) animals

9. Who kneels to another?

(A) man                                                  (B) animal

 (C) both (A) and (B)                            (D) none of the above

Ans. (A) man

10. Who is the poet of the poem `Animals’?

 (A) Robert Frost                                  (B) Carl Sandburg

(C) Walt Whitman                               (D) W.B. Yeats

Ans. (C) Walt Whitman

Extract Based / comprehension test  Questions and Answers of Animals

 Read the extracts and answer the questions that follow

1. They do not sweat and whine about their condition,

   They do not lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins,

 They do not make me sick discussing their duty to God,

 Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with

 the mania of owning things.

(a) Who are ‘they’ in the above lines?

(b) Why is the poet speaking in their favour?

(c) How do they feel for their sins?

(d) What do they not do at their conditions?

Ans. (a) ‘They’ are animals.

(b) He does so because the animals never complain about their problems, and they never hold grudges, unlike human beings. The poet thus prefers animals to humans.

(c) They do not lie awake in the dark and weep.

(d) They do not sweat and whine.

2.”Not one is dissatisfied, not one is demented with

   the mania of owning things,

   Not one kneels to another, nor to his kind that

    lived thousands of years ago,

   Not one is respectable or unhappy over the whole earth.”

(a) Who does the phrase ‘Not one’ refer to in the extract?

(b) Whom does the poet infer from the last line as ‘unhappy’ creatures?

(c) What does ‘demented with the mania of owning things’ — imply?

(d) What does not show that animals believe in equality?

Ans. (a) Animals.

(b) Human beings.

(c) This implies becoming mad for hoarding things.

(d) They do not kneel before others of their kind.

3. I think I could turn and live with animals, they are

So placid and self-contained

 I stand and look at them long and long.

(a) Name the poem and the poet.

(b) What does the poet say about animals?

(c) Why does the poet want to live with animals?

(d) What attracts the animals to the poet?

Ans. (a) ‘Animals’ by Walt Whitman.

(b) They are placid, self-contained, calm and peaceful.

(c) This is because they are peaceful in nature.

(d) That they are placid and self-contained:

4. They bring me a token of myself, they evince

them plainly in their possession

I wondered where they get those tokens,

Did I pass that way huge time ago and negligently drop them?

(a) Name the poem and the poet.                                                     

(b) Who are ‘they’ in the above lines?

(c) What `token’ is the poet talking about?

(d) What do the animals teach us?

Ans. (a) ‘Animals’ by Walt Whitman.

(b) The animals.

(c} The token is the innate goodness in their nature.

(d) Animals teach us our real nature.

Extra Very Short Answer Type Important Questions

VERY SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS

 Q.1. What does the poet wish to live with?

 Ans. The poet wishes to turn from human beings and live with animals.

 Q.2. How do the animals appear to the poet?

 Ans. The animals appear calm, peaceful and self-confident to the poet.

 Q3. What is the attitude of the animals towards their condition?

 Ans. The animals do not sweat and complain about their condition.

 Q.4. What is the attitude of the animals toward their sins?

 Ans. The animals do not weep for their sins.

 Q.5. What do the men make the poet sick for?

 Ans. The men make the poet sick by discussing their duty to God.

 Q.6. What mania do human beings suffer from?

 Ans. Human beings suffer from the mania of possessing things.

Q.7. What is the attitude of human about those who lived thousands of years ago?

 Ans. They kneel to the images of those who lived thousands of years ago.

 Q.8. What ‘tokens of myself’ does the poet refer to?

 Ans. These ‘tokens of myself’ arc the love and affection of the animals for the poet.

 Q.9. Why does Whitman wish to live with the animals?

 Ans. Whitman wishes to live with the animals because he finds them very peaceful and self-confident.

Q.10. What shows that the poet loves animals?

 Ans. The poet stands and looks at the animals long and long.

Short Answer Type Important Questions

Answer the following questions in 30-40 words.

1. Why does the poet show a preference for living with the animals?

Ans. The poet says that it is better to live with animals as they show tokens of goodness. They are peaceful, self-contained and happy. Animals show innate goodness which is lacked in human beings. Animals do not grumble about their lives, cry over their sins.

2. What is the relevance of ‘tokens’ in the poem ‘Animals’? Who brings them to the poet?

Ans. Animals show tokens of goodness. They are self-contained, peaceful, thankful and happy creatures. Animals are not unhappy and indeed, bring out tokens of man’s good nature lost long ago. Animals do not grumble about their lives.

 3. Write the central idea of the poem `Animals’.

Ans. The central idea of the poem is the difference between human beings and animals. While they both were initially similar in their innate goodness, the man had lost it over the years, while animals remain the same. They show these tokens of goodness — peaceful, self-contained and happy, and compel the poet to contemplate on man’s lost goodness.

Q.4. How are animals better than humans, according to the poet?

Ans. According to the poet, the animals are more humane than humans. They have no such bad qualities as humans have. In their world, all are happy, equal and content. They show their relations to the poet and he accepts them.

Q5. What is the theme of the poem ‘Animals’?

Or

What is the Central Idea of the poem ‘Animals’?                                           [H.B.S.E. March 2017 (Set-D)]

Ans. The theme/Central idea of the poem is the superiority of animals life over to human beings. The poet, Whitman, compares animals with human beings. He finds animals far better than human beings. The poet finds the reasons for human suffering. Human beings are always dissatisfied. All their actions are with a selfish motive. But animals are far-far away from these bad qualities. So the poet wishes to turn and live with the animals.

Q.6. Why does the poet want to live with animals?                                [S.B.S.E. March. 2017 (Set-B)]

Ans. The poet thinks that animals are very peaceful and self-confident. They do not complain about their condition. They don’t weep for their sins. That is why; he wants to live with the animals.

Q.7. What is the difference between animals and humans regard their attitude to their condition, sins and God?

 Ans. Human beings cry about their condition. They lie awake at night in the dark and weep for their sins. They make the poet sick by discussing their duty about God. But animals do not do any of these things. That is why the poet likes them.

Q.8. How are animals different from humans about owning things or kneeling to one another?

Ans. Human beings are mad about possessing things. But animals do not care for possession. It is madness only for humans. They do not kneel to others as humans do. For them all are equal.

Q9. Why does the poet want to take a turn?

Ans. The poet is fed up living in the world of humans. They are always confused. They are arrogant. They don’t have a clear conscience and weep over their sins throughout the night. On the other hand, animals are contented, calm and possess all the ‘tokens’ of virtue that humans have given up. So, he wants to exchange places and live with animals.

Q10. Why is the poet so much impressed with animals?

Ans. Animals possess all the noble virtues that are necessary for an ideal living. They are contented and never complain about their fate. They are independent and don’t show unnecessary respect for their ancestors or to their fellow beings. They are not selfish and don’t suffer from the mania of possessing and owning things. So, he is highly impressed with animals.

Q11. Why do humans keep awake in the dark and weep for their sins while animals never do such things?

Ans. Animals have a clear conscience. They are not confused or muddle-headed. Humans are ambitious, greedy and suffer from the mania of possessing and owning things. Their sins and misdeeds don’t allow them to enjoy a sound sleep at night. They weep over their sins.

Q12. Why do animals don’t kneel down to their fellow beings or ancestors? How do humans react to them?

Ans. Animals don’t show unnecessary respect to their fellow beings and to their ancestors. They don’t indulge in such unnecessary civilities and formalities. On the other hand, humans express their respect not only to their ancestors but also to their fellow beings. They have a tendency to indulge in unnecessary civilities and decencies.

Q13. Why does the poet say “They bring me tokens of myself”? What are those `tokens’?

Ans. There was a time when both humans and animals possessed noble virtues of love, peace, contentment and, simplicity. With the passage of time, humans gave up all such tokens of noble virtues. They indulged in greed, arrogance and the mania of possession. The road of noble virtue, which humans and the poet himself, left long ago, is still followed by animals. They are contented, humble and free from the burden of conscience. They remind the poet of those noble qualities which he has lost.

Q14. How have humans dropped those `tokens’ which are plainly in the `possession’ of animals?

Ans. Those tokens of love, sympathy and contentment which humans shared with animals at one time, have been `negligently’ dropped by humans. Greed, overambition, arrogance, confusion and vulgarity took the place of those ‘tokens’ which humans once shared with animals.

 Q15. What is the message that Walt Whitman wants to give to the readers through this poem?

Ans. There is nothing great about being humans. They have degraded themselves to the extent that animals appear to be noble and superior beings in their comparison. No doubt, humans did possess those ‘tokens’ of love, innocence, simplicity, contentment and independence. But they have given up such ‘tokens’ long ago. Animals still share those noble virtues and appear to be nobler than humans.

Q16. How, according to the poet, are animals superior to humans?

Ans. The animals are superior to animals in that they are calm and contented. They commit no sin. They do not run after wealth like a man. They never complain about their condition.

Q17. Why does the poet wish to live with animals?

Ans. The animals are placid and self-contained. They are satisfied with their lot and never complain about it. The poet is disgusted with living among human beings. So he wishes to live with animals because he likes them.

Q18. They do not sweat and whine about their condition. Who are “they”? What are the things they do not do?

Ans. “They” refer to animals. They do not sweat and complain about their condition.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

Answer the following questions in 100-120 words.

1.”Human beings are called the most civilised species in the entire world. But sometimes they lack the values which are better exhibited by the animals.” Elucidate the statement with reference to the poem, ‘Animals’.

Ans. Human beings are called the most civilised species in the entire world. But sometimes, they lack the values which are better exhibited by the animals. Human beings lack the qualities of being respectable, happy, contented and peace-loving which is still reflected in animals. Animals do not grumble about their lives, lie awake at night, cry over their sins or discuss their duty towards God as humans do. Animals do not have a mania for “owning things”, nor do they kneel before others like humans. Moreover, the tokens of goodness, love, respect and happiness have been dropped by human beings.

 2. The poem, `Animals’ tells us that civilisation has made humans false to their own true nature. Which values will help you revive your basic nature?

Ans. In the race of human civilisation, humans have lost their own nature. The men have Dist their innate goodness over the years. They have become selfish, jealous, restless, unhappy, cribbing and grumbling creatures. They grumble about their lives, lie awake at night, cry over their sins and discuss their duty towards God. In a race to earn more luxuries and comfort. they have lost their sound sleep. They have become unhappy and most of the time unable to enjoy even small joys and happiness in life. On the contrary, animals are peaceful, self-contained, thankful and happy creatures. They are not unhappy and indeed bring out tokens of man’s good nature lost long ago, when he possessed qualities like love, respect, contentment and happiness.

3. How is the poem, ‘Annuals’, a contrast between humans and animals? (100-120 words)

Ans. Humans can be described as selfish, jealous, restless, unhappy, cribbing, and grumbling creatures. In contrast, animals are peaceful, self-contained, thankful and happy creatures. They do not grumble about their lives, lie awake at night, cry over their sins or discuss their duty towards God as humans do. Also, they don’t have a mania for “owning things”; nor do they kneel before others. Animals, on the whole, are not unhappy and indeed bring out tokens of man’s good nature lost long ago, when he possessed qualities like love, respect, contentment and happiness.

4.” The more I know of humans the more I love my pet.” With reference to the poem, `Animals’, elaborate the statement.

Ans. Whenever the poet thinks about animals, he has a feeling of being one among them. The lost human qualities of being respectable, happy, contented, and peace-loving could be still found reflected in animals. They don’t whine about their condition; nor do they cry for their sins. They don’t make others sick by discussing their duty to God, are not dissatisfied nor have the craze to own things. They may not be respectable, but they definitely do not kneel before others or be unhappy as a whole. For the poet, they bring the tokens of human qualities like love, respect, contentment and happiness, which they themselves exhibit plainly. He thinks that perhaps the animals possessed these qualities naturally. The poet also wonders whether these tokens could have been negligently dropped by humans long ago. Whatever the case may be, while thinking about the overwhelming negativity of human beings, anyone may start loving his pet all the more

Q5. Why is the poet so much impressed with animals that he wants to change sides and wishes to live with them?

Ans. The poet feels that humans have degraded themselves beyond redemption. Nothing great has been left with human beings. He is fed up with their behaviour and wants to escape from the world of humans. No doubt, humans were not so bad at one time. They shared ‘tokens’ of love, sympathy, contentment and innocence with animals. However, the spirit of greed, overambition, and arrogance overpowered them. They gave up the path of virtue and the ‘tokens’ of love and sympathy. They are confused. The burden of their sins and misdeeds lies heavy on their hearts and souls. On the other hand, animals still maintain the old virtues left by man long ago. They are contented, self-sufficient, simple and free from confusions and the burden of sins and misdeeds. So, the poet wants to change sides and wants to be a part of the animal world.

Q6. What are those ‘tokens’ and how animals have maintained them while humans have left them long ago?

Ans. The poet says that animals bring to him the `tokens’ of himself. Actually, these tokens stand for all that is good in behaviour and mutual relationships. These are the `tokens’ of love, sympathy, contentment, honesty and innocence. There was a time when both animals, as well as humans, possessed those tokens of noble virtues. But then humans degraded themselves. While animals continued walking on the road leading to those tokens of noble virtues. Humans have led astray and followed the wrong path of life. They gave up contentment, innocence, simplicity and love. Dissatisfaction, unrest, the burden of sins and misdeeds, greed, overambition and arrogance overpowered humans. Sadly enough, humans have left the virtuous path of life. On the other hand, animals have not corrupted and degraded themselves to that extent. Their ‘tokens’ of virtuous living reminds the poet that he must arouse those lost values again. For this, he will have to change sides and join the world of animals.

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