By– Anton Chekhov
Short Answer Type Questions (30 to 40 words)
Q.1. How did Sergei recognise the beggar?
Ans. Sergei looked at the beggar. His face appeared familiar to him. He tried to recollect where he had seen him. Suddenly, his eyes fell on the beggar’s shoes. One shoe was high and the other was low. Now he clearly remembered where he had seen the beggar before. He had seen the beggar in the Sadovya Street
2. The beggar was a liar. What two lies did he tell Sergei?
Ans. When the beggar met Sergei for the first time, he told him that he was a student and had been expelled from the college. When he met Sergei, for the second time, he told him that he had been offered a position in Kaluga, but he had no money for the fare to get there
Q.3. What kind of work was given to Lushkoff initially? Why did he agree to do it?
Ans. Sergei refused to give alms to Lushkolf, the beggar. lie offered to give him work. He took him home and gave him the work of chopping wood. Lushkoff agreed to do this work, not because he was hungry and scanted work. He agreed to do it because of pride and shame and because he had been trapped by his own words.
Q.4. How did Olga treat Lushkoff in the beginning? Why did she do this?
Ans. In the beginning, Olga treated Lushkoff callously. She called him a drunkard. She rebuked him. Then she would sit before him and grow sad. She looked into his face and wept. Then she chopped wood for him. She did so because she felt pity for him. Secondly, she wanted to put him on the right path.
Q.5. Where did Sergei send Lushkoff? What advice did he give him?
Ans. Sergei wanted to give Lushkoff better, cleaner employment. His friend needed a copywriter. As Lushkoff was able to write, so Sergei sent him to his friend. Sergei advised him to work hard and not to drink. He asked him not to forget his advice
Q.6. Where did Sergei see Lushkoff after two years? What work was he doing then?
Ans. One day, after two years, Sergei came across Lushkoff standing at the ticket window of a theatre, paying for a seat. He was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and sealskin cap. Sergei recognized him. Lushkoff told him that now he was a notary and was paid thirty-five roubles a month.
Q.7. Was Lushkoff not good at chopping wood ?
Ans. No, Lushkoff was not good at chopping wood. He pulled a piece of wood towards him. Ile put it between his legs. lie hit the wood feebly with the axe. The piece of wood became unsteady and fell down. Ile again pulled it and struck it. The piece of wood again fell down. This shows that Lushkoff did not know how to chop wood.
8. Write a brief character-sketch of Olga.
Ans. Olga was the maidservant of Sergei. She was stem looking. But she was kind at heart. She rebuked Lushkoff. But then she took pity on him as he was weak and hungry. She did the chopping work for Lushkoff. Olga’s kindness had great effect on Lushkoff. He gave up drinking and started taking interest in work. Thus Olga’s kindness saved Lushkoff’s life.
Q 9. What plea does Lushkoff make to Sergei when he appears at his yard?
Ans:-Lushkoff pleads to Sergei to have pity on him. He says that he has not eaten anything for three days and does not have five copecks for lodging. He further tells Sergei that he had been a village school teacher for eight years and had lost his job due to scheming and lies.
Q10.Describe the physical appearance of Lushkoff when Sergei observes him in his yard.
Ans:- Sergei observed Lushkoff closely when the latter came to his yard asking for alms. At that time, Lushkoff had a ragged appearance. He had worn a fawn-coloured overcoat and his eyes were dull and drunken. There was a red spot on either cheek. He looked every bit a disgusting beggar.
Q 11. Why does Lushkoff want to go to Kaluga?
Ans:- Lushkoff wants to go to Kaluga because he claims that he has an offer of a position in this province, after having lived without work for nearly a year. However, he cannot go there because he does not have any money.
Q 12. Has Lushkoff become a beggar by circumstance or by choice? (Textual)
Ans:-Lushkoff has become a beggar not by choice but by circumstance. He was a singer in a Russian choir but was sent away for his drunkenness. Alcoholism had made him weak and he could not toil, so he took to begging for survival.
Q13. How did Sergei come to remember that he had met the beggar before?
Ans: –A close look at the beggar’s face made Sergei think that he had seen the man somewhere before. Then his eyes fell on his overshoes, one of which was high and the other was low. This made Sergei remember suddenly that he had seen this beggar in Sadovya Street a couple of days before.
Q 14. Why was the beggar taken aback when Sergei asked if he remembered having met him earlier?
Ans:- The beggar was taken aback because he knew that his lies were going to be caught soon. The repercussions of extracting money by exploiting the sympathy of people could be very harsh for him. He could even be handed over to the police.
Q15. How did Sergei react when the beggar lied about his identity?
Ans:-Sergei got infuriated when the beggar lied about his identity. He turned from the ragged creature with an expression of disgust and reprimanded him for dishonesty and swindling. He threatened to call the police as well.
Q 16. What lies did Lushkoff tell people to beg?
Ans:- In order to beg alms and earn sympathy, Lushkoff told different lies to people. He would claim to be a student who had been expelled or a village schoolteacher who had lost his job because of intrigues and lies of others.
Q 17. What reason does Lushkoff give to Sergei for telling lies? (Textual)
Ans:- Lushkoff tells Sergei that he was telling lies because no one would help him if he told the truth about his drunkenness. Instead, lies helped him get both sympathy and money that he required desperately to keep himself alive.
Q18. What offer was made by Sergei to the beggar in order to discourage him from begging? Why?
Ans:- Sergei offered Lushkoff to chop wood for him and earn money instead of telling lies and begging. Sergei made this offer because he believed that people could be reformed by hard work and not by giving sympathy or alms.
Q19.Is Lushkoff a willing worker? Why, then, does he agree to chop wood for Sergei? (Textual)
Ans:-Luskhoff is not a willing worker since alcohol has made him very weak, both physically and emotionally. Still, he agrees to do the menial job of chopping wood because of his pride and shame. Earlier he had expressed his willingness to do any work provided he was offered one and now he could not go back on his words.
Q20. Who was Olga? What task did Sergei assign to her?
Ans:-Olga was Sergei’s cook. She appeared to be ill-tempered but eventually played an instrumental role in reforming Lushkoff with her words and noble deeds. Sergei told her to take Lushkoff to the wood-shed and make him chop wood for them.
Q21. How did Lushkoff follow Olga to the wood-shed? What did this reveal about his willingness to work?
Ans:- Lushkoff followed Olga in a gait that showed his reluctance to work. It was obvious that his strength had been destroyed by ‘vodka’ and he was too weak to do any type of hard physical labour.
Q22. Why did Sergei hurry into the dining-room? What did he see from there?
Ans:-Sergei hurried into the dining-room because he wanted to check the beggar’s behaviour while chopping wood. He saw both Olga and Lushkoff walking towards the shed. He also saw Olga’s expression of wrath towards the beggar and the manner in which he struggled to chop wood in the acute cold.
Q23. How did Olga behave with the beggar while taking him to the wood-shed?
Ans:-Olga behaved with Lushkoff in a very shabby manner. She looked at him angrily and even shoved him aside with her elbow while unlocking the shed. She threw an axe at his feet and scolded him all the time as he tried to chop wood.
Q24. Who was the ‘pseudo-teacher’ and why did he sit on a log?
Ans:-The ‘pseudo-teacher’ was the beggar Lushkoff. He sat on a log, lost in his thought as his frail health did not allow him to undertake the hard task of chopping wood but he could not get away from it either.
Q25. Describe Lushkoff’s attempt to chop wood.
Ans:-In order to chop wood, Lushkoff irresolutely pulled a billet of wood towards him, set it up between his feet; and tapped it feebly with the axe instead of hitting it hard. As a result, the billet wavered and fell down. He again pulled it to him, blew on his freezing hands, and tapped it with his axe cautiously. The billet again fell to the ground without being chopped.
Q26. How did Sergei feel after he saw Lushkoff chopping wood?
Ans:- Sergei didn’t feel angry anymore after he saw Lushkoff chopping wood. Instead, he felt a little sorry and ashamed at having given the tough task of wood-chopping to Lushkoff who seemed to him a spoiled, drunkard and probably a sick man. It was difficult for him to do such a menial task in the severe cold.
Q27. What remuneration was paid to Lushkoff for chopping wood for the first time? What additional offer was made at this time?
Ans:-Sergei paid a rouble as remuneration to the beggar for chopping wood and instructed Olga to tell him that if he wanted, he could come back and chop wood on the first day of each month.
Q28. Why did Lushkoff return to the yard on the first of the month? Why did he reappear often?
Ans:-Lushkoff returned to the yard on the first of the month in order to chop wood and earn one rouble in return. He reappeared often because every time he used to be given odd jobs like shovelling snow, putting the wood-shed in order and beating the dust out of rugs and mattresses. The money he thus got helped him survive.
Q29. When and why did Sergei hire Lushkoff? How did he appear at this time?
Ans:-Sergei hired Lushkoff when he moved into another house. He hired him to help in packing and hauling of the furniture. This time Lushkoff appeared sober but gloomy and silent.
Q30. Why did Lushkoff become embarrassed when he came to assist Sergei move to another house?
Ans:- Lushkoff became embarrassed when he came to assist Sergei move to another house because he could not help in any way. He simply walked behind the wagons hanging his head and shivered in the cold. The other carters mocked at his idleness, feebleness and his tattered fancy over-coat.
Q31. Sergei says, “I am happy that my words have taken effect.” Why does he say so? Is he right in saying this? (Textual)
Ans:-Sergei says so because Lushkoff looked sober and seemed to have helped in the packing and hauling of furniture. He is partially right in saying this because his constant support had at least given Lushkoff an option to quit his disgusting life as a beggar.
Q32. What revelation was made by Lushkoff to Sergei at the theatre?
Ans:- Lushkoff revealed to Sergei that he did not chop even a single stick of wood at his yard. All the toil was done by the good and noble cook, Olga, who tried to help him and underwent misery and shed tears for his sake.
Q33. “Thank you, too”. Why does Lushkoff say this to Sergei?
Ans:- Lushkoff says this to Sergei because although Olga was the one who had actually reformed him but Sergei’s contribution too was important. He had taken interest in the life of a disgusting beggar and helped him drag himself out of the mess he was in.
Q34. Where did Sergei send Lushkoff? What was his parting advice?
Which cleaner employment did Sergei arrange for Lushkoff? How?
Ans:-Sergei sent Lushkoff to his friend with a letter of recommendation for some copying work. This was a cleaner employment in comparison to wood-chopping. As a parting advice, he told Lushkoff to work hard and not to drink.
Q35. How and why did Sergei express his pleasure before parting from Lushkoff?
Ans:-Sergei expressed his pleasure by tapping Lushkoff gently on the shoulder and shaking hands with him at parting. He expressed pleasure in this manner because he was convinced that the beggar was now a reformed person and deserved respect and honour.
Q36. How did Sergei help Lushkoff to live respectfully?
Ans:-Sergei helped Lushkoff to live respectfully by giving him odd jobs every time he came to the yard. Now Lushkoff did not need to beg alms since he got money for all the little tasks that he was given by Sergei. Lastly, Sergei sent Lushkoff to his friend with a letter of recommendation for a cleaner employment as a copier.
Q37. Where did Sergei meet Lushkoff after two years? What did Lushkoff tell him about himself?
Ans:- Sergei saw Lushkoff after a period of two years at the ticket window of a theatre. Lushkoff was wearing a coat collar of curly fur and a worn sealskin cap. He was buying a ticket for a gallery seat for himself. He told Sergei that he was a notary and earned thirty-five roubles a month.
Q38. Lushkoff is earning thirty-five roubles a month. How is he obliged to Sergei for this? (Textual)
Ans:-Lushkoff is obliged to Sergei for earning thirty-five roubles a month because the latter had paved way for this achievement. He had recommended Lushkoff to his friend and arranged the job of a copier for him.
Q39. Why did Sergei call Lushkoff his ‘godson’?
Ans:-Sergei called Lushkoff his ‘godson’ because he had given him a push along the right path and his efforts had lifted him out of the pit of begging. He had shown interest in Lushkoff’s life and had felt happy to see him reformed.
Q40. Who does Lushkoff give the credit for reforming him? Why?
Why does Lushkoff acknowledge Olga’s contribution in reforming him?
Ans:- Lushkoff is grateful to Sergei for employment but he gives true credit for his reformation to Olga, Sergei’s cook. Outwardly Olga is full of anger and spite, but her heart is full of human sympathy and kindness. While she severely scolds Lushkoff for being a miserable drunkard, she weeps for him and chops wood for him. She is the chief reason why Lushkoff gives up his bad habits and transforms into a hardworking man.
Q41. Has Lushkoff become a beggar by circumstance or by choice? (NCERT)
Ans. Lushkoff was a middle-aged man and belonged to the Russian choir. He was not a born beggar. He was sacked from the choir because of his drinking habits. He became a beggar by choice as he did not like to work hard at that stage.
Q42. Is Lushkoff a willing worker? Why, then, does he agree to chop wood for Sergei? (NCERT)
Ans. No, he was not a willing worker. He was too weak to work. He had lost his strength and stamina due to his habit of drinking and, secondly, he was a middle-aged man. He agreed to chop wood because of pride and shame and he had been trapped by his own words. So he had no other way but to accept Sergei’s offer.
Q43. Sergei says, “I am happy that my words have taken effect.” Why does he say so? Is he right in saying so?
Ans. Sergei looked satisfied with the performance of the beggar and felt happy. When Lushkoffs job of packing and hauling of the furniture was over, he praised him while handing him a rouble. But he was not right in saying so because Lushkoff had not developed the habit of working hard. He was still an idle fellow.
Q44. Who was Lushkoff? What did he pretend to be?
Ans. Lushkoff was a middle aged poor man. He belonged to the Russian choir but was sacked from his job due to his drinking habits. To get some money he pretended to be a school teacher who had lost his job due to conspiracy. He also pretended to be a student expelled from the school for no guilt of his.
Q45. What did Lushkoff tell Sergei when he met him?
Ans. The beggar told Sergei when he met him that he was a hungry man. He had nothing to eat. He had been a village school teacher for eight years. He requested him to have pity on him.
Q46. How did Olga save Lushkoff?
Ans. Olga knew that Lushkoff won’t work so she felt pity for his sad expression. She sat down opposite to him and wept. She would rebuke him. Then she would chop the wood for him. At last, Lushkoffs heart changed. He stopped drinking and became a nice man.
Q47. How did Olga treat Lushkoff in the beginning? Why did she do this?
Ans. Olga treated Lushkoff in the beginning very badly. She called him a drunkard and rebuked him for his expressions. She would look into his face and weep. Then she would chop the wood for him. She did this all to set Lushkoff on the right path.
Q48. Why did the carters make fun of Lushkoff?
Ans. Sergei is moved into another house. He asked Lushkoff to pack and haul the furniture. But Lushkoff hardly touched the furniture. He looked sad, silent and gloomy. He walked behind the wagons hanging his head. He also shivered in cold. So the carters made fun of Lushkoff for his idleness, weakness and fancy overcoat.
Q49. Lushkoff is earning thirty-five roubles a month. How is he obliged to Sergei for this?
Ans. Sergei played a very important role in improving the condition of the beggar. It was because of Sergei that Lushkoff could earn thirty-five roubles a month. He offered him the job to chop wood at his home. Later on, he sent him to one of his friends to do the job of copying. Lushkoff was highly obliged to Sergei as now he was a notary because of him.
Q50. How did Sergei feel for treating Lushkoff harshly?
Ans. Sergei was an advocate. He must have followed some humane approach to reform Lushkoff. But he gave Lushkoff some kind of physically hard work that was to chop the wood for him. This task was not fit for a drunken and sick man. Besides, the weather was very cold. As it was the unjustful task for Lushkoff, Sergei felt ashamed of his act.
Q51. How did Olga bring a change in Lushkoff?
Ans. Olga was a cook. She was a kind lady. She knew that Lushkoff was not able to do hard work. In her treatment with Lushkoff she was harsh and tough from above and kind inside. She herself chopped wood for him, which changed his heart. As a result, Lushkoff stopped drinking and became a good man.
Q52. What did the beggar tell Sergei? Why did Sergei threaten to call the police?
Ans. The beggar told Sergei that he had an offer of a job in the province of Kaluga. But he had no money to go there. He further said that he felt ashamed of asking. But he did so because of adverse circumstances. Sergei had seen him earlier. Then he had told him that he was an expelled student. So he got angry with him and threatened to call the police.
Q53. How did Lushkoff express his sense of gratitude to Sergei?
Ans. Lushkoff thanked Sergei greatly. He said that if he didn’t come to him, he would still have been calling himself a teacher or a student. He said that by coming to him he had taken himself out of the pit. He expressed his sincere thanks to Olga.
Q54. Why did Sergei call Lushkoff his ‘godson’?
Ans. When Sergei met Lushkoff for the first time, Lushkoff was wearing ragged clothes. Sergei took him to Olga who made him work. After two years, Sergei is surprised to find Lushkoff working for a notary for 35 roubles a month. This makes Sergei very happy and calls him his ‘godson’.