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SOCIAL SCIENCE– Set 6
Class — X
Maximum Marks: 80 Time 3 hours
(I)There are 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Marks for each question are indicated against the question.
(iii) Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short Answer type Questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words limit. Each question carries one mark.
(iv) Question from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
(v)Question from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
(vi) Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B) 26 (A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attach the map inside your answer book.
1. Why were big European powers met in Berlin in 1885?
Why were merchants from towns in Europe began to move countryside in Seventeenth eighteenth centuries?
Why did Charles Booth, a Liverpool shipowner conduct the first social survey of low skilled workers in East End of London in 1887?
Ans. European a powers met in Berlin in 1815 to complete the carving up of Africa among them.
Merchants began to move countryside in 17th and 18th century: Merchants could not expand production within towns.
(i)The trade guilds restricted the entry of new people into the trade in towns.
Charles Booth conducted the first social survey because he wanted to study the condition of low
2. Why did the Roman Catholic Church impose control over publishers and booksellers? skilled workers. (1)
Why do novels ovals use vernacular?
Ans. Roman Catholic Church imposed control over publishers and booksellers: feared that if there was no control over what was printed and read then rebellious and thought might spread. OR Novels use Vernacular SP. Because it is spoken by the common people.
3. Classify resources on the basis of origin.
Ans.(i) Biotic (ii) Biotic. “
4. “A challenge is not just any problem but an opportunity for progress. Analyze the
Ans. A challenge is an opportunity: Overcoming a challenge gives an opportunity to go up to a higher level than before.
5. State any two goals of development other than income.
Ans. Goals of development other than income:
(i) Equal treatment (ii) Freedom (iii) Security (iv) Respect for others.
6. When we produce goods by exploiting natural resources, in which category of the economic sector such activities come? (3)
Ans. Primary sector.
7. Give any two examples of the informal sector of credit.
Ans. (i) Moneylenders (ii) Traders (iii) Employers (iv) Friends
8. Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ on people’s livelihoods and the local economy in Africa in the 1890s.
Describe any three steps taken to clean up London during the 19th century.
Describe any three major problems faced by Indians cotton weavers in the 19th century.
Ans. In Africa, in the 1890s, a fast-spreading disease of cattle plague or rinderpest had a terrifying imp ad on people’s livelihoods and the local economy.
(i)Rim deer pest killed 90% of cattle in Africa. The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihood.
(ii) Planters, mine owners and colonial government successfully monopolized what scarce cat* resources remained.
(iii) It forced Africans into the labour market.
(iv) Control over the scarce resource of cattle enabled European colonizers to conquer and sub& Africa.
Steps were taken to clean London:
(i)Attempts were made to decongest localities, green and open spaces, reduce pollution ail landscape in the city.
(ii) Large blocks of apartments were built, akin to the in Berlin and New York – cities which by similar housing problems.
(iii) Attempts were made to bridge the difference between city and countryside through such as the Green Belt around London.
Major problems faced by the Indian Cotton weavers:
(i) Their export market collapsed, and the local market shrank, being glutted with N imports.
(ii) Produced by machines at lower costs, the imported cotton goods were so cheap that “1 could not easily compete with them.
(iii) Factories in India also began cheaper machine-made goods to which our w covers compete.
Atom, and knowledge”. Analyze the statement. print-Revolution’ had transformed the lives of people changing their relationship to Austen a pied Charlotte Bronte respectively.
Tioga wishes between, the themes of ‘Pride and Prejudice’ and ‘Jane Eyre’ novels written by Jane formation due to Print Revolution:
Pride and prejudice: (I) The novel of Jane Austen give testy which a wgIhnpse of women in genteel rural society.
(ii) They make us think about encouraged women to look for good marriages and find wealthy or propertied husbands.
(iii) The main characters were preoccupied with marriage and money as typified in Austen society.
Jane Eyre: (i) The math character broke established norms of society before adjusting to them.
(ii) The character is shown as independent and assertive.
(iii) Encouraged women, readers to sympathize with rebellious actions.
9. How has the ever-increasing number of industries in India made worse position by exerting pressure on existing freshwater resources? Explain. (3)
Ans. (i) Industries especially heavy industries use a huge amount of fresh water for industrial purpose and pollute water.
(ii) Industrial wastes and effluent are discharged into rivers causing water pollution.
(iii) Industries depend on hydroelectric power.
(iv) Multiplying urban centres, due to industries, has caused pressure on water resources.
10. “Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for local and national development”. Analyze the statement. (3)
Ans. (i) The movement of the goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transportation.
(ii) Efficient transport helps in both the production and distribution of goods.
(iii) Transport is required to carry raw materials to production centres and from manufacturing hubs to markets. It also supports all sectors of the economy.
11. Describe any three provisions of the amendment made in ‘Indian constitution’ in 1992 for making Thee-Tier’ government more effective and powerful. (3)
Ans. (i) it is constitutionally mandated to hold regular elections to local government bodies. Now Sep least one-third of all positions are reserved for women.
(iii)knits are reserved for the Scheduled Caste, Scheduled Tribes and other Backward Classes. , to conduct institution called the State Election Commas has been created in each state its
panchayat and municipal election skits, IA’ am the three factors that are crucial in deciding the outcome of politics of social divisions.
12. It is Kist of all, the outcome depends on how people see national singular and exclusive that their identities are multiple and are complementary.
Ans. (1) Second, it depends on how political leaders
(ii) demands that are another within the framework
(iii) and are n the demands of any it depends on how the government reacts to the demands of different groups. If the rulers are willing to share power and accommodate the reasonable demands of minority community social divisions become less threatening for the country.
13. “Secularism is not an ideology of some political parties or persons, but it is one of the foundations of our country”. Examine the statement. (3)
Ans. (i) The constitution provides all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion or not to follow any religion.
(ii) There is no official religion in India. Our constitution does not give a special status to a religion.
(iii) The constitution prohibits discrimination on the ground of religion.
14. How is the issue of sustainability important for development? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Sustainable development aims at fulfilling the needs of today without compromising the needs of the future generation.
(ii) Sustainability is the capability to use the resources judiciously and maintain the ecological balance.
(iii) It lays emphasis on environmental protection and to stop the over-exploitation of resources. For example, groundwater is an example of renewable resources. It can be replenished by rain. If we use more than what it is being replenished by rain then we would be overusing this resources.
15. Distinguish the service conditions of the organized sector with that of unorganized sector.
Ans. (1) Organized sector is registered by the government whereas, the unorganized sector is largely outside the control of the government.
(ii) In the organized sector, the workers enjoy the security of employment whereas, in unorganized secrecy, jobs are insecure, low paid and irregular.
(iii) In organized sector workers get several benefits such as paid leaves, payment during holiday provident fund etc., whereas in the unorganized sector such facilities are not available.
16. Why is cheap and affordable credit important for the country’s development? Explain any three reasons.
Ans. (i) This would lead to higher incomes and many people could then borrow cheaply for a variety of needs.
(ii) It encourages people to invest in agriculture, do business and set up small-scale industries etc
(iii) It enables more investment which will lead to an acceleration of economic activities.
17. How can consumer awareness be spread among consumers to avoid exploitation in the marketplace? Explain any three ways.
Ans. (1) The consumer movement in India has led to the formation of various organizations loll known as consumer forums or consumer protection council.
(ii) These forums guide consumers on how to file cases in consumer court.
(iii) Media is also playing a very important role in binding the consumers. Media highlights various issues related to consumer exploitation.
(iv) Consumer’s education should be promoted through advertisement or mass campaign.
18. Describe the explosive conditions prevailed in Balkans after 1871 in Europe.
Describe the role of different religious groups in the development of anti-colonial feely Vietnam.
Ans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern days Roma° Bulgaria, Albania, Greece and Macedonia whose inhabitants were broadly known as Slays. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the lit romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire’ this region very explosive. All through the 19th century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself tallow` modernization and internal reforms but with very little success. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality history to prove that they had once been independent. As the different Slavic nationalities struggled to define their identity and independence, the Balkan area became an area of intense conflict. Matters were further complicated because the Balkans also became the scene of big power rivalry. Each power-Russia, Germany, England, Austro-Hungary-was keen on countering the hold of other powers over the Balkans, and extending its own control over the area. This led to a series of wars in the region and finally the First World War.
Ans. Vietnam’s religious beliefs were a mixture of Buddhism, Confucianism and local practices. An early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt in 1868. This revolt was led by officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French Power. The French crushed the movement but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them. Another movement called Hoe began in 1939. It drew on religious ideas popular in anti-French uprisings of the 19th century. The founder of Hoe was a man called Huynh Phi So. The French tried to suppress the movement. They exiled Huynh Phi so to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
19. How did the Non-Cooperation movement start with the participation of middle-class people in the cities? Explain its impact on the economic front. (5)
Why was Congress reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority within the organization? How did women participate in the Civil Disobedience Movement? Explain.
Ans. Participation of middle-class people and its impact:
(i)The movement started with middle-class participation in the cities. Thousands of students left government-controlled schools and colleges.
(ii) Headmasters and teachers resigned, and lawyers gave up their legal practices.
(iii) The council elections were boycotted in most provinces. Economic impact:
(i)The effects of non-cooperation on the economic front were more dramatic. Foreign goods were boycotted.
(ii) Liger shops picketed, and foreign cloth burnt in huge bonfires.
(iii) In many places, merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods or finance foreign trade. Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Congress reluctant in the participation of women:
(i)For a long time, Congress was reluctant to allow women to hold any position of authority. within the organization. It was keen only on their symbolic presence.
(ii) Gandhi was convinced that it was the duty of women to look after home and hearth, be good mothers and good wives.
Participation of women in the Civil Disobedience Movement:
(i)During Gandhi Salt March, thousands of women came out of their homes to participate in. protest marches.
(ii) They participated in protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops.
(iii) Moved by Gandhi call, they began to see service to the nation as a sacred duty of women.
20. “The Government of India has introduced various institutional and technological reforms to Improve agriculture in the 1980s and 1990s”. Support this statement with examples. (5)
Compare ‘intensive subsistence farming’ with that of ‘commercial fanning’ practised in India.
Ans. Institutional Reforms:
(i)A Comprehensive Land Development Programmed was initiated.
(ii)Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire and disease was introduced
(iii) Garment banks, cooperative societies and banks for providing loan facilities to farmers at lower rates of interest were established.
(iv) Kiss a Credit Card (KCC), Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS) are introduced.
(v) The government also announces a minimum support price for important crops to check exploitation of farmers.
(i)HYV seed, fertilizers and Pesticides were provided to farmers at a low price.
(ii) Modern methods of irrigation were introduced.
(iii) Latest agricultural equipment was provided to farmers at subsidized rates.
(iv) Special weather bulletins and agricultural programmed for farmers were introduced on Radio and Television.
Comparison between ‘Intensive Subsistence farming’ and ‘Commercial farming’:
(i)In intensive subsistence farming pressure of population on land is high whereas in commercial farming population pressure is low.
(ii) In intensive subsistence farming, labour-intensive farming is used whereas in commercial farming mechanized form of farming is used.
(iii) In intensive subsistence farming, there is low capital investment whereas in commercial farming high capital investment is seen.
(iv) In intensive subsistence farming, farmers produce for their own consumption whereas in commercial farming production is mainly for the market.
(v) In intensive subsistence farming processing industries are not associated with farms whereas in commercial farming processing industries are associated with plantations.
(vi) In intensive subsistence farming, multiple cropping is practised whereas in commercial farming single cropping is practised.
21. Why is the economic strength of a country measured by the development of manufacturing industries? (5)
Ans. (i) Manufacturing industries help in modernizing agriculture which forms the backbone of our economy. They provide modem equipment to agriculture.
(ii) They reduce the heavy dependence of people on agriculture income by providing them jobs in secondary and tertiary sectors.
(iii) Industrial development is a precondition for the eradication of unemployment and poverty from our country.
(iv) Export of manufactured goods expands trade and commerce and brings in much needed foreign exchange.
(v) It also brings down regional disparities by establishing industries in tribal and backward arms
(vi) It increases the GDP and National Income of the country.
22. Describe any five major functions of political parties performed in a democracy. (2)
Ans. (i) Parties contest elections. In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidate put up by political parties.
(ii) Parties put forward different policies and programmed and the voters choose from them.
(iii) Parties play a decisive role in making laws for a country.
(iv) Parties form and run governments. The big policy decisions are taken by the political executive that comes from the political parties.
(v) Parties shape public opinion. They raise and highlight issues.
(vi) Parties provide people access to government machinery and welfare schemes.
23. “Democracy stands much superior to any other form of government in promoting dismal freedom of the individual”. Justify this statement.
„Democracies lead to peaceful and harmonious life individual wants to receive among citizens”. Justify this statement.
Ans. (i)freedom from fellow beings. The passion for respect and
(ii) Democracy Stands for respect and equal tamest freedom are the basis of democracy.
(iii) for equal status and equal opportunities. Democracy in India has strengthened the of the and discriminated groups
(iv) It provides methods to resolve conflicts. It is based on consultation and discussion.
(i)becoming explosive and violent. Democracy accommodates various social divisions and reduces the possibility of tensions
(ii) Democracy has the ability to handle social differences and conflicts among different groups.
(iii)Democracy represents the need of the people. It is an accountable form of government.
(iv) It provides the best methods of dealing with differences and conflicts.
(v) Democracy is based on political equality which ensures equal rights for all classes.
(vi) Democracy develops a procedure to conduct healthy competitions among different groups in a society.
24. How has foreign trade been integrating markets of different countries? Explain with examples. (2)
How do we feel the impact of globalization on our daily life? Explain with examples.
Ans. (i) Foreign trade creates an opportunity for producers to reach beyond the domestic markets.
(ii) Producers can sell their products not only in markets located within the country but also compete in markets located in other countries of the world.
(iii) For the buyers, import of goods produced in another country is one way of expanding the choice of goods beyond what is domestically produced.
(iv) It is the main channel connecting countries.
(v) The trading interests attract various trading companies. This is the basic function of foreign trade.
(vi) With the opening of trade, goods travel from one market to another. Choice of goods in the markets rises.
Ans. Impact of Globalization:
(i)on and greater competition among p Globalization has been an advantage to consumers.
(ii) There is the greater choice before these consumers who now enjoy the improved quality and lower
(iii) prices for several products.
(iv) Standard enjoys much higher standards of living than was possible earlier. %vv! Standard quality products are easily available at lower price.
(v) *Foreign investments have increased in many areas like cell phones, automobiles, electronics
(vi) GIthalisation and the pressure of competition have changed the lives of workers. Faced with growing wing competition, most employers these days prefer to employ workers ‘flexibility’. This 24.043 means that workers’ jobs are no longer secure.
25. (A) features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. identify these, with the help of the following inform and write their correct names on, ‘ marked near them:
(a) where the Indian National Congress Session was held. locate
(b)The place where Gandhi organized favour of cotton mill workers.
‘vide ‘Satyagraha in the map of and the following with appropriate symbols on the same given outline,