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SOCIAL SCIENCE– Set 5
Class — X
Maximum Marks: 80 Time 3 hours
(I)There are 26 questions in all. All questions are compulsory.
(ii) Marks for each question are indicated against the question.
(iii) Questions from serial number 1 to 7 are very short Answer type Questions. Answer to these questions should not exceed 30 words limit. Each question carries one mark.
(iv) Question from serial number 8 to 18 are 3 marks questions. Answer of these questions should not exceed 80 words each.
(v)Question from serial number 19 to 25 are 5 marks questions. Answers of these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
(vi) Question number 26 is a map question. It has two parts 26(A) and 26(B) 26 (A) of 2 marks from History and 26(B) of 3 marks from Geography. After completion attaches the map inside your answer book.
1. Name the painting prepared by Frederic Sorrier in 1848. (1)
Ans. In 1848, FedericaSorrier prepared the painting “The Dream of Worldwide Democratic and Social Republics — The Pact between Nations”.
2. Which was the most powerful weapon used by the Spanish to conquer America? (1)
Ans. Smallpox was the most powerful Weapon used by the Spanish to conquer America.
3. What is the importance of the Brundtland Commission Report? (1)
Ans. Brundtland Commission Report introduced the concept of ‘Sustainable Development’.
4. What do you mean by social division? (1)
Ans. Social division is a situation when the social difference becomes more important than any other and People start feeling that they belong to different communities.
5. Name one criterion other than income which may reflect the level of development. (1)
Ans. Level of Education i.e. gross enrollment ratio is another criterion which may reflect levels of development.
6. In which sector are the terms of employment regular? (1)
Ans. The terms of employment are regular in the organized sector.
7. What are the modern forms of money? (1)
Ans. Paper notes and coins are the modern forms of money.
8. Briefly summarize the two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience. (3)
Ans. Two lessons learnt by economists and politicians from the inter-war economic experience were:
(I) An industrial society based on large production is unsustainable without consumption on a large scale. For this, high and stable incomes through full employment are necessary.
(ii) Economic links of a country should be maintained with other countries. The target of employment could be achieved only if the government has the power to control the flow of car labour and goods. The government should take appropriate steps to achieve the goal.
9. Explain any three causes of water scarcity in most parts of India.
Ans. Reasons for rising in the scarcity of water are:
(i) The fast-growing population has increased the demand for water used for drinking domestic purposes.
(ii) The rising demand for food and cash crops require a large amount of water for agriculture.
(iii) Growing urban areas require more power for which water is required to produce hydroelectricity.
(iv) Industrialization has been increased and industrial processes require large amounts of water.
10. Explain any three reasons for shifting sugar industry from North to South India. (3)
Ans. Reasons for shifting of sugar industry from North to South India are:
(i)The sucrose content of sugarcane grown is higher in Peninsular India. Thus, more sugar can be extracted from the same amount of sugarcane.
(ii) The crushing season is longer in Peninsular India, as the summers are less hotter than North India.
(iii) Sugar industries are mostly cooperatives and cooperatives are more successful in the Southern states.
11. Why did the Indian industrial growth suddenly shoot up in the years of the First World War? Describe any three reasons. (3)
Ans. As the British mills were busy with First World War production to meet the needs of the army, Manchester imports into India declined. Then the Indian industrial growth suddenly shoots up. The reasons behind the growth were.
(i)With the decline of imports suddenly, Indian mills had a vast domestic market for their products.
(ii) As the war prolonged, Indian factories were called upon the supply war needs also, such as jute bags, cloth for uniforms of soldiers, tents, leather boots etc. and many other items.
(iii) New factories were set up and old ones organized multiple shifts; many new workers were employed and everyone was made to work for longer hours during the war years. As a result, Indian industries boomed.
12. Differentiate between the horizontal and vertical division of powers.
Horizontal Division of Power —(i) In this division, power is shared among different organs of govt. such as the legislature, executive and judiciary.
(ii) In this division different organs of government exercise different powers. It is a concept of separation of power
(iii) It specifies the concept of checks and balances in order to check the unlimited powers of the different organs.
Vertical Division of Power–In this division, power is shared among governments at different levels like union,’ state and local levels.
In this division, the constitution clearly la down the power of the different levels government.
In this division, there is no concept of and balances because powers are clear! divided among higher and lower level.
13. How have the centre-state relations been restructured to strengthen federalism?
Ans. For a long time, the central government misused the constitutional power to dismiss stall government that was controlled by the rival parties. But the rise of regional political parties. many states have changed the centre-state relations. All this changed significantly after 1990. This was the beginning of the era of the coalition government at the centre. Since no single party clear majority in the major national parties had to enter into an alliance with parties including several regional parties to form a government at the centre. It led to a new power-sharing and respect for the autonomy of state governments. This trend has supported by the constitution and made it difficult for the central government to dismiss any state government in an arbitrary manner.
14. when does a social difference become a social division? (3)
Ans. A social difference means the difference in a group of people due to their race, religion, language or Ans. culture. It becomes a social division when some social differences are joined by another set of social differences. In other words, when two or more social differences join together, it turns into a social division. For example, the difference in the Blacks and the Whites in America is due to their different races, which is a social difference. It becomes a social division when the income factor is seen as the Blacks tends to be poor and homeless and the Whites tend to be rich and educated. This creates a division in the people, making them feel that they belong to different communities.
15. Why do we use an average? Are there any limitations to their use? Illustrate with your own example. related to development. (3)
Ans. While taking total income as a comparison, it is the total population that makes a variation and big countries have always higher value than smaller countries. So, the average is taken to measure the level of improvement. Average income show per capita income i.e. the average income of a citizen. It gives an edge over counting total income.
Limitations of average income: Average value has its limitations as it avoids inequality. So, the real situation of improvement is not reflected while the average is useful for comparison, they also hide disparities.
An illustration related to development. Consider two countries A and B. For the sake of simplicity, we have assumed that they have only five citizens each. Based on the data given in the table, let us calculate the average income for both the countries.
Comparison of Two Countries:
Monthly income of citizens in 2007 (in 1) Country I II III IV V Average Country A 9,500 10,500 9,800 10,000 10,200 10,000 Country B 500 48,000 10,000
The average income is the same but in country A, an income is more evenly distributed so people are neither too rich nor too poor.
But in country B, only one person is rich while others are very poor. So average income does not tell us how the income is distributed.
16. Explain the differences between Primary, Secondary and Tertiary sectors using examples. other than those mentioned in the text. (3)
Ans. (I) Primary sector. It is connected with extraction and production of natural resources e.g. mining
(ii) Secondary sector. It is concerned with the processing of materials which have already beer, extracted at the primary stage e.g. making jeweller from gold.
(iii) Tertiary sector. It is concerned with providing support services to Primary and Secondary sectors e.g. insurance.
17. Explain the term debt – trap. why is it more rampant in rural areas? Give two reasons. (3)
Ans: –Debt-trap is a situation in which a person after taking a loan is not able to pay back the loan. It is more common in rural areas because
(i)A borrower repays a loan by selling the agricultural produce, which sometimes may not be enough to repay the loan.
(ii)Rural borrowers normally depend on informal sources of credit who charge a high rate of interest. This repayment of large amounts may sometimes be larger than their income. Thus, it can be concluded that loans from banks always help to raise people’s earning capacity.
18. Why do governments try to attract more foreign investment?
Ans. (i)It helps in improving the financial condition of the people by the growth of the economy.
(ii) Foreign investments create new job opportunities in the country, directly as well as I in support services like transportation.
(iii) The government gains additional taxes by taxing the profits made from foreign investments.
19. Describe in brief the process by which the British nation came into existence.
Ans. History of Nationalism in Britain: Before the 18th century, different ethnic groups of people there in the British Isles, such as English, Welsh, Scot and Irish. Each of these ethnic groups owns cultural and political traditions. Nationalism in Britain was not the result of a socket; up heave! or revolution. It was due to a long drawn process.
The English nation possessed the other three nations of the islands through a steady growth i4 property, wealth and power.
Besides this, the English language, British Flag and National Anthem were promoted as National symbols to identify the nationality of the Nation.
The British parliament became the chief instrument to curb the power of the monarchy in 164 through a bloodless revolution. The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland formed the United Kingdom of Great Britain.
20. “US entry into the Vietnam War from 1965 to 1972 marked a new phase that proved costly to We Vietnamese as well as the Americans” — Analyze the statement.
Ans. With the help of the Ho Chi Minh govt. in the North, the National Liberation Front (NLF) fought for the unification of the country. Worried about the communists gaining power, USA decided to intervene decisively, sending in troops and arms to Vietnam. But the entry of USA in the Vietnam war from 1965 to 1972 proved costly both to the Vietnamese as well as the Americans. It can h explained by the following points:
(I)Even though the US had advanced technology and good medical supplies, casualties were high. 47, 244 died and 303, 704 Americans where wounded.
(ii) The widespread use of chemical weapons destroyed many villages and jungles, civilians o Vietnam died in large numbers.
(iii) Compulsory services in the armed forced mainly affected minorities and children of woollen: class families in the USA.
(iv) The USA underestimated the power of a small country to fight for his motherland and lost that support of its own countrymen. The US media and films criticized the war.
21. How did the condition of women workers change from 19th to 20th century in London? 15
Ans. Following were the changes in the kind of work available to women in London.
(i)In the late 18th century and early 19th century, factories employed a large number of women r Britain. But with technological development, women gradually lost their jobs in factories and they were forced to work within the household.
(ii) According to the census of 1861, there was recorded a quarter of a million domestic servant/ in London, of the vast majority, were women who were mainly migrants.
(iii) A large number of women tried to enhance their family income by taking in lodgers. They were also involved mainly in activities like tailoring, washing, matchbox-making etc.
(iv) Once again, there were changes with the starting of World-War. Then women withdraw from domestic services and got employment in wartime industries and offices. By 1917, over 700001 women in Britain were employed in ammunition factories.
The change of profession also made an overall change in women’s clothing and attitude. By did 20th century, women become more professional and economically independent.
22. Explain the reasons for water pollution in India.
Ans. (I) Industries discharge various chemicals and hazardous waste into water sources such as ponds and canals without treating them.
(ii) Modem agricultural practices use chemicals in the form of fertilizers, pesticides and herb’ let which flow into rivers or seep into groundwater.
(iii) Man uses water for drinking, bathing, for cleaning etc. Most of the used water is d through municipal drains and poured into a river or lake.
(iv) Exploring for oil and gas under these concern consequences of oil spills is of great environmental some to the marine environment.
(v) Nuclear power plants, nuclear weapon testing, laboratories where isotopes are used are a source of nuclear waste which can pollute the entire water sources of a region.
23. The creation of a linguistic state was the first and major test for democratic politics in our country justifies the statement. (5)
Ans. The language policy given by our constitution is a safeguard for the languages of our country. Under township tipolicytio, besides Hindi, there are 21 other languages recognised as scheduled languages by tile constitution.
Our constitution did not give the status of national language to any language. Hindi was identified as the official language
. According to the constitution, the use of English for official purposes was to stop in 1965.
However, many non-Hindi speaking states demanded that the use of English must continue. So, the central Government responded by agreeing to continue the use of English along with Hindi for official purposes. All the states have their own official languages besides Hindi.
After independence, the boundaries of several old states of India were changed in order to create new states. It ensured that people who spoke the same language lived in the same States like Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra and Punjab were created on the basis of language.
This has shown that the formation of linguistic states has actually made the country more united. The language policy has strengthened the unity and integrity of India.
24. “Political parties are necessary for a democracy. In the light of this statement, explain any five characteristics of the political parties in India. (5)
Ans. (I) Political parties contest elections and share power.
(ii) They agree on some policies and programmers for the society to promote collective good.
(iii) If a political party is unable to win a majority, it makes an alliance with other parties to form a coalition government.
(iv) Political parties try to persuade people that their policies are better than others.
(v) They form public opinion. So, the political parties are necessary for a democracy.
25. Name any two formal and two informal sources of credit in India. State the advantages of formal sources of credit. (5)
Ans. There are two main sources of credit in India;
(I)Formal sources: Banks, cooperatives.
(ii)informal sources: Moneylenders, traders, relatives etc.
Advantages of the formal sector of credit:
(i)It provides loans at fixed rates and terms. Interest-rates are comparatively low.
(ii)It gives loans not just to profit-making business and traders but also to small cultivators, small-scale industries to small borrowers etc.
(iii) WU It is supervised by Reserve Bank of India.
26.(A) Two features a and b are marked on the given political outline map of India. Identify these features of the following with the help I allowing information and write their correct names on (he) lines marked near them. (2)
(a) The place where Gandhi organized Satyagraha for the first time in India.
(b) The place associated with the Peasant’s Satyagraha in 1917.
(B) Locate and label the following with appropriate irate symbols on the same given outline political map of India. (3)
(I) Jamshedpur steel plant