Understanding the Text
1.(i) Contrast the Chinese view of art with the European view with examples.
Ans. A classical Chinese landscape is not meant to give an actual or realistic view. It can be seen from any point. The artist only creates a path for the viewer to travel up and down. The European art is figurative. It creates an illusion of reality. It has to be seen from a specific angle and through the eyes of the artist.
(ii) Explain the concept of shanshui.
Ans. The literal meaning of shanshuiis ‘mountain water’. These two words represent the word landscape. ‘Mountain’ and ‘water’ are like two poles complementary to each other. These reflect the Daoist view of the universe. The mountain.e., Yang, is vertical, warm and stable. It is masculine. And yin i.e., water lies horizontally and is female. The two interact in the middle void or the unpainted white space in the Chinese landscape. Man is the conduit or means of communication between Heaven and Earth.
2. (i) What do you understand by the terms ‘outsider art’ and ‘art brut’ or ‘raw art’?
Ans. ‘Outsider art’ is raw in its form. It is the product of a genius who has got no formal training in art. Such artists have no right to call themselves artists. Yet they flourish on the basis of their talent. Anything and everything could be used for this work of art. Thus, itis totally different ‘from the concept of traditional art. The Rock Garden created by Nek Chand at Chandigarh is the best example of ‘raw art’.
(ii) Who was the untutored genius who created a paradise and what is the nature of his contribution to art?
Ans. The untutored genius was an untrained creator of raw art, i.e., the Rock Garden, at Chandigarh. His name was Nek Chand. He had created a paradise using waste materials and recycled things, at the outskirts of Chandigarh. He is now hailed as India’s biggest contributor to “outsider art”. He has taken this form of art brut or “raw art” to great heights. Even the UNESCO recognised his art as ‘an outstanding testimony of the difference a single man can make when he lives his dream’.
Talking about the Text
1.”The Emperor may rule over the territory he has conquered, but only the artist knows the way within.”
Ans. The author illustrates this statement with a Chinese tale. An 8th century Emperor once engaged a Chinese painter to decorate his palace walls with landscapes. The painter did his job behind a curtain. Only the Emperor was allowed entry there. He admired the scenes of forests, mountains, waterfalls etc. One day when the painting was almost finished. The Emperor asked the artist about the cave which he had created in the painting. The artist replied that a spirit lived there. He clapped his hands and the cave opened—The scene inside was beautiful. He invited the Emperor to enter the cave behind him. But as the painter walked into the cave, the doors of the cave closed and the Emperor was left out. The story conveys the idea about the spirit of art and the privilege of the artist. An Emperor can rule over his territory very well, but only an artist can enter the inner world of art. In a way, an artist is more powerful.
2. “The landscape is an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space.”
Ans. A Chinese landscape is altogether different from European Art. It is not figurative or realistic. It leaves empty white spaces for the movement of the viewer, in body and mind. It adds a dimension of time to the picture. It requires the active participation of the viewer—both physical and mental. That is why a Chinese landscape is called ‘an inner one, a spiritual and conceptual space’.
Working with Words
1. The following common words are used in more than one sense.
Panel studio brush essence material
Examine the following sets of sentences to find out what the words ‘panel’ and `essence’ mean in different contexts.
(i) The masks from Bawa village in Mali look like long panels of decorated wood.
(ii) Judge H Hobart Grooms told the panel of the Jury he had heard the reports.
(iii) The panelis laying the groundwork for an international treaty.
(iv) The glass panels of the window were broken.
(v) Through the many round tables, workshops and panel discussions, a consensus was Reached.
Ans. (i) rectangular wooden board
(ii) the people selected to judge a case
(iii) the team of selected statesmen
(iv) the strips of glass
(v) group discussion
2.(i) their repetitive structure must have taught the people around the great composer The essence of music.
(ii) Part of the answer is in the proposition, but the essence is in the meaning.
(iii) The implications of these schools of thought are of practical essence for the Teacher.
(iv) They had added vanilla essence to the pudding.
Ans. (i) the basic quality of music
(ii) significant part