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1. High-altitude climbing is still a very dangerous task in spite of the availability of oxygen masks and other protective types of equipment which modern climbers take with them. These, of course, are indispensable accessories of climbing, but more important than these is the stamina of the climber which ultimately determines the success of his attempt. Throughout his journey, death is his constant companion which he can keep at a distance only with his superb presence of mind. He has to tread every inch of the ground with the utmost care, for a false step may not only strike him a fatal blow but also bring disaster to the whole expedition. That is why all expeditions invariably take with them local guides who are experienced climbers and who have a thorough knowledge of the nature of the terrain. Moreover, a huge amount of capital is needed for financing these expeditions, and this is generally provided by governments or rich private organisations.
2 The primary object of a mountaineering expedition is to get to the top of a high mountain, which in the past has withstood all attempts to conquer it. But it should not be presumed that the expedition is a complete failure if it does not reach its destination. Sometimes operations are temporarily suspended because of bad weather, loss of some valuable equipment or the sudden death of a very important member of the part; Every big expedition takes with it men who are interested in botany, biology, geology and various other branches of science, and these men carry with them equipment for recording their observations concerning the weather, the terrain, and different forms of life in higher altitudes. Other scientists, explorers and expeditionists utilise the fruits of their observations. Thus, every unsuccessful expedition contributes to the success of later expeditions. The British Expedition led by Colonel Hunt would have found their way to Everest much more difficult had not earlier expeditions armed them with useful knowledge about the death-dealing weather which they had to encounter in the vicinity of the summer.
To ordinary people, mountaineering need not be a fearful journey in the land of snowstorms where the brave adventurer is always face to face with death. They can scale less ambitious heights, rest their weary limbs under a quiet shelter and feast their eyes on the distant landscape. In the company of birds, they can enjoy an outing near a waterfall or cross into the next valley with haversacks full of provisions dangling from their shoulders. All those who can afford to go to a hill station would seek this innocent pleasure, for it can be had without any risk to life or limb.
1.equipments—things needed for a particular purpose (this word is usually used in the singular only). 2. indispensable– absolutely essential 3. accessories—extra things that are useful. 4. stamina—capacity for physical or mental endurance. 5. superb–supremely excellent 6. tread—walk 7. fatal—causing death. 8. disaster—terrible accident. 9. expedition—People making an organized Journey. 10. invariably—always. 11. terrain—a stretch of land with regard to its natural features 12. withstood—registered opposed 13. presumed—supposed to be true. 14. destination—a place to which one is going 15. botany—the scientific study of plants. 16. biology—the scientific study of plants and animals. 17. geology—the scientific study of the earth 18. encounter—face. 19. vicinity—the area around a place. 20. summit—the highest point. 21. ambitious–demanding a lot of effort to reach 22. weary—tired. 23. haversack—canvas bag. 24. provisions—supplies of food and drink. 25. dangling—hanging loosely.
1.Answer the following questions briefly:
(a) What are the factors that determine the success of the climbers? (Mention any four)
(b) What precautions should the climbers take during their journey? (Mention any two)
(c) In what ways does a mountaineering expedition contribute to the wealth of knowledge?
(d) How is an ordinary mountaineer’s experience different from that of a regular expedition?
(e) How does a local guide help an expedition ‘?
2. Find one word (for each) in the above passage which means the same as the following :
(a) area of land (para I)
(b) taken for granted (para 2)
(c) to hang loosely (para 3)
1.(a)(I) protective equipment (ii) stamina (iii) presence of mind (iv) knowledge of the terrain.
(b) They should have with the local guides who are experienced climbers. They should tread every inch of the ground with the utmost care.
(c)Mountaineers in every big expedition record their observations concerning the weather the terrain and different forms of life in higher altitudes. These observations can be very useful for other scientists and explorers.
(d) An ordinary mountaineer is not faced with any fatal dangers. It is just a sort of outing for him.
(e)A local guide has a thorough knowledge of the terrain. Thus he can be of great help to an expedition.
2.(a) area of land -terrain
(b)taken for granted—presumed
(c) to hang loosely—dangling
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