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Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus
Chapter- 4 English Language and Literature
Albert Einstein at School
By- Patrick Pringle
Introduction of the lesson- Albert Einstein at School
The biographer of the greatest physicist since Newton gives us a revealing account of Einstein’s school days. He had the seeds of genius in him from the primary school stage in Munich. He was honest and plain-speaking. He had his own theory of education. He hated to learn the facts and figures of history by heart. He valued ideas more than the dates of battles. He knew more about Maths than his teacher. His History teacher misunderstood him and called him a disgrace. He felt as miserable at his lodging as at school. He found his landlady beating her children while her drunken husband thrashed her on weekends. So with the help of his friend Yuri and Dr Ernst Well, he managed to leave Munich to study in Milan. Albert had two hobbies—to study Science subject and to play upon the violin. The same unwanted boy made his mark as a great scientist at last.
Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- Albert Einstein at School
Word-meanings and References
physicist–a scientist or scholar of physics,भौतिकी वेत्ता; expulsion–turning out, निष्कासन; Prussia–a state in Europe, now a part of Germany,जर्मनी का एक भाग; usual–normal, common,सामान्य ,स्वाभाविक ; amaze–surprise,हैरान,विस्मित करना ; sarcasm—the use of irony,कटाक्ष,व्यंग; flushed–turned red with shame,शर्म से लाल हो गया; disgrace–shameful, useless person,निकृष्ट व्यक्ति ; ungrateful–thankless,कृतघ्न ; miserable–very unhappy, दुखी; lodgings–room, house,निवास स्थान ; squalor–dirt, dust गंदगी ; duel–quarrel between two persons,द्वन्द्व ; scar–mark,चोट का निशान; badge–a distinctive mark,चिह्न,लक्षण; ugh–showing disgust or horror,तिरस्कार सूचक आवाज़ l
glumly-sadly, उदासी भाव से ; stupid–dull-headed, blockheads, मंद्बुद्धि ; by heart–by rote like a parrot, रट लेना ; apart from–in addition to,के अलावा,के साथ-साथ; wailing–sound of weeping, crying, रोने की आवाज़; gets on my nerves–irritates, troubles,कष्ट देना; kids howling–children shouting, बच्चों की चीख पुकार; tempted–lured, felt like, प्रलोभन होन ा; howl–shout,शोर करना; absurd–nonsensical, meaningless, funny, मूर्खतापूर्ण; gleamed–shone,चमक ी; imagine–believe, think,कल्पना करन ा; plenty–so many,अनेक ; reluctantly–half-heartedly, unwillingly,अनिच्छापूर्वक; nervous breakdown–period of mental illness,स्नायुतंत्र में गड़बड़ी ; merrily–joyfully, smiling,ख़ुशी से ; stand–hear, tolerate,सहन करना ; lit up–looked cheerful,खुशी से चमक गया ; pull the wool over his eyes–deceive or misguide , उदास हो गया ; pretend–to profess falsely,दिखावा करना ; face fell–was downcast or sad,उदास हो गया; come off–prove a successful plan, be possible,संभव हो पाना ;to spare–to pay as fees,फीस देने के लिए पैसा l
probably–perhaps.शायद ; puzzled–confused, surprised, dazed,उलझन में पड़ गया ; summoned–called, बुलाया गया; vaguely–roughly, not clearly, अस्पष्ट रूप से ; dazed–unable to think clearly, स्तब्ध,सन्न रह गया ; expelled–turned out, निष्कासित किया गया ; mincing words–speaking plainly,स्पष्ट भाषी हो रहा था ; of your own accord–willingly,स्वेच्छापूर्वक; constant–always,निरन्तर ; rebellion–revolt,विद्रोह; stalked out–walked out proudly,अकड़कर बाहर निकला; ignored–disregarded,अनसुना कर दिया l
Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (Albert Einstein at School)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Albert Einstein at School)
Einstein was studying at a German school in Munich. His History teacher Mr Braun asked him in which year Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo by the Prussians. The boy confessed bluntly that he didn’t know the year, and he must have forgotten. The teacher wanted to know if Einstein ever tried to learn. Einstein again said with usual honesty that he did not see any point in learning dates. He argued that one can always look up the dates in a book. There was no sense in learning facts which were not the aim of education. The teacher then asked the boy to tell the class his theory of education.
Albert Einstein told the class that in his opinion it was more important to know the ideas than to learn dates or facts. He would rather like to know why the soldiers tried to kill one another. The teacher shouted that Einstein was a disgrace to the school, and he had better ask his father to take him away.
Albert felt very miserable. It was a had day. He didn’t feel like going back to that hateful school the following morning. But his father was not likely to lake him away until he (Einstein) had taken his diploma. Being poor, he was putting up in a room m the poorest part of Munich. He hated that place also because of a slum atmosphere. His landlady beat her children regularly. and on weekends she herself was thrashed by her drunk husband.
Albert was lucky to have a very sincere friend — Yuri. Ile discussed his problem of schooling as well as lodging with him. He doubted if he would ever pass the exams for the school diploma. He discussed his problem with his cousin, Elsa, when she came to Munich. She advised him to take the bean and just repeat what he learnt in the examination. But his problem was that he was not good at learning things by heart. She enquired which book he was carrying under his arm. It was a book on Geology and not a textbook at all. He studied it because he liked the subject. His second interest was music, He played upon his violin regularly until his landlady asked him to stop that noise. She had already enough of howling by the kids.
Albert told Yuri after six months that he must get away from there. It was absurd that he should waste his father’s money. He wished to go to Milan, Italy. He requested Yuri to get him a doctor’s certificate that he had a nervous breakdown and he must leave the city. Yuri contacted his friend, Dr. Ernst Weil, though not a specialist in nervous disorders. He asked Albert to be honest about his intention of meeting the doctor. The doctor agreed to certify that Albert had a nervous breakdown, and he must stay away from school for six months. The doctor didn’t charge any fee for his service. Six months was a pretty long period. Albert won’t be leaving the school, and need be, he could come back to do his diploma.
Albert planned to take that medical certificate to the head teacher the next day. But Yuri advised him to get a reference in writing from his Maths teacher, Mr Koch, first. Mr Koch agreed with Albert that the latter was wasting his time in that class in Munich because he knew much more than even his teacher. He gave a certificate that Albert was ready to join some college for the study of higher Maths.
The head teacher sent for Albert and told him that he wanted the boy to leave the school at once. It was a sort of expulsion. The other way was that Albert should go of his own accord. The head teacher’s point was that Albert refused to learn, and he was in constant rebellion. Albert declared that he was going to leave even otherwise. He walked out of the office and the school where he had spent five miserable years. Yuri saw him off with good wishes and good luck. He hoped that Albert would he happier in Milan.
Summary in Hindi/ Albert Einstein at School
Summary in Hindi
आइंस्टीन एक जर्मन स्कूल में पढ़ रहा था जो म्यूनिख में स्थित था I इसके इतिहास शिक्षक मि.ब्रान ने पूछा नेपोलियन ने किस सन में वाटरलू में प्रशिया द्वारा पराजय का मुँह देखा था I बालक ने दो टूक शब्दों में स्वीकार कर लिया कि वह सन नहीं बता सकता, वह शायद भूल गया था शिक्षक ने जानना चाहा कि क्या तुमने कभी कोई तथ्य याद रखने का प्रयास किया है ? आइंस्टीन ने पुनः ईमानदारी से मान लिया कि उसे एक तारीखें या सन याद करने में रुचि नहीं हैं I उसने तर्क दिया कि ये तत्व तो किसी भी पुस्तक में मिल जाते हैं I उन्हें रटने में कोई बुद्धिमत्ता नहीं है और शिक्षा का यह उद्देश्य भी नहीं है I शिक्षक ने अलबर्ट को कहा कि अच्छा तुम्हीं शिक्षा के लक्ष्य के बारे में बताओ I
अलबर्ट ने कक्षा को बताया मेरी राय में तथ्यों तथा तारीखों को याद करने से अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है विचारों का अध्ययन I मैं तो यह जानना चाहूँगा कि सैनिक क्यों एक दूसरे से जान के दुश्मन बन गए I शिक्षक ने चीख कर कहा कि तुम तो स्कूल के लिए कलंक या अपमान हो I तुम तो अपने पिता से कहो कि तुम्हें इस स्कूल से निकाल ले जाएँ I
अल्बर्ट बहुत दुखी हुआ I सारा दिन बुरा गुजरा I उसकी इच्छा नहीं हुई कि वह अगले दिन उसे स्कूल में जाए I पर उसके पिता तो उसे यहाँ से तब तक नहीं निकालेंगे जब तक वह डिप्लोमा हासिल नहीं कर लेता I निर्धन होने के कारण वह म्यूनिख के एक पिछड़े निर्धनों की बस्ती में एक कमरा किराए पर लेकर रह रहा था I उसे इस बस्ती से भी नफरत थी क्योंकि यहाँ का वातावरण गंदी बस्तियों वाला था I उसकी मकान मालकिन अपने बच्चों की रोज ही पिटाई किया करती थी,तथा सप्ताहांत में उसकी अपनी पिटाई नशे में धुत पति द्वारा होती थी I
अलबर्ट को सौभाग्य से एक अच्छा मित्र यूरी मिल गया था I उसने यूरी से अपने स्कूल की तथा निवास स्थान की समस्या की चर्चा की I उसने बताया कि मैं स्कूल डिप्लोमा के लिए होने वाली परीक्षा पास नहीं कर पाऊँगा I उसने इस समस्या का जिक्र अपनी चचेरी बहन ऐल्सा से भी किया जब वह म्यूनिख आई I बहन ने समझाया कि हिम्मत मत हारो तथा परीक्षा में जो कुछ तुम्हें आता हो वही लिख देना I पर अलबर्ट की समस्या तो यह थी कि वह कुछ भी तथ्य रट नहीं सकता था I बहन ने पूछा कि तुम्हारे बगल में दबी पुस्तक कौन-सी है I वह तो भू-विज्ञान विषय की थी जो उसके पाठ्यक्रम में शामिल नहीं था I अल्बर्ट का दूसरा शौक था – संगीत I वह नियमित रूप से वायलिन बजाया रहता था जब तक कि मकान मालकिन उसे शोर बन्द करने का आदेश नहीं देती थी I वह तो स्वयं ही बच्चों के शोर शराबे से तंग रहती थी I
अलबर्ट ने छह माह पश्चात यूरी को बोला कि वह म्यूनिख छोड़ देना चाहता है I अपने पिता का पैसा बर्बाद करना नहीं चाहता था I उसकी इच्छा थी कि इटली के मिलान नामक नगर में पढ़ाई करे I उसने यूरी से अनुरोध किया कि किसी डॉक्टर मित्र से मुझे एक सर्टिफिकेट दिलवा दे कि मुझे स्नायु संबंधी बीमारी है और मुझे इस नगर से बाहर चला जाना चाहिए यूरीन अपने साथी डा. अर्नेस्ट वील से बात की जो स्नायु विशेषज्ञ नहीं था I फिर भी उसने अलबर्ट से कहा कि डॉक्टर से वह सब कुछ सच-सच बोलना I यह प्रमाण पत्र देने को राजी हो गया कि अल्बर्ट को स्नायु संबंधी तकलीफ है और उसे छह माह तक स्कूल से अवकाश दिया जाना जरूरी है I डॉक्टर ने सेवा के लिए कोई फीस भी नहीं ली I छह माह तो काफी लंबा समय था I अलबर्ट को स्कूल छोड़ने की जरूरत न थी, और जरूरत हुई तो वह पुनः आकर अपनी डिप्लोमा की पढ़ाई शुरू कर सकता था I
अलबर्ट ने सोचा कि यह मेडिकल सर्टिफिकेट लेकर मुख्य शिक्षक के पास अगले दिन जाएगा I पर यूरी ने सलाह दी कि पहले अपने गणित शिक्षक मि. कोच से एक प्रमाण पत्र ले लेना I मि. कोच भी अलबर्ट की इस बात से सहमत थे कि बालक अपना समय म्यूनिख की एक कक्षा में व्यर्थ नष्ट कर रहा है क्योंकि उसकी जानकारी तो उसके शिक्षक से भी बेहतर है I उन्होंने प्रमाण पत्र दे दिया I अल्बर्ट अब उच्च स्तरीय गणित का अध्ययन करने हेतु किसी कॉलेज में जा सकता था I
मुख्याध्यापक ने अलबर्ट को बुला भेजा तथा बोला कि तुम्हारे लिए बेहतर होगा कि स्कूल से निकल जाओ I यह तो एक प्रकार का निष्कासन था I दूसरा विकल्प यह था कि अलबर्ट स्वेच्छापूर्वक स्कूल छोड़कर चला जाए I उन्होंने कहा कि तुम पढ़ना ही नहीं चाहते, और हमेशा विद्रोह करते रहते हो अल्बर्ट बोला मैं तो वैसे ही स्कूल छोड़ कर जाने वाला था I वह ऑफिस से निकला तथा उस स्कूल को त्याग आया जहाँ उसने पाँच दुखदाई वर्ष बिताए थे यूरी ने उसे शुभेच्छाओं के साथ अलविदा बोला I उसे आशा थी अलबर्ट मिलान में खुश रहेगा I
Following is the complete question bank for Albert Einstein at School
Albert Einstein at School Extra Questions and Answers
Short Answer Type Questions (30 to 40 words)
Short Answer Questions
1.What information do you gather about Albert and his pursuit of knowledge?
Ans. Albert was a brilliant boy at school. He was not satisfied with the sort of education provided at the Munich school. He knew a little more Maths than his Maths teacher. He hated to learn the dates of battles by heart. He believed that ideas were much more important than dates. He read books on Geology even though it was not taught at school. He was after ideas and not facts.
2. Why did the History teacher dislike Albert?
Ans. The History teacher, Mr Braun, never liked Albert who said frankly that there was no point in learning dates. He could not tell the year when the French were defeated at Waterloo. Mr Braun called the boy a disgrace and told him to leave school at once.
3. Why did Albert feel like leaving his school in Munich?
Ans. Albert hated the school in Munich, Germany. But he knew the importance of Getting a school diploma for admission in a college in Milan. The teachers at Munich were insensitive to his feelings. The History teacher, Mr Braun was most hostile to him. Albert felt miserable there. He was afraid he would have a nervous breakdown.
4. Who was Mr Koch? What did he think about Albert?
Ans. Mr Koch was Albert’s Maths teacher at the Munich school. He had a very high opinion about the boy’s brilliance. He even admitted that Albert would soon be able to teach him. He gave a glowing letter of reference to Albert that he was good enough to study higher Maths.
5. Who was Yuri? How did he help Albert?
Ans. Yuri was Albert’s friend and the only person who stood by Albert when he was feeling miserable at school and also at his lodging. He helped Albert with his sincere advice. He introduced him to his doctor friend who agreed to give him a medical certificate. He was the only person in Munich whom Albert had seen before he left.
6. In what context and in what sense did Yuri call Albert—The world’s worst liar’?
Ans. Albert felt so miserable in Munich that he wanted to get away from there at any cost. He sought his friend. Yuri’s help to get a medical certificate. He asked Yuri if he had a doctor friend who could certify that he (Alberti was suffering from a nervous breakdown and needed a breakfront school. But Yuri said that Albert looked quite cheerful, and the doctor would guess that he was fine because he was not good even at telling a lie. Yuri called Albert the world’s worst liar and told him to be frank with the doctor.
7. Why did Albert feel nervous when he met the doctor?
Ans. Albert on Yuri’s advice agreed to see Dr Ernst Weil for the certificate. He wished that the doctor should certify that he was likely to suffer a nervous breakdown if he continued going to school. It was just an excuse. So he felt nervous. He did not know what to tell the doctor.
8. What reason did the headmaster give for expelling Albert from school?
Ans. The headteacher charged Albert with creating problems in the class. His presence in the classroom made it impossible for the teacher to teach and for other students to a team, He said that Albert refused to learn and he was always in a rebellious mood. So he must leave school.
9. What was Albert’s theory of education?
Ans. Albert had a brilliant mind. Inc was a genius. He hated to learn the dates of history by heart. He thought that not facts but ideas really mattered. He did not see any point in learning the dates of bathes; instead, it would be more useful to learn as to why these battles were fought.
10. How did Mr Braun chide and curse Einstein?
Ans. Mr Braun was a History teacher in Munich School. He asked Albert in what year the Prussians had defeated Napoleon. Albert honestly said that he did not see any point in learning dates. Mr Braun took him to the task. He said Albert was a disgrace and he should leave school.
11. Albert felt distressed even in his rented lodging. Why?
Ans. Albert was feeling miserable when he returned to his rented room in the locality. of the poor. There was dirt, bad food and noise. But what he hated most was its slum-like atmosphere. His landlady heats up her children and shouted at them every day. And she herself was beaten by her drunk husband every weekend when he came home.
12. How did Albert’s cousin Elsa try to persuade him to go on with his studies at Munich?
Ans. Elsa, Albert’s cousin, tried to bring him round to complete his term for the diploma. She said that he did not have to understand what he was taught. He should just cram the answers for the exams. But Albert was not convinced.
13. What really cheered Albert while he had to stay at Munich much against his will?
Ans. Albert had two hobbies. He read books on Science and enjoyed playing his violin. Again he was asked by his landlady to stop making “that wailing sound” in the house where children were already howling. His Science books and violin cheered him in that otherwise miserable atmosphere.
14. How did Dr Ernst Well treat and oblige Albert?
Ans. Yuri contacted his friend Dr Ernst Weil and explained Albert’s problem to him. The doctor agreed to help Albert. He noted that Albert was close to a nervous breakdown. He handed Albert a medical certificate, certifying that the boy must stay away from school for at least six months.
Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value-based questions-
Long Answer Questions (up to 100 words)
1. How did Albert feel at school and at his lodging in Munich?
Ans. Albert was studying in a German school in Munich. But he felt very cramped and suffocated there. He was intelligent, honest and truthful. He admitted frankly that he did not believe in learning the dates of historical events. In his opinion, ideas mattered much more than facts. He was taunted and scoled by Mr Braun every day. His interest lay chiefly in Maths and Geology. The History teacher reported against him to the Headmaster who threatened to expel him. So he felt miserable there.
Due to lack of money his father had rented a room for Albert in a very poor locality. The atmosphere of slum violence there disturbed him a lot. The landlady objected to his playing the violin and she shouted and beat up her children every day.
2. What was Albert’s philosophy of education? Do you subscribe to his view?
Ans. Albert had a brilliant mind. He studied Geology when hardly any Science was taught at school. He clashed with his History teacher one day. He declared that he did not see any point in learning dates of battles. He explained his theory of education to the class. He said that ideas mattered more than the dates of battles.
Mr Braun called him a disgrace, an ungrateful boy who had better leave school. Albert Einstein’s philosophy of education certainly makes sense. No sensible person can support simply cramming the subjects for passing exams.
3. Bring out the contribution of Yuri, Maths teacher, Mr Koch and Dr Ernst Well in enabling Albert to move off to Milan?
Ans. Albert felt miserable in his school in Munich. Neither the teachers nor the quality of education suited his taste. He wanted to leave Munich and go back to his parents in Milan for higher studies. He felt that he was wasting his time at the Munich school. He sought the help of his only friend Yuri in this regard. Yuri helped him get a medical certificate from his doctor friend Ernst Weil. The doctor recommended that Albert needed a change for six months in view of his likelihood of a nervous breakdown. Equally helpful was Mr Koch, the Maths teacher. He admitted that Albert knew a little more Maths than him, and should join some college for the study of higher Maths. Thus, these three persons accelerated his departure.
4. Yuri was a great help to Albert while in Munich. Comment and Justify.
Ans. Albert Einstein was, so to say, a loner, a boy isolated at school as well as at his lodgings in Munich. The only person who stood by Albert was his friend Yuri. He put his problem before Yuri and sought his help in leaving his school as well as the city. Yuri tried in vain to persuade. Albert to pass the exam for the school diploma. Yuri agreed, at last, to take Albert to Dr Ernst Well to get him a medical certificate. The doctor certified that Albert was close to a nervous breakdown and must stay away from school for six months at least. Yuri also advised Albert to get a testimonial from his Maths teacher. He finally said goodbye and good luck to Albert, before the latter left Munich for Milan.
5. Describe how History teacher and the Headmaster humiliated Albert.
Ans. The History teacher, Mr Braun, was chiefly to blame for driving Albert out of school and then out of Munich. He humiliated Albert in the classroom. He asked the boy in which year the Prussians had defeated the French. Albert told him that he did not see any sense in learning the dates and facts by heart. He explained his theory of education that facts were not so important as ideas and students should try to know the reason behind such wars.
Mr Braun called him a disgrace, an ungrateful boy who ought to be ashamed of himself. He complained against the boy to the head teacher who again treated Albert harshly. He was going to expel the boy for disturbing the class. Albert left the school on his own accord and moved off to Milan, Italy.
6. Bring out some of the distinguished qualities of Albert’s character.
Ans. Albert Einstein had a very bad time in Munich. He was grossly misunderstood by his school teacher. They thought that the boy was a constant nuisance as he refused to learn facts and figures and was rebellious or unruly by nature, so he had better leave school. Albert, in fact, had a brilliant mind and was much ahead of his classmates. He had a keen interest in higher Maths, Science and subjects like Geology. He was sensitive and head-strong but also very honest and straightforward. His tastes were refined. He loved music and played the violin. He was keen to join some college to study higher Maths. He felt miserable at his lodging as well. He hated the slum-like atmosphere and violence there. He wanted to go beyond the textbook and explore his favourite subjects deeply.
Value Based Questions and Answers of Albert Einstein at School
1. The present educational system is by and large out of tune with the times. We need an efficient system of education.
Ans. The present system of education is based entirely on cramming. The students are required to cram facts and figures, historical data and researches done in various fields in the past. They have no creative imagination. If a student shows signs of innovation, he is sidelined and the teachers declare him a rebel. As such the student’s initiative is stifled and he finds himself being suffocated.
Students found having new ideas should be encouraged and if possible they should be given all the help to develop their innovative ideas and give them practical shape. Today, success is measured by suitable answers to some pet questions in the examination. Instead of rote learning, students’ real ability and intelligence should be highlighted and they should be encouraged by their teachers to keep marching on the path of their new ideas. Many students do show extraordinary talent but they become a laughing stock only because the teachers themselves cannot keep pace with them. Special training should be arranged for such students so that they may bring laurels to their institutes and to their parents. Had Albert not left Munich for Milan, he would not have earned recognition and his talent would not have blossomed into full-fledged theories which proved to be a boon for the world.