Kathmandu is well provided by Edumantra including Introduction, Message, Theme, Title, Characters, Summary in English, Summary in Hindi, Word meanings, Complete lesson in Hindi, Extracts, Long answers, Short answers, Very short Answers, MCQs and much more.
Thinking about the Text
1. On the following map mark out the route, which the author thought of but did not take, to Delhi.
2. Find out the possible routes (by rail, road or air) from Kathmandu to New Delhi/Mumbai/ Kolkata/Chennai.
Ans. For self-attempt.
I.Answer these questions in one or two words or in short phrases :
1. Name the two temples the author visited in Kathmandu?
Ans. Pashupatinath temple and Boudhanath Stupa.
2. The writer says, “All this I wash down with Coca-Cola.” What does ‘all this’ refer to?
Ans. All this refers to corn on the cob, and a bar of marzipan.
3. What does Vikram Seth compare to the quills of a porcupine?
Ans. He compares the quills of a porcupine to the flutes tied on the top of the flute seller’s pole.
4. Name five kinds of the flute.
Ans. Five different kinds of the flute are the reed new, the recorder, the Japanese Shakuhachi. the deep Bansuri and the cross flute.
II. Answer each question in a short paragraph.
1. What difference does the author note between the flute seller and the other hawkers?.
Ans. The other hawkers were selling their wares crying loudly. But the flute-seller does not shout out his wares. He was standing in a corner of the square. He was playing upon a flute slowly,meditatively, without excessive display.
2. What is the belief at Pashupatinath about the end of Kaliyug?
Ans. The river Bagmati flows near the Pashupatinath temple. ‘there is a small shrine on the river bank. It is half in the water of the river. The Nepalese believe that when the whole shrine comes out, the goddess of the shrine will appear and end the evil period of Kaliyug on earth.
3. The author has drawn powerful images and pictures. Pick out three examples each of :
(i) the atmosphere of ‘febrile confusion’ outside the temple of Pashupatinath (For some People trying to get priest’s attention are elbowed aside ……..)
(ii) the things he sees
(iii) the sounds he hears
Ans. (i) There is a great rush of worshippers in the temple. Priests, hawkers, devotees, tourists, cows, monkeys and dogs roam through the grounds of the temple. The devotees are in a hurry. So there is an atmosphere of confusion outside the temple of Pashupatinath.
(ii) The author sees the confusion at the Pashupatinath temple. He finds people pushing one another. He sees monkeys fighting with each other. He also sees people dropping flowers and leaves into the Bagmati River.
(iii) The author hears the blaring of film songs. He hears the vendors shouting their wares. He also hears the sweet music of the flute seller.
III. Answer the following questions in not more than 100 or 150 words each.
1. Compare and contrast the atmosphere in and around the Baudhnath shrine with the Pashupatinath temple.
Ans. The author describes two temples of Kathmandu. One is the Pashupatinath temple of the Hindus. The other is the Baudhnath Stupa which is a shrine of the Buddhists. There is a contrast in the atmosphere at these two shrines. At Pashupatinath, the author finds a lot of noise and confusion. The author finds priests, hawkers, devotees, tourists, cows, monkeys, pigeons and dogs roaming there. There is a crowd of devotees and people push one another to make their way to the Lord. Only Hindus are allowed to enter this temple. A group of Westerners struggle for permission to enter. But the policeman at the gate does not allow them to go in. Two monkeys fight each other and one of them runs screaming around the temple. The Bagmati river flows below the temple. People drop flowers and leaves into the river. On the other hand, the atmosphere at the Baudhnath Stupa is calm. The Stupa has a big white dome. The author does not find any crowd there.
2. How does the author describe Kathmandu’s busiest streets?
Ans. The author describes the bazaar of Kathmandu in detail. lie notices everything. The bazaar is full of life. There are fruit sellers, flute sellers, hawkers or postcards and shops selling western cosmetics. He also finds shops selling film rolls, chocolates, copper utensils and Nepalese antiques. There is a lot of noise in the bazaar. The author hears radios loudly playing film songs. There are also sounds of car horns, bicycle bells, lowing by stray cows. Vendors are shouting loudly to sell their wares.
The author wanders in the bazaar aimlessly. He buys a bar of marzipan. He finds a vendor selling corn roasted in a charcoal brazier. He buys a cob of corn. It is rubbed with salt, chilli powder and lemon. He also takes enjoys Coca-Cola and an orange drink. He buys two magazines also. Thus the bazaar of Kathmandu is full of life and vigour.
3.“To hear any flute is to be is drawn into the commonality of all mankind.” Why does the author say that?
Ans. The author says that there are five kinds of flutes. They are the reed new, the recorder, the Japanese Shakuhachi, the deep bansuri and the cross flute. Each flute has its specific fingering and compass. It weaves its own association. The flute is found in each Culture in one form or the other. To hear any flute draws one very close to that culture. The author says that he can be so affected by a few familiar phrases on the bansuri, surprises him at first. Thus the sound of the flute draws a person into the commonality of all mankind.
Thinking about Language
1. Read the following sentences carefully to understand the meaning of the italicised phrases. Then match the phrasal verbs in column A with their meanings in column B.
1. A communal war broke out when the princess was abducted by the neighbouring prince.
2. The cockpit broke off from the plane during the plane crash.
3. The car broke down on the way and we were left stranded in the jungle.
4. The dacoit broke away from the police as they took him to court.
5. The brothers broke up after the death of the father.
6. The thief broke into our house when we were away.
|(i) break out||(a) to come apart due to force|
|(ii) break off||(b) end a relationship|
|(iii) break down||(c) break and enter illegally, unlawful trespassing|
|(iv) breakaway (from someone)||(d) to start suddenly, (usually a fight, a war or/a disease)|
|(v) break up||(e) to escape from someone’s grip|
|(vi) break into||(f) stop working|
|(i) break out||(d) to start suddenly, (usually a fight, a war or/a disease)|
|(ii) break off||(a) to come apart due to force|
|(iii) break down||(f) stop working|
|(iv) breakaway (from someone)||(e) to escape from someone’s grip|
|(v) break up||(b) end a relationship|
|(vi) break into||(c) break and enter illegally, unlawful trespassing|
II.1. Use the suffixes -ion or -lion to form nouns from the following verbs. Make the necessary changes in the spellings of the words.
Example: proclaim — proclamation
cremate _______ act__ _______ exhaust_______
invent ________ tempt _______ immigrate_______
direct_________ meditate _______ imagine_______
dislocate _______ associate_______ dedicate _______
2. Now fill in the blanks with suitable words from the ones that you have formed.
(i) Mass literacy was possible only after the …………….. of the printing machine.
(ii) Ramesh is unable to tackle the…………….. situation as he lacks
(iii) I could not resist the …………….. to open the letter.
(iv) Hard work and………….. are the main keys to success.
(v) The children were almost fainting with…………….. after being made to stand in the sun.
1.cremation action exhaustion
invention temptation immigration
direction meditation imagination
dislocation association dedication
2.(i) Mass literacy was possible only after the invention of the printing machine.
(ii) Ramesh is unable to tackle the situation as he lacks dedication.
(iii) I could resist the temptation to open the letter.
(iv) Hard work and action are the main boys to success.
(v) The children were almost fainting with exhaustion after being made to stand in the sun.
Use capital letters, full stops, question marks, commas and inverted commas wherever necessary in the following paragraph :
an arrogant lion was wandering through the jungle one day he asked the tiger who is stronger than you-you 0 lion replied The tiger who is more fierce than a leopard asked the lion you sir replied the leopard he marched up to an elephant and asked the same question the elephant picked him up in his trunk swung him in the air and threw him down look said the lion there is no need to get mad just because you don’t know the answer.
Ans. An arrogant lion was wandering through the jungle. One day he asked the tiger, “Who is stronger than you?” “You, 0 lions,” replied the tiger. “Who is more fierce than a leopard?” asked the lion. “You, sir,” replied the leopard. He marched up to an elephant and asked the same question. The elephant picked him up in his trunk, swung him in the air and threw him down. “Look!”, said the Lion. “There is no need to get mad just because you don’t know the answer.
IV.Simple Present Tense
Study these sentences from the lesson
- A fight breaks out between two monkeys.
- Film songs blare out from the radios.
- I wash it down with coca-cola.
The italicised verbs are in the simple present tense. The writer is here describing what he saw and heard but he uses the present tense instead of the past tense. A narration or a story can be made more dramatic or immediate by using the present in this way.
Now, look at the following sentences.
- A small shrine half protrudes from the stone platform on the riverbank.
- Small shops stand on the outer edge of the Stupa.
We use the simple present tense to speak about what is usually or generally true. The sentences above describe facts.
We use the simple present tense in sentences depicting ‘universal truths’. For example :
- The sun rises in the East.
- The Earth revolves around the sun.
We can also refer to habitual actions using the simple present tense.
- He usually takes a train instead of a bus to work.
- We often get fine drizzles in winter.
In these sentences words like—everyday, often, seldom, never, every month, generally, usually, etc. may be used.
1. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the verb in brackets.
(i) The heart is a pump that _____ (send) the blood circulating through our body. The pumping action _____ (take place) when the left ventricle of the heart _____ (contract). This (force) the blood out into the arteries, which _____ (expand) to receive the oncoming blood.
Ans. The heart is a pump that sends the blood circulating through our body. The pumping action takes place when the left ventricle of the heart contracts. This forces the blood out into the arteries, which expand to receive the oncoming blood.
(ii) The African lungfish can live without water for up to four years. During a drought it _____ (dig) a pit and_____ (enclose) itself in a capsule of slime and earth, leaving a tiny opening for air. The capsule _____ (dry) and _____ (harden),. but when rain_____ (come), the mud _____ (dissolve) and the lungfish_____ (swim) away.
Ans. The African lungfish can live without water for up to four years. During a drought it digs a pit and encloses itself in a capsule of slime and earth, leaving a tiny opening for air. The capsule dries and hardens, but when the rain comes, the mud dissolves and the lungfish swims away.
(iii) Mahesh : We have to organise a class party for our teacher.
_____ (Do) anyone play an instrument?
Vipul : Rohit _____ (play) the flute.
Mahesh : : _____ (Do) he also act?
Vipul : No, he _____ (compose) music.
Mahesh : That’s wonderful!
Mahesh : We have to organize a class party for our teacher.
Does anyone play an instrument?
Vipul : Rohit plays the flute.
Mahesh : Does he also act?
Vipul : No, he composes music.
Mahesh : That’s wonderful!
1. Discuss in class the shrines you have visited or know about. Speak about one of them.
2. Imagine you are giving an eyewitness account or a running commentary of one of the following:
(i) a foot-hall, cricket or hockey or some sports event.
(ii) a parade (e.g. Republic day) or other national events.
Speak a few sentences narrating what you see and hear. Use the simple present and the present continuous tenses. For example :
- He passes the ball but Ben gets in the way ………..
- These brave soldiers guard our frontiers. They display their skills here ………..
Ans. 1. Last year I had a chance to visit the holy shrine of Vaishno Devi Mata. I went there with my parents. We reached Katra by bus. From Katra to holy shrine of Mata Vaishno Devi we went on foot. The path to the shrine was very tiring but the devotees were full of enthusiasm and they were shouting slogan `Jai Mata Di’ loudly. When we reached the holy shrine, I found that there was an atmosphere of divine beauty and calmness. Everything was in proper order. They are around the shrine. Shrine was crowded but everybody fell far away from this materialistic world. We went inside the holy shrine, offered our prayer and found ourselves blessed by Mata Vaishno Devi. We were very happy and were considering ourselves very lucky to have that chance in our life.
2. Running commentary on the cricket match.
(a) Sehwag prepares himself to face the first ball of the match.
(b) Sohaib Akhtar is ready to bowl.
(c) He starts from the Pavillion End and bowls a full toss ball.
(d) Sehwag hits the ball hard and it crosses the boundary line.
(e) Empire Billy Bowden signals four in a very special way. It makes all the viewers break into laughter.
Running commentary on Republic Day parade.
(a) Today India is celebrating the 59th anniversary of her Independence.
(b)This day makes all the Indians full of pride.
(c) Our soldiers are standing in the parade ground to salute the National Flag.
(d) These soldiers guard our frontiers.
(e) They display their skills here, how they perform their duties on the snowy lands and deserts.
(f) These soldiers salute the National Flag and the nation is saluting them.
Dairy entry for a travelogue
1. The text you read is a travelogue where the author Vikram Seth’ talks about his visit to two sacred places in Kathmandu.
Imagine that you were with Vikram Seth on his visit to Pashupatinath temple, and you were noting down all that you saw and did there so that you could write a travelogue later.
Record in point form
- what you see when you reach the Pashupatinath temple
- what you see happening inside the temple
- what you do when inside the temple
- what you see outside the temple
- what your impressions are about the place
Ans. When I reached the Pashupatinath temple in Kathmandu, I noticed that there was a big crowd at the entry gate of the temple. The security guards were letting only the Hindus go inside the temple. f had to stand in a queue to go inside the temple. When I reached the holy image of Lord Pashupatinath. I offered my prayers. I found myself blessed. I realized the flow of a divine strength in myself. When I came out of the temple I was surrounded by various beggars to give them ‘Prashad’ and other treats. I was very much impressed by the atmosphere at the Pashupatinath temple. I always desire to visit that temple again and again.
II. Here is your diary entry when you visited Agra. Read the points and try to write a travelogue describing your visit to Agra and the Taj Mahal. You may add more details.
January 2003 – rise before dawn – take the Shatabdi Express at 6.15 am from Delhi – meet a newly married couple on the train – talk about Himachal Pradesh-get off the train – enter the once grand city Agra -twisted alleys-traffic dense-rickshaws, cars, people – vendors selling religious artefacts, plastic toys. spices and sweets – go to the Taj Mahal – constructed entirely of white limestone – magical quality — colour changes with varying of light and shadow – marble with gemstones inside – the reflection of the Taj Mahal in the pond -school-children, tourists – tourist guides following people.
Ans. It was 2nd January 2003. I myself and two of my friend Rakesh and Rajnish decided to visit Agra and see the Taj Mahal. I rose at 4 o’clock. I took my bath and got ready. My bag was already packed. I reached Delhi railway station. I took the Shatabdi Express at 6.15 a.m. In the train, I met a newly married couple. From their talking and dress, it was clear that they were from Himachal Pradesh. At 8 a.m. the train reached the populated city. There was a dense traffic on the road. I took a taxi to the Taj Mahal. After taking breakfast in a restaurant in the Taj Mahal market, I bought a ticket and entered the Taj Mahal premises through a huge gate. I was stunned to see the white beauty of the Taj Mahal. It is made of white marble with beautiful decorations on its walls. I saw the tombs of Shahjahan and Mumtaj Mahal made side by side in the main tomb of the Taj. These graves are very beautiful. There was a great rush of school and college students, who had come to see the Tej with their teachers. There were a lot of foreign tourists. People were enjoying having photographs with the foreign tourists. I had also got my snaps with a group of Spanish tourists. It was an exciting visit for me.