Poem-1 My Mother at Sixty-Six- Extra Questions and Notes

By | November 22, 2018

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 12th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 1 English Language and Literature

           Lesson Name- My Mother at Sixty-Six

                                                                                                       By- Kamala Das

 

About the Author                                               

Kamala Das – A Short Biography

About The Poet

Kamala Surayya (born Kamala) (1934-2009), also known by her one-time pen name Madhavikutty and Kamala Das, was an Indian English poet and litterateur besides being a leading Malayalam author from Kerala, India. Her popularity in Kerala is based chiefly on her short stories and autobiography, while her literature in English, written under the name Kamala Das, is noted for the poems and explicit autobiography. She was also a widely read columnist and wrote on diverse topics including women’s issues, child care and politics among others.

Theme / Central Idea of the Lesson. Analysis of My Mother at Sixty-Six

Theme

My Mother at Sixty Six’ captures the fear of the narrator of losing her mother due to declining health and loss of energy which accompanies old age. The poet accepts this reality and is disturbed by her mother’s need for her on one hand and her own duties and responsibilities on the other hand. This helplessness is poignantly brought out in this poem. The emotions experienced by the poet are essentially universal in nature. The fear of losing a loved one is a theme the reader can identify with. Form This poem is in the form of a narrative of fourteen lines written as a single sentence. This is called enjambment. The poem is written in a single sentence punctuated by commas. This highlights the stream of consciousness effect where one thought leads to another.

Theme (2)

My Mother at Sixty-six is based on the theme of advancing age and the fear of loss and separation associated with it. The poetess undergoes a plethora of emotions when she sees her mother ageing, and feels the pangs of separation at the thought of losing her. She must be feeling guilty of not being able to stay with her mother in her old age. She also wishes for the lost beauty and youth of her mother. The poem is written in a single sentence which indicates the single thread of thought, i.e. the loss of beauty and charm and approaching death and decay.

Significance of the Title – My Mother at Sixty-Six

Appropriateness of the Title

The title is apt as the poem is about the narrator’s realisation that time has flown by and old age has crept up on her mother. The poem revolves around the theme of advancing age, the fear associated with it, and loss and separation.

Message

Ageing is a natural process and it will affect each one of us. The complexity of life is that children are perturbed by the condition of their parents and wish to be with them. However, they have to leave their parents behind and move on with their commitments. The question arises how to strike a balance between looking after the ageing parents and attending to our duties and responsibilities.

Poetic Devices

  • The imagery used in the poem is suggestive of both death and youth. The image of `young trees and merry children’ are a contrast to the mother.
  • The poetic devices used are simile, metaphor, repetition and personification:

Simile — face ashen like a corpse, as a late winter’s moon.

Personification — trees sprinting

Repetition — smile and smile and smile

Metaphor — children spilling

Poetic Devices

Simile

  1. Her face ashen like that of a corpse: poet sees mother dozing off with her mouth open, almost like a corpse — it seems to have lost all vitality — the grey colour of ash is usually associated with a dead body – triggers the pain of losing her mother who is close to death.
  2. Wan, pale as a lath winter moon: reinforces the idea that the mother’s face was pale and lifeless like that of a fading winter moon. Winter is symbolic of the last cycle of the season — hence waning moon-mother’s frail health misted by age is indicative of imminent death.

 Poet resorts to escapism to avoid the harsh realities that stare her in the face-dispels the horrifying thoughts by diverting her attention to the images of the young trees and merry children.

 Imagery

Merry children spilling out of their homes: youthful and exuberant, spring of life-contrast to the morbid atmosphere inside the car – the old mother weak, frail, inactive.

Personification

 Young trees sprinting – the sprinting movement of the trees rushing past signify youth, life or passage of time. The mother – travelling in the car-lifeless, helpless decayed by age. Her instinctive awareness leads to the familiar ache-painful realization of helplessness (cannot share her fears with her mother-fear stemmed out of unknown-didn’t want to worry her)-fear of separation-that childhood fear-inherent in all children-of losing one’s loved ones-fear of death.

RePetition

 Smile and smile and smile: emphasis on the fact that she made a desperate effort to cover UP her guilt, anxiety and agonizing thought of her mother’s impending death by putting up a smile to bid her a cheerful adieu.

CHAPTER   NUTSHELL

  • Genre: Poetry (Through Narration)

 The universality of the Theme

The theme of inescapable decay, a presentiment of emotional susceptibility leading to terrible fear of death, separation-isolation. The daughter’s feelings and concern are portrayed in a sensitive manner. One of the many childhood fears that distressed her was the fear of her mother’s death.

Stanza 1

 Poem enumerates:

  1. pain and anguish felt by the poet.
  2. on seeing her ageing mother sitting in the car.
  3. on her way — airport.
  4. dozing — mouth open — visage pale, ashen, lifeless like that of a corpse
  5. dismay — insecurity — triggered childhood fear.

stanza 2

 Escapism-looks outside-car-to-put—dreadful thought away-

  1. contrast between her mother’s weakness and frailty.
  2. blossoming life-exuberance-young trees sprinting-racing past-grim reminder of lapse of time.
  3. Children sprinting-new hope-happiness-youth-poet drifted back to-days of idyllic youth when the mother — young-energetic.
  4. now a grim reminder of lost youth-twilight-inching towards death.

stanza 3

 After security check-standing few yards away

  1. looks – mother’s face.
  2. wan like winter moon – resembles foggy — misty – end of the cycle.
  3. feels a twitch in heart-old familiar ache-childhood fear seizes her.
  4. fear of loss & separation.
  5. beset with the sorrow-insecurity-agonizing thought of mother’s impending death.
  6. bids goodbye-hides fear by smiling-telling ‘see you soon Amma’.
  7. hiding her own grief she smiled and smiled and smiled-assurance.

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in EnglishMy Mother at Sixty-Six/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson My Mother at Sixty-Six

Summary

‘My Mother at Sixty Six’ captures the fear of the narrator of losing her mother due to declining health and loss of energy which accompanies old age. The narrator accepts this reality and is disturbed by her mother’s need for her on the one hand and her own duties and responsibilities on the other hand. This helplessness is poignantly brought out in this poem. The treatment is different as it emphasizes the subtlety of a mother-daughter relationship. The tone is reflective and the mood is one of resignation and acceptance.

In the poem, the narrator is driving to the airport. The mother is with her. She realizes that her mother is old when the latter dozes off. The mother is pale and looks like a corpse. When the mother wakes up she says nothing and the narrator is pained on having to leave her frail and old mother behind.

Kamala Das has beautifully balanced the contrast between old age and childhood or youth in the poem. Old age is shown as an ashen face, a corpse. This is contrasted with words and ideas expressing vitality, energy and movement. For example, ‘Trees sprinting’ and `children spilling out’. Old age is like a winter’s moon and the mother is pale and wan. The narrator is pained yet with a smile says ‘see you soon’. The separation is not merely of a daughter leaving, but there is pain and a fear of death, a permanent separation, yet the narrator must leave — probably to fulfil her commitments.

The poem ends with a tone of resignation. The narrator accepts reality. She smiles as she parts from her mother. The repetition of the word smile reiterates the facade the daughter puts up for the sake of the mother — the brave act, the cheerful parting — the resignation and finally the acceptance that as she goes away she may never see her mother alive again.

Summary (2)

The poetess, Kamala Das, is on her way to the airport at Cochin, accompanied by her old mother. Suddenly, she realises that her mother has grown old. Her face appears ashen like that of a corpse. This thought disturbs her as it makes her realise the fact of her mother’s approaching death. As a daughter, the very thought of losing her mother disturbs her and in order to drive away her worrying thoughts, she starts looking out at the trees which appear to be sprinting as she drives a car. She also sees young children rushing out of their homes to play outside. This reminds her of youth and beauty. On the contrary, her mother is ageing. She has become old and is moving towards death. This fills her with a feeling of insecurity. In contrast to the young children and green trees, the mother has lost her youth and charm and has become pale like the winter’s moon.

The poetess feels the same old pain and fear of her childhood as she bids goodbye to her mother at the airport but she hides all such emotions with a smile which consoles her mother that she would return soon. so, ever when the poetess herself is full of fear of old age, her smile gives her mother the hope of survival,

Following is the complete question bank for – My Mother at Sixty-Six

My Mother at Sixty-Six Extra Questions and Answers

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS (MCQ — TEST)                                    (1 Mark Each)

  1. Kamala Das was an

(a) Bengali      (b) Punjabi

(c) Keralite      (d) Gujarati

  1. The poet was leaving the house of

(a) her parents            (b) her aunt

(c) her in-laws             (d) her nephew

  1. She was going to

(a) Goa                        (b) Mumbai 

(c) Cochin                    (d) Kolkata

  1. The poet was driving towards the

 (a) railway station      (b) bus-stand 

(c) airport                    (d) metro station

  1. The person in the car, beside the poetess, was,

(a) her aunt                 (b) her niece

(c) her uncle                (d) her mother

  1. The mother of the poetess was

 (a) smiling                  (b) laughing

(c) crying                     (d) dozing off

  1. The poetess says her mother looked pale like a

 (a) corpse                   (b) ghost

(c) malnourished child (d) anaemic person

  1. Kamala Das realized that her mother was very

(a) young                     (b) energetic

(c) old                          (d) ill

  1. She soon put that thought out of her mind and

(a) smiled                    (b) laughed heartily

(c) cried bitterly          (d) looked out of the window

  1. Out of the car window she saw

 (a) cows and buffaloes           (b) pigs and goats

(c) trees sprinting                   (d) people digging

  1. ‘Trees sprinting’ is a poetic device. It is

 (a) personification                 (b) alliteration

(c) repetition                           (d) simile

  1. The narrator also saw children running out of

 (a) their homes                      (b) schools

(c) parks                                  (d) football ground

  1. ‘Children spilling out’ is an

(a) simile                                 (b) metaphor

(c) personification                   (d) transferred epithet

  1. The narrator looked at her mother again after

 (a) the security check            (b) the green signal

(c) after they left the car parking       (d) after the luggage check-in

  1. The narrator again compared her mother too

(a) summer’s sun                    (b) rain clouds

(c) late winter’s moon            (d) trees and plants

  1. Winter’s moon’ is a reference to the mother’s

 (a) old age                              (b) illness

(c) colour of skin                     (d) young age

  1. When the narrator looked at her mother again she felt a pang of

(a) her familiar ache              (b) guilt

(c) heartache                          (d) a headache

  1. The childhood fear was the fear of

 (a) separation from mother (b) exams

(c) medical check-up              (d) dental treatment

  1. She said to her mother

(a) goodbye                             (b) au revoir

(c) good morning go.              (d) see you soon, Amma

  1. 20. What was the expression on the narrator’s face?

(a) smiling face                       (b) angry look

(c) sarcastic expression          (d) frowning face

  1. Smile and smile and smile is

 (a) alliteration                        (b) repetition

(c) simile                                 (d) metaphor

  1. The mood in the last two lines is that of

(a) regret                                (b) guilt

(c) acceptance of reality         (d) anger

  1. The narrator is only using her smile to

 (a) cover up her pain                         (b) make herself happy

(c) to make her mother happy (d) to make her father happy

  1. Kamala Das has successfully drawn comparisons between the

 (a) children and her mother (b) father and mother

 (c) uncle and aunt                  (d) nephew and niece

  1. The image of merry children has been brought out by the narrator in order to

(a) show energy and exuberance of young children

(b) to show the children playing

(c) to show the children playing pranks

 (d) to compare with herself

  1. ‘Trees sprinting’ and ‘merry children spilling’ is an attempt by the poet to create

 (a) suspense               (b) laughter                

(c) visual imagery       (d) chaos

  1. The poem is made up of

 (a) twenty lines          (b) a single sentence

(c) ten stanzas             (d) five stanzas

  1. The theme of the poem is

(a) separation from friends                            (b) separation from relatives

 (c) fear of separation from the mother        (d) love and hatred

  1. The mother’s old age and lack of energy is a depiction of

(a) the poet’s helplessness in old age

(b) joy and fun of old age

(c) bonding of mother with family members

(d) sickness and ill-health

  1. ‘Sprinting’ means

 (a) short fast race                  (b) rowing a boat

(c) playing tricks                     (d) running around trees

ANSWERS

1.(c) Keralite                                                       

2.(a) her parents

3.(c) Cochin

4.(c) airport

5.(d) her mother

6. (d) dozing off

7.(a) corpse

8. (c) old

9.(d) looked out of the window

10. (c) trees sprinting

11.(a) personification                                    

12. (a) their homes

13.(b) metaphor

14. (a) the security check

15.(c) late winter’s moon                          

16. (a) old age

17.(a) her familiar ache                           

18. (a) separation from mother

19.(d) See you soon, Amma                          

20. (a) smiling face

21.(b) Repetition                                                

22. (c) acceptance of reality

23.(a) cover up her pain

24. (a) children and her mother

25.(a) show energy and exuberance of young children

26. (c) visual imagery

27. (b) a single sentence                         

28. (c) fear of separation from mother

29. (a) the poet’s helplessness in old age

30. (a) short, fast race

 Read the extracts and answer the questions that follow.

1.

Driving from my parent’s

home to Cochin last Friday

morning, I saw my mother,

beside me,

doze, open-mouthed, her face

ashen like that

of a corpse and realized with pain

that she was as old as she looked but soon

put that thought away…

(a)Where was the narrator driving to? Who was sitting beside her?

Ans. The narrator was driving to the airport on her way to Cochin. Her mother was sitting next to her.

(b) What did the narrator notice about her mother?

Ans. The narrator noticed that her mother had dozed off and she was looking old, pale and weak.

(c) Why did her mother’s face look like that of a corpse?

 Ans. The mother looked old, pale and ashen. Since she had dozed off, with her mouth open, the narrator felt she looked like a corpse in that condition.

(d) Find words from the passage which mean (i) Sleep lightly (ii) Dead body

 Ans.(i) Dozed; (ii) Corpse

2.

looked but soon

put that thought away, and

looked out at young

trees sprinting, the merry children spilling

out of their homes

(a)What did the narrator realize? How did she feel?

Ans. The narrator realized that her mother had grown old and would not be around for very long. This thought pained her.

(b) What did she do then?

 Ans. She started looking out of the car window in order to divert her attention to something else.

(c) What did she see outside?

Ans. She saw young trees moving fast as if they were sprinting and also saw young children happily running out of their homes to play.

(d) Find words from the passage which mean (i) Running fast (ii) Happy

Ans.(i) Sprinting; (ii) Merry

3.

but after the airport’s

security check, standing a few yards

away, I looked again at her, wan,

pale

as a late winter’s moon

(a)Name the poem and the poet.

 Ans. The poem is ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’ and the poet is `Kamala Das’.

 (b) What did the narrator do after the security check?

Ans. The narrator stood a few yards away and looked at her mother’s face again.

(c) Why did the narrator compare her mother’s face to a late winter’s moon?

 Ans. The narrator’s mother is old, frail and very pale like the moon in late winter. Hence, the comparison.

 (d) Find words from the extract which mean the same as (i) Colourless (ii) Faded yellowish

Ans. (i) Pale; (ii) Wan

4.

 ….as a late winter’s moon and felt

that old

familiar ache, my childhood’s fear,

(a)What has been compared to a late winter’s moon?

Ans. The narrator’s ageing mother has been compared to the late winter’s moon.

 (b) Why has the comparison been made?

Ans. The narrator’s mother looked old, frail and very pale like the moon in late winter. Hence, the comparison.

(e) Identify the poetic device in the lines.

Ans. The poetic device used in the line ‘as a late winter’s moon’ is a simile.

 (d) What is the ‘familiar ache’ mentioned in these lines?

Ans. It refers to the narrator’s childhood fear of losing her parent or fear of separation from her. 5. but all I said was, see you soon, Amma, all I did was smile and smile and smile…’

(a)Why did the narrator say ‘see you soon, Amma’?

Ans. The narrator said this to reassure her mother and herself that she would see her soon. After the pain of realizing that her mother had grown old, there is a mood of acceptance of reality.

(b) Why did the narrator smile and smile?

Ans. The narrator tries to put up a brave in front of her mother in order to hide her true feelings of pain at seeing the old and weak condition of her mother.

(c) ‘Smile and smile and smile’ is a poetic device. Identify it.

Ans. It is repetition and has been used to emphasize the narrator’s acceptance of the fact that her mother had aged and wouldn’t be around much longer.

 (d) Anima is the fond way of addressing someone. Who is being addressed here?

 Ans. The narrator’s mother is being addressed as ‘Amma’.

5.old                                                                                                                                                         

familiar ache, my childhood’s fear,

but all I said was, see you soon,

Amma,

all I did was smile and smile and

smile

 (a) What does the phrase, ‘familiar ache’ mean?

 (b) What was the poet’s childhood fear?

 (c) What do the first two lines tell us about the poet’s feelings for her mother?

 (d) What does the repeated use of the word, ‘smile’ mean?

Ans. (a) The phrase ‘familiar ache’ here means a persistent painful thought which has been nagging about her frail old mother.

 (b) The poet’s childhood fear was of losing her old and ageing mother one day.

 (c) The first two lines tell us that the poet agonizes at the thought of her mother growing old and she is trying to sound hopeful while bidding farewell to her mother.

(d) The repeated use of ‘smile’ indicates that she ran short of words, became emotional and was trying to make an effort to hide her pain behind that smile.

6. ————-I saw my mother,

beside me,

doze, open-mouthed, her face ashen like

that

of a corpse and realised with

pain

(a) Who is ‘I’?

(b) What did ‘I’ realise with pain?

(c) Why was the realisation painful?

(d) Identify and name the figure of speech used in these lines.

Ans. (a) Here ‘ l’ is the poet.

(b) ‘I’, i.e. the poet realised with pain her ageing mother’s failing health and noticed her corps till pale face.

(c) The realization was painful as she felt that her mother might not live long.

(d) The figure of speech is simile ‘ashen like that of a corpse’.

7.Driving from my parent’s

home to Cochin last Friday

morning, I saw my mother,

beside me,

doze, open-mouthed, her face

ashen like that

of a corpse and realised with

pain

 (a) When and where was the poetess driving to?

(b) Who was sitting beside her? What did the poetess notice about her?

(c) What does the poetess compare her mother’s face with and why?

(d) Name the poem and the poetess.

Ans. (a) The poetess was driving from her parents home to the airport at Cochin on a Friday morning.

(b) The mother of the poetess was sitting beside her. She noticed that her mother was dozing with her mouth open. Then she realised that her mother had grown old.

(c) The poetess compares her mother’s face with a corpse, i.e. a dead body because her face has lost the charm. It is pale, faded and lifeless.

(d) The poem is ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’ and is written by Kamala Das.

8. …that she was as old as she

looked but soon

put that thought away, and

looked out at Young

Trees sprinting, the messy children spilling

out of their homes,

(a) What did the poetess realise? How did she feel?

 (b) What did the poetess do then?

 (c) What did the poetess notice outside?

 (d) Explain: “the merry children spilling out of their homes”.

(e) What do young sprinting trees signify?

(f) Which thoughts did the poetess put away?

 Ans. (a) The poetess realised that her mother was old now. Her corpse-like ashen face made the poet accept the fact that her mother was approaching her death. This realisation frightened the poetess. She felt restless and disturbed.

 (b) The poetess tried to change the thought of her mind and distract herself from the thoughts about her ageing mother and so started looking out of the window.

 (c) The poetess noticed young children playing outside. The young trees seemed moving rapidly in the opposite direction of the moving car. These represent energy and youth in contrast to the thought of old age and death.

(d) This refers to the image of young children rushing out of their homes to play. These children are young, full of energy and happy. They are in direct contrast to the ageing mother.

 (e) The young sprinting trees signify the active, cheerful, bright and energetic youth.

 (f) The poet put away the thoughts of her mother who was getting old and the fear of losing her one day.

9. I looked again at her, wan,

Pale

as a late winter’s moon and felt that

old

familiar ache, my childhood’s fear.

(a) Who do ‘I’ and ‘her’ refer to? How does ‘her face appear?

(b) What does the ‘familiar ache’ refer to?

(c) Name and explain the poetic device used in the second line.

 Ans. (a) ‘I’ refers to the poet, Kamala Das, and ‘her’ refers to her mother. Her mother was very old a her face appeared withered and pale.

(b) The ‘familiar ache’ refers to the poet’s childhood pain and fear of being separated from her mother. Her mother’s old pale face made the poetess realise the fact of her eventual death.

(c) A simile has been used in the second line. Mother’s old pale face has been compared with pate late winter’s moon to emphasise her withered face and gradual ageing.

10….. and felt that

Old

familiar ache, my childhood’s fear

but all I said was, see you soon,

Amma,

all I did was smile and smile and smile…

 (a) What do the of the poetess parting words of the poetess suggest?

 (b) Why did she ‘smile and smile’?

 (c) Why did the poetess suppress her pain in the presence of her mother at the airport?

Ans. (a) The parting words suggest the optimism of the poetess. They console the mother that she would return soon and give her a hope of survival.

 (b) The poet smiled and smiled to conceal her fear and pain of separation from her mother. Again the smile was to give an assurance of survival to the mother.

 (c) The poetess didn’t want to increase the pain and agony of her mother, who must be feeling sad while parting from her daughter. So she didn’t show her pain at the time of departure of her mother.

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS                                                    

1. What is the kind of pain and ache that the narrator feels?

Ans. The emotional pain and ache that the narrator feels is the realization that her mother has grown old and is frail and pale like a corpse.

2. Why are the young trees described as sprinting?

Ans. The young trees are personified in the poem. They seem to be running in the opposite direction when seen through the window of the moving car. The movement is juxtaposed with the expression on the mother’s face i.e. ashen like a corpse.

3. Why has the narrator brought in the image of the merry children ‘spilling out of their homes’?

Ans. The narrator highlights the helplessness and frailty of old age with the help of contrasts. The listless mother dozes off open-mouthed, whereas the children spill out of their homes signifying movement and energy, which the old people are bereft of. The image of the children spilling out of their homes and trees sprinting provides a contrast to the lack of vitality in the mother.

4. Why has the mother been compared to ‘late winter’s moon’?

 Ans. The mother has been compared to the late winter’s moon which is dull and shrouded. It symbolizes the ebbing away of life. The moon brings to the narrator’s mind, the night or the approaching end of life.

5. What do the parting words of the narrator and her smile signify?

Ans. The parting words ‘see you soon Amma’ are used by the narrator to reassure the mother and to infuse optimism in the narrator herself. She accepts the reality of her mother’s approaching death, yet keeps up the facade of a smiling, happy face in order to put up a brave front. It requires a lot of effort and hence the poet has used the poetic device of repetition to emphasize this.

6. What childhood fears do you think the narrator is referring to in the poem ‘My Mother at Sixty Six’?

Ans. The narrator refers to the fears a child has of losing a parent or getting lost somewhere and thus getting separated from them or even one’s own process of ageing. The narrator felt this kind of fear while looking at her mother’s aged and pale face. She was afraid that she might never see her alive again.

7. What does the narrator mean by ‘all I did was smile and smile and smile…’?

Ans. The narrator realizes the pain and aches she would feel at separating from her mother. It was her childhood fear that she was experiencing once again. She was trying to hide her true emotions from herself and her mother by smiling and smiling.

8. What does the narrator’s mother look like? What kind of images has been used to signify her ageing?

Ans. The narrator’s mother is sixty-six years old, looks pale like a corpse. The imagery of death has been created by this comparison.

9. What were the activities that the narrator saw outside the car window?

Ans. The narrator saw young trees speeding past which seemed as if they were sprinting or running fast. Happy, enthusiastic and energetic children could be seen running out of their homes. They present an image of youth and energy in comparison to the lack of energy of the narrator’s mother.

10. Why does the narrator look outside? What does she perceive?

Ans. The very thought of separation from her mother upsets and depresses the narrator. She experiences the fear that she may never meet her mother again. In order to drive away such negative thoughts, she looks out of the window and her mind gets diverted when she sees trees moving rapidly and children playing merrily.

11. What does the narrator do after the security check-up? What does she notice?

Ans. Immediately after the security check-up at the airport, and standing a few yards away from her mother, the narrator observes her mother once again and compares her to the pale, colourless winter’s moon, marking the last phase of her life, i.e., her old age. She is pained to see her in such a condition and the fear of separation returns in her, once again.

12. What is the narrator’s familiar ache and why does it return?

Ans. The narrator is pained to see her mother old and pale. This arouses the ‘familiar ache’ in her heart which she used to experience in her childhood.

13. Why does the narrator smile and what does she say while bidding goodbye to her mother?

Ans. The narrator smiles in order to put up a brave front so that her mother does not observe her pained and frightened look. She smiles in order to reassure her mother and says that she would see her again soon.

14. What poetic devices has the poet used in ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’?

Ans. The poem is rich in imagery. Devices of comparisons and contrasts are also used by the poet to draw out the difference between youth and old age. She describes the mother’s face using similes ‘ashen like a corpse’, and ‘late winter’s moon’. The merry children playing happily are contrasted with the old, weak and pale mother.

15. What kind of pain does Kamala Das feel in ‘My Mother at Sixty Six’? [Delhi 2017]

 Ans. The pain that Kamala Das feels is the pain of separation from her mother by death. She had also felt it in her childhood.

16. Why are the youngsters described as springing? (My Mother at Sixty-six) [Delhi 2017]

Ans. The poetess is in the car on her way home to the Cochin airport. She looks outside some young children were running and playing. The poetess seems to contrasts her ageing mother with the youngsters’ full of life.

17. Why does Kamala Das compare her mother to ‘a pale winter’s moon’? [Delhi 2017]

 Ans. The late winter’s moon is calm and hazy with a dim lustre; it loses its vitality and power. So the poetess compares her mother’s calm, colourless and withered face to the late winter’s moon. She has become weak and was due to her age of sixty-six.

18. Having looked at her mother, why does Kamala Das look at the young children? [All India 2017]

Ans. While driving her car, the mother was sitting with her. She was dozing with mouth open. Her face was pale and ashen. She looked like a corpse. She was deeply depressed and pain started troubling her mind. In order to put these troubled thoughts away, she looked at the outside world which was full of life, activity and energy. This distraction made her feel happy.

19. What was Kamala Das’s childhood fear? [All India 2017]

 Ans. After seeing her mother at sixty-six in a pale like a corpse face, her childhood fear of separation from her mother returns. She is deeply pained lest she should not find her mother alive after her return. These thoughts are painful and distressing to her.

20. In the last line of the poem, ‘My Mother at Sixty-six’, why does the poet use the word ‘smile’ repeatedly? [All India 2017]

Ans. In the last line, the poet repeats the word ‘smile’. This repetition brings out the poet’s need to hide her pain from the mother and even herself and to pretend that all was well and they would meet again. The smile heightens the contrast between her inner pain and outward behaviour.

21. How does Kamala Das try to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother?

Ans. In order to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother, the poetess started looking out of the window of the car at young trees sprinting, the merry children spilling out of their homes.

22. What is the kind of pain and ache that the poet feels?

 Ans. Whenever the poet looks at the colourless and pale face of her mother, her old familiar pain realising that her mother was ageing and would die soon.

23. Why are the young trees described as ‘sprinting’?[Delhi 2010]

Ans. The young trees are described as “sprinting” because when we look at them from a moving car, they seem to be running fast in the opposite direction.

24. Why has the poet brought in the image of the merry children ‘spilling out of these home’? [Textual)

Ans. The image of the merry children ‘spilling out of their home’ is to suggest the idea of youth and beauty in contrast to the ashen-like pale wan face of her ageing mother. This image emphasises the fact that the old mother has lost the vitality, energy, charm, beauty and youth.

25. Why has the mother been compared to the late winter’s moon?

Ans. The mother has been compared to the late winter’s moon as she is very old and her face is ashen, pale and withered. She looks very dull and lifeless like the late winter’s moon.

26. What do the parting words of the poet and her smile signify?

Ans. The parting words express the poet’s optimism. These words console the mother that she would soon visit her again. She smiles to conceal her fear and pain of separation from her mother and gives her ageing mother an assurance of survival.

27. What was Kamala Das fear as a child? Why do they surface when she is going to the airport?

Ans. As a child, the poet always had a fear of getting separated from her mother. There was a sense of insecurity and fear of losing her mother. The childhood fear reappeared when, while going to the airport, she looked at the pale and withered face of her mother and realised that her mother was ageing and she might lose her soon.

28. What were the poet’s feelings at the airport? How did she hide them?

Ans. The poet was full of pain and fear of being separated from her ageing mother. The fear of losing her mother gripped her. But she bade her mother goodbye with a smile to give her hope of survival and meeting again.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each

Answer the following questions                                                    

 Q1. In today’s fast life, children neglect their ageing parents. What do you think children can do to have an involved and inclusive relationship with their elderly parents?

 Ans. Children are caught up in their own world of stress and ambition. They sometimes ignore their parents. However, if they live in the same city, they should take out some time for them. If they are in another city, the children must ring them up regularly.

Birthdays and festivals are a good time to spend with their elderly parents and make them feel wanted. If children accompany their parents for the medical check-up, the parents will feel reassured. Last but not least, children must let them know how much they are loved. This is the best gift children and grandchildren can endow to the elderly parents.

 Q2. The poem, ‘My Mother At Sixty Six’, brings home the theme that ageing is a natural process and is going to envelop one and all. Comment.

 Ans. The narrator sees her mother dozing looking pale as a corpse. The mother’s pale face arouses the narrator’s childhood fears of losing her mother but she cannot stay on. She accepts her mother’s ageing as a natural process. She hides her pain and guilt under a smile. The narrator delves on the complexities of life in which we have to strike a balance and sometimes part with our dear ones as we have other commitments.

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