Julius Caesar- Extract Based Questions with Answers

By | March 4, 2018

 (Reference to Context)

Read the extracts given below and answer the questions that follow:

  1. CAESAR ‘Cowards die many times before their deaths;

                        The valiant never taste of death but once.

                        Of all the wonders that I yet have heard.

                        It seems to me most strange that men should fear;           

                        Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.’

(a)  Whom is Caesar speaking to? Why does he say these words?

Answer- Caesar is speaking to Calpurnia. He says these words because she wants him to stay at home as she feels his life is in danger.

(b) What fears has the listener expressed?

Answer-Calpurnia, who is the listener, has expressed fear that Caesar’s death is imminent.

(c) What is the basis for the fears expressed?

Answer- The basis for the fears expressed is Calpurnia’s dreams containing unusual sights seen the previous night.

(d) How do cowards die and why?

Answer- Cowards die many times before their deaths because they are always obsessed with death.

(e) How does the valiant taste death?

Answer- The valiant never tastes death but only once in life.

(f) What is the antonym of ‘brave’ in the passage?

Answer- coward

 

  1. ‘But here’s a parchment with the seal of Caesar;

I found it in his closet, ’tis his will:                                                                                       Let but the commons hear this testament—                                                                   Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read—                                                                      And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds’

(a)Who speaks these words? Where is the speaker at this moment?

Answer-Mark Antony spoke these words. He is in a pulpit in Rome speaking at Caesar’s funeral.

(b) What are the contents of Caesar’s will that he is referring to?

Answer-Mark Antony is referring to the section where Caesar had left to every Roman citizen seventy-five drachmas. Moreover, he willed all his walks, his private gardens and newly planted orchards on the banks of the Tiber to the Romans for their pleasure so that they may walk there and enjoy themselves.

(c) Why does the speaker read Caesar’s will to the citizens?

Answer-The speaker read Caesar’s will to the citizens to appeal to their greed and sway them.

(d) What is the reaction of the listeners to the reading of the will?

Answer- As desired by Antony, the listeners turn against  the conspirators after the reading of the will.

 

3 –     A lioness hath whelped in the streets;

And graves have yawn’d, and yielded up their dead;

Fierce fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,

In ranks and squadrons and right form of war.

Which drizzled blood upon the Capitol;                                                                    

 (a) Name the speaker. What’s the occasion?

Answer- Calpurnia speaks these lines to her husband Julius Caesar. She is describing him the horrible  dream that she saw the previous night.

(b) What happened to the graves?

Answer- The graves opened up and the dead were exposed.

(c) What is the synonym of ‘opened the mouth’ in the passage?

Answer- yawned

 

  1. CAESAR ‘Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:

                           Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,

                           ‘Help, ho! they murder Caesar!’

   (a)Explain: ‘Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night.’

   Answer- There had been a terrible storm at night and the skies had been raging all night. Calpurnia, too, had a disturbed sleep at night. Three times at night she cried out that Caesar was being murdered.

   (b) What did Calpurnia dream of?

   Answer- Calpurnia dreamt of the murder of Caesar. She saw Caesar’s statue run with blood like a fountain, while many smiling Romans bathed their hands in the blood.

   (c) In what mood does Calpurnia speak to Caesar about the events of the night?

   Answer-Calpurnia was frightened by the unnatural occurrences the night before and was very anxious about Caesar’s safety. She felt that these portents and omens signify that a major calamity will befall Caesar as these unnatural sights indicated the death of a great leader.

  1. CAESAR ‘Nor. heaven nor earth have been at peace to-night:

                                                Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,

                                                ‘Help, ho! they murder Caesar!’

                                                (Enter Calpurnia)

            CALPURNIA           What mean you, Caesar? think you to walk forth?

                                                You shall not stir out of your house to-day.’

 

 (a)What has happened at night to make Calpurnia feel that Caesar is in danger?

Answer-Calpurnia was frightened by the unnatural occurrences the night before. She had dreamt of Caesar’s murder and his statue running blood at a hundred places. Moreover, the night watchman had seen strange sights. She felt that these occurrences were unnatural and predicted a dire calamity.

  (b)What does she want Caesar to do?

 Answer-Calpurnia wanted Caesar to stay at home and not go to the senate.

(c)What decision does Caesar take? Why?

Answer-Caesar decided to go out because according to him things which threaten him have never had the courage to look him in his face. They would vanish as soon as they saw him because of his power.

  1. What can be avoided

Whose end is purposed by the mighty gods?

Yet Caesar shall go forth; for these predictions

Are to the world in general as to Caesar.                                                                    

 Questions

 (a) Who is the speaker and why does he say so?

Answer Julius Caesar tells Calpurnia that what is written in fate can’t be avoided.

(b) Can man avoid what is ‘purposed’ by the gods?

Answer- Caesar doesn’t believe that he or any man can avoid what is ‘purposed’ by the gods.

(c) What is the synonym of ‘prevented‘ in the passage?

Answer- avoided

 

  1. No, Caesar shall not: danger knows full well

          That Caesar is more dangerous than he: 

          We are two lions litter’d in one day,

          And I the elder and more terrible:

          And Caesar shall go forth.                                                                                            Questions

(a) What shall Caesar not do?

Answer-Caesar will not stay at home. He will not pay any heed to Calpurnia’s warning or advice.

(b) What does ‘danger know full well’?

Answer- Danger knows fully well that Caesar is more dangerous and terrible than him.

(c) What is the synonym of ‘ahead‘ in the passage?

Answer forth

 

 

  1. CALPURNIA            ‘Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies,

                                                Yet now they fright me. There is one within,

                                                Besides the things that we have heard and seen,

                                                Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.’

(a)Narrate any two sights seen by the watchman.

Answer-The watchman saw the graves opening and yielding the dead and saw ghosts wandering in the city.

 (b)What does this tell you about Calpurnia’s character?

Answer- We come to know that Calpurnia was superstitious and believed in omens and predictions.

 (c)What is Caesar’s attitude towards the happenings of the night? What does this tell you about his character?

 Answer-Caesar dismissed the events of the night as natural occurrences. He did not believe that they are predictions of a dire calamity. He was not superstitious.

 

  1. CALPURNIA ‘Caesar, I never stood on ceremonies,

                                    Yet now they fright me. There is one within,

                                    Besides the things that we have heard and seen,

                                    Recounts most horrid sights seen by the watch.’

           

 (a)Explain, ‘I never stood on ceremonies’.

   Answer-It means that Caesar did not believe in omens and portents.

   (b)Mention any two sights seen by the watch.

  Answer-The sights seen by the watch include a lioness whelping in the streets and graves opening and dead bodies lying around; warriors fighting upon the clouds, and their blood falling on the Capitol, horses neighing in fear, dying men groaning, ghosts shrieking about the streets. (Any two)

  (c)How does Calpurnia’s attitude towards the strange occurrences of the night differ from Caesar’s?

  Answer-While Calpurnia is frightened by the strange occurrences of the night and sees them as omens foretelling grave danger to Caesar, Caesar is not afraid and regards them as natural happenings.

 

  1. CALPURNIA ‘Alas, my lord,

                                    Your wisdom is consumed in confidence.

                                    Do not go forth to-day: call it my fear                    

                                    That keeps you in the house, and not your own.

                                    Let me, upon my knee, prevail in this.

CAESAR                   Mark Antony shall say I am not well,

                                    And, for thy humour, I will stay at home.’

 

  (a)Where are Calpurnia and Caesar at this moment?

   Answer-Calpurnia and Caesar are at Caesar’s house at this moment.

  (b)Why does Calpurnia say, ‘Your wisdom is consumed in confidence’? When does she say this?

   Answer- Caesar was overconfident about his own abilities and therefore he disregarded his personal safety. Despite her entreaties, Caesar was determined to go to the senate.

   (c)What is Caesar’s reaction to Calpurnia’s fears? What does he decide?

   Answer-Caesar decided to stay at home for Calpurnia’s sake and decided to send a message with Antony to the senate saying that he was not well.

(d) Whose wisdom is `consumed in confidence’ and why?

Answer-Caesar’s wisdom is `consumed in confidence’. He is so overconfident of his power and strength that he is ignoring all those ill omens and horrible portents.

(e) Why does she say “call it my fear?”

Answer-She knows that Caesar will never accept that he fears any dangers, omens or portents. She doesn’t want to hurt his ego and owns that her own fear stops him at home that day.

(f) What is the antonym of ‘folly‘ in the passage?

Answer-wisdom

 

  1. CAESAR ‘And you are come in very happy time,

                                    To bear my greeting to the senators

                                    And tell them that I will not come to-day:

CALPURNIA Say he is sick.

CAESAR       Shall Caesar send a lie?

                                    Have I in conquest stretch’d mine arm so far,

                                    To be afraid to tell greybeards the truth?’

                                    Decius, go tell the Caesar will not come.

   (a)Where are the speakers? Who has come to meet Caesar?

     Answer- The speakers are at Caesar’s house. Decius Brutus has come to meet Caesar.

    (b)What message does Caesar wish to send? To whom?

     Answer-Caesar wishes to send a message to the senators saying he will not come to the senate.

 (c)Who are the ‘greybeards’? Why is Caesar not afraid of them?

   Answer-Caesar contemptuously calls the senators old men or ‘greybeards’. He is not afraid of them because he is a mighty conqueror.

(d) What is the lie mentioned in the above lines`?

Answer- Calpurnia, Caesar’s wife tells Decius to tell a lie to the senators. Caesar will not come as he is lying sick.

(e) Who are ‘graybeards’ described in the third line?

Answer-The ‘graybeards’ are the aged senators.

(f) What is the synonym of ‘victory‘ in the passage?

Answer-conquest

  1. DECIUS BRUTUS ‘Most mighty Caesar, let me know some cause,

                                               Lest I be laugh’d at when I tell them so.

           CAESAR                   Calpurnia here, my wife, stays me at home:

                                               She dreamt to-night she saw my statue,

                                               Which, like a fountain with an hundred spouts,

                                               Did run pure blood: and many lusty Romans

                                               Came smiling, and did bathe their hands in it’

   (a)What did Calpurnia dream?

 Answer-Calpurnia dreamt of the murder of Caesar. She saw Caesar’s statue run with blood like a fountain, while many smiling Romans bathed their hands in the blood.

  (b)How did she interpret her dream?

 Answer-Calpurnia interpreted her dream to mean that Caesar was in danger.

   (c)How did Decius interpret the dream?

  Answer-According to Decius, Caesar’s statue gushing blood in many places and Romans bathing hands in it signified that Rome would draw reviving blood from Caesar. Great men would come to obtain tinctures, relics, and other tokens of remembrance from him. Caesar would prove to be a source of inspiration for Rome and his achievements would be the source of renewed vitality for the country.

(d) Who is talking and to whom?

Answer-Julius Caesar is talking to Decius Brutus in these lines.

(e) Who saw that horrible dream and when?

Answer-Calpumia, Caesar’s wife saw that horrible dream the previous night.

 

 

  1. DECIUS BRUTUS ‘I have, when you have heard what I can say:

                                                And know it now: the senate have concluded

                                                To give this day a crown to mighty Caesar.

                                                If you shall send them word you will not come,                            

                                                Their minds may change.

 

CAESAR                   How foolish do your fears seem now, Calpurnia!

                                                I am ashamed I did yield to them.’

 

            (a)What argument does Decius give to convince Caesar to go to the senate?

            Answer-Decius tells Caesar that the senate have decided to offer a crown to him that day, and if he does not attend the meeting of the senate, they may change their minds.

            (b)How does Caesar react to Decius :s words?

            Answer-Caesar dismisses Calpurnia’s fears as being foolish and gets ready to go to the senate.

            (c)Mention two qualities of Caesar shown by his action.

            Answer-The qualities that are shown by his actions are that Caesar is ambitious, he disregards personal safety, he is not a good judge of character.

 

  1. CAESAR ‘I must prevent thee, Cimber.                     

                                    These couchings and these lowly courtesies                                                                                                            Might fire the blood of ordinary men,                                                                               

                                    And turn pre-ordinance and first decree                                                                           

                                    Into the law of children.                                                                                                      

                                    Thy brother by decree is banished:                                                                                                                         If thou dost bend and pray and fawn for him,                                                                                                      I spurn thee like a cur out of my way.’

            (a)What petition did Metellus Cimber present to Caesar? Why?

            Answer-Metellus Cimber gave Caesar a petition requesting him to recall his brother, Publius, who had been banished from Rome. The conspirators knew Caesar would not accede to their request and they wished to use it as an excuse to assassinate him.

            (b)Give two of the arguments given by Caesar to reject the petition.

            Answer-Caesar said that Publius Cimber had been banished by law and Caesar would not turn the law into a child’s play by breaking it. Moreover, Caesar would not be satisfied without a just reason as to why Publius was to be recalled.

(c) Why is Cimber indulging in “crouchings and low courtesies?”

Answer-Cimber is indulging in “crouchings and low courtesies” to move Caesar’s heart to call back his exiled brother.

(d) Explain: “Might fire the blood of ordinary men.”

Answer-Such beggings and low courtesies may move the hearts of common mortals but can’t move Caesar’s mighty heart.

(e) What is the word that means ‘a polite gestures’ in the passage?

Answer-courtesies

 

  1. CAESAR: ‘But I am constant as the northern star,                

                                    Of whose true-fix’d and resting quality

                                    There is no fellow in the firmament.                                                                                                                       I was constant Cimber should be banish’d,                                                                                                            And constant do remain to keep him so.’

            (a) What is the ‘northern star’?

            Answer-The northern star is the pole star.

            (b) Why does Caesar compare himself to the ‘northern star’? What is the occasion?

            Answer-Caesar compares himself to the ‘northern star’ because he is unchangeable and unmoved. He does not change his mind and remains unshakeable. The conspirators are asking for the recall of Publius Cimber.

            (c) State the comparison made by Caesar between the firmament and the world of men.

            Answer-Caesar compares the firmament and the world of men saying that the sky was decorated with innumerable stars, all shining brightly but there was only one among them which did not move—the pole star. Similarly, in the world of men there were many men who are strong and intelligent but there was only one who did not change his mind and that was Caesar.

 

  1. How foolish do your fears seem now,

Calpurnia I am ashamed.

I did yield to them.

Give me my robe, for 1 will go.

(a) Why was Calpurnia afraid?

Answer-Calpurnia was afraid because she had seen a nightmare that had many ill omens for Caesar.

(b) Where did Caesar decide to go?

Answer-Caesar decided to go to the senate at the Capitol.

(c) What does the word ‘yield’ mean?

Answer-The word ‘yield’ means to give way.

 

  1. Caesar shall forth; the things that threaten’d me

Ne’er look’d on my back; when they shall see

                                    The face of Caesar, they are vanished.

(a) Where is Caesar planning to go?

Answer-Caesar is planning to go to the senate at the Capitol.

(b) What does the word ‘things’ refer to?

Answer-The word ‘things’ refers to his enemies.

(c) What does the word ‘vanished’ mean?

Answer-The word vanished means the act of disappearing.

            (d) Explain: “Caesar shall forth”.

Answer-Caesar ignores Calpumia’s warning that he should not stir out of his house that day. He insists on venturing out of the house inspite of his wife’s requests not to go.

(b) Where do things that threaten Caesar look on?

Answer- Things that threaten Caesar dare not look him in his eyes but look on his back.

(c) What is the synonym of ‘disappeared‘ in the passage?

Answer- vanished

  1. This was the most unkindest cut of all

For when the noble Caesar saw him stab

Ingratitude, stronger than traitors’ arms

Quite vanquished him.

(a) What was the unkindest cut? Who gave it?

Answer-The unkindest cut was the wound caused by Brutus.

(b) Whose sight pained Caesar the most?

Answer-The sight of Brutus attacking him.

(c) What is ingratitude according to Antony?

Answer-Ingratitude is treachery of the dearest friend, which causes maximum pain.

  1. Caesar: And you are come in happy time,

To bear my greeting to the senators

And tell them that I will not come today.

Calpurnia:                 Say he is sick.

 

(a) Who is Caesar speaking to?

Answer-Caesar is speaking to Desius Brutus.

(b) What message does Caesar want to send to the senators?

Answer-He wanted to tell the senators that he was not well.

(c) What makes Caesar change his mind?

Answer-His wife’s pleadings forced him to change his mind.

  1. “The noble Brutus

Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:                                 

If it were so, it was a grievous fault,                                                           

And grievously hath Caesar answered it.”

(a) Who is the speaker? Who are ‘you’?

Answer-The speaker is Mark Antony. ‘You’ is referred to the citizens of Rome.

(b) How did Caesar pay for being ambitious?

Answer-Caesar was stabbed by the conspirators for being ambitious.

(c) What argument did the speaker give to show that Brutus was wrong in his judgment of Caesar?

 Answer-Antony told the commoners that Brutus was wrong in his judgment of Caesar being ambitious. Antony reminds the Roman citizens how Caesar brought many captives to Rome so that ransom could be earned to control the financial situation of the people. He reminds them how Caesar had wept when the poor have cried. Antony also tells them that he himself presented the crown to Caesar thrice, but Caesar refused. He then shows the crowd Caesar’s will, in which he had granted every Roman citizen seventy-five drachmas and land.

  1. ANTONY ‘O mighty Caesar! lost thou lie so low?                  

                                    Are all thy conquests, glories, triumphs, spoils,

                                    Shrunk to this little measure? Fare thee well.

                                    I know not, gentlemen, what you intend,                                                                                                                Who else must be let blood, who else is rank’

 

 (a) Where does the mighty Caesar lie? What is meant by ‘this little measure?

Answer-The mighty Caesar lay on the ground at the foot of Pompey’s statue. ‘This little measure’ means this small piece of land.

 (b) Who are the gentlemen Antony addresses?

 Answer-The gentlemen that Antony addresses are the conspirators standing next to Caesar’s body.

  (c) Give the meaning of ‘Who else must be let blood, who else is rank:’ Why does Antony say this?

   Answer-It means who is the person to be killed next? Antony wanted to know the intentions of the conspirators towards him and so he said this.

  1. ANTONY ‘If I myself, there is no hour so fit

                                    As Caesar’s death hour, nor no instrument

                                    Of half that worth as those your swords, made rich

                                    With the most noble blood of all this world.’         

  (a) Where is Antony at the present moment? Who is he talking to?

  Answer-Antony is standing next to Caesar’s dead body at the Capitol. He is talking to the conspirators.

  (B)   Why does Antony declare his willingness to die?

 Answer-Antony feels that if he has to be killed, then there is no time more opportune than the present as it is Caesar’s death hour and no weapon more suitable than the swords of the conspirators which have been enriched by Caesar’s blood.

  (c)How does Brutus respond to Antony’s request?

  Answer-Brutus says that though the spectacle of Caesar’s assassination may appear bloody, the conspirators had no intention of killing Antony. They had killed Caesar only for the general welfare of the Romans.

  1. ANTONY ‘I do beseech ye, if you bear me hard,                                                                                

                                    Now, whilst your purpled hands do reek and smoke,                                                                                           Fulfil your pleasure. Live a thousand years,                                                                                                          I shall not find myself so apt to die:

                                    No place will please me so, no mean of death,

                                    As here by Caesar, and by you cut off,                                                                              

                                    The choice and master spirits of this age.

(a)Whom does Antony refer to as ‘The choice and master spirits of this age’?

Answer-Antony refers to the conspirators as ‘The choice and master spirits of this age’ .

  (b)Explain ‘bear me hart? Which pleasure does Antony tell the conspirators to fulfil?

  Answer-‘Bear me hard’ means the conspirators’ towards Antony. He tells them to kill him if it pleases them.

 (c)How does Antony’s speech refer to Caesar? What does this show about his feelings towards Caesar?

 Answer-Antony calls Caesar ‘the most noble blood of all this world’. He has a high opinion of Caesar and holds him in great regard.

 

  1. ANTONY ‘My credit now stands on such slippery ground,                                                               

                                    That one of two had ways you must conceit me,                                                               

                                    Either a coward or a flatterer.                                                                                            

                                    That I did love thee, Caesar, 0, ’tis true:’

  (a)When and to whom does Antony speak these words?

  Answer-Antony speaks these words after Caesar’s assassination to the conspirators.

  (b)What is meant by the word ‘credit’? Why does Antony’s credit stand on slippery ground?

   Answer- The word ‘Credit’ refers to reputation. Antony’s reputation stands on unsteady ground as he was Caesar’s friend and he was shaking hands with his murderers.

  (c)What does Antony think the conspirators would regard him as? What effect do these words have on the listeners?

 Answer-Antony thinks that the conspirators would regard him as a coward or a flatterer. Cassius is taken aback by Antony’s direct speech. He asks Antony if they may consider him a friend or a foe. 

  1. ANTONY ‘My credit now stands on such slippery ground,

                                    That one of two bad ways you must conceit me,                                                                                                    Either a coward or a flatterer.                                                                                                                                 That I did love thee, Caesar, 0, ’tis true:’

           

 (a)Explain: ‘conceit( Why would the conspirators regard Antony as a coward or a flatterer?

 Answer-Conceit means to consider or regard. He would be regarded as a coward or a flatterer because he was shaking hands with the people who killed his friend.

  (b)How is Antony both a coward and a flatterer?

   Answer-Antony is a coward because he did not rebel against or oppose the conspirators. He was a flatterer as he praised the conspirators instead of avenging his friend’s death.

   (c)Why has Antony come to make peace with Caesar’s murderers?

  Answer- Antony wants to avenge Caesar’s death and knows he can turn Romans against the conspirators if he is given an opportunity to speak to them.

 

  1. ANTONY                  ‘And am moreover suitor that I may

                                                Produce his body to the market-place;                                                                                                                    And in the pulpit, as becomes a friend,      

Speak in the order of his funeral.’

 (a)What request does Antony make of the conspirators?

  Answer-Antony requests the conspirators to allow him to take Caesar’s body to the marketplace and as his friend speak at Caesar’s funeral.

  (b)How does Brutus react to Antony’s request?

  Answer-Brutus agrees to Antony’s request.

   (c)Why does Cassius try to dissuade Brutus? What is the consequence of Brutus’ mistake?

     Answer-Cassius tries to dissuade Brutus because he thinks that Antony will be able to stir the emotions of the people and turn them against the conspirators. Antony was able to stir the emotions of the people and turn the tide against the conspirators.

 

  1.     ANTONY                  ‘Pardon me, Caius Cassius:                                                                                                              The enemies of Caesar shall say this;                                                                                              Then, in a friend, it is cold modesty.                                                            CASSIUS                   I blame you not for praising Caesar so;                                                                                            But what compact mean you to have with us?                                                                         Will you be prick’d in number of our friends;                                                                                     Or shall we on, and not depend on you?’

 

  (a)What is the ‘this’ that Caesar’s enemies shall say?

  Answer-Caesar’s enemies would refer to Caesar as noble.                                                   

  (b)   What does Cassius ask Antony?

  Answer-Cassius asks Antony if they should count him as one of their friends or should they carry on their way without depending on him for friendship or support.

   (c)  What offer has Cassius made to Antony a little while earlier?

   Answer-Cassius had told Antony that his recommendations will be as strong as that of any of the conspirators while distributing the powers and benefits in the new government that will be set up after Caesar’s death.

 

  1. CASSIUS (Aside to Brutus) ‘You know not what you do: do not consent

                                                            That Antony speak in his funeral:                                                                                                   Know you how much the people may be moved                                                                            By that which he will utter?’

 (a)  What has Brutus consented to?

 Answer-Brutus has consented that Antony take Caesar’s body to the marketplace and as his friend speak at Caesar’s funeral.

 (b)  What is Cassius’ fear?

Answer- Cassius is afraid that Antony will be able to stir the emotions of the people and turn them against the conspirators.

(c) How does Brutus quieten Cassius’ fears?

 Answer-Brutus replies that he will speak before Antony and explain to the public the reason for the conspirators’ deed, and then announce that Antony has been allowed to speak only with his consent. He believes that the people will admire his magnanimity for allowing Antony, a friend of Caesar’s, to take part in the funeral, and that the episode will benefit the conspirators’ public image.

 

  1. ANTONY                   ‘And Caesar’s spirit, ranging for revenge,                                                                                     With Ate by his side come hot from hell,

Shall in these confines with a monarch’s voice

                                                Cry ‘Havoc,’ and let slip the dogs of war;                                                                                       That this foul deed shall smell above the earth

                                                With carrion men, groaning for burial.’

 (a)  Why will Caesar’s spirit be ‘ranging for revenge’? Who will accompany him?

Answer-Caesar’s spirit will be ranging for revenge as he was brutally murdered by the conspirators. He will be accompanied by Ate, the Roman goddess of mischief and revenge.

 (b) What will be the effect of Caesar’s spirit roaming for revenge?

Answer-The roaming of Caesar’s spirit will result in fierce civil war which would rage over all parts of Italy as Caesar lets loose the horrors of war. Violence and murder would be frequent and terrible sights would be so common that mothers will smile when their children are killed.

 (c)Which is the ‘foul deed’ being referred to? How will it smell above the earth?

Answer-The ‘foul deed’ referred to is the murder of Caesar. It will smell as dead bodies will be lying around without proper burial and they shall rot and smell.

  1. BRUTUS ‘Be patient till the last. Romans, countrymen, and lovers! Hear me for my cause, and be silent, that you may hear: believe me for mine honour, and have respect to mine honour, that you may believe: censure me in your wisdom, and awake your senses, that you may the better judge.’

 (a) Where is Brutus at the present moment? What is the occasion?

Answer-Brutus is present in a pulpit in the market place in Rome. The conspirators have just assassinated Caesar and Brutus is giving the Romans the reasons for the assassination. 

 (c)What is Brutus’s cause for killing Caesar?

Answer- Brutus killed Caesar because he feared that Caesar would become a dictator.

 (d)What error of judgement does Brutus make while delivering the speech?

Answer-Brutus misjudges the Roman mob. He appeals to reason but the mob does not understand his logic. This is evident from the speech of the citizen who declares at the end of Brutus’s speech, ‘Let him be Caesar.’

 

  1. BRUTUS ‘Good countrymen, for my sake, stay here with Antony:                                                             Do grace to Caesar’s corpse, and grace his speech

                                    Tending to Caesar’s glories; which Mark Antony,

                                    By our permission, is allow’cl to make.                                                                                           I do entreat you, not a man depart,                                                                                                 Save I alone, till Antony have spoke.’

 (a)Why does Brutus depart alone? Explain: ‘Do grace to Caesar’s corpse, and grace his speech:

Answer-Brutus departed alone because he wanted the citizens to stay back and listen to Antony’s speech in honour of Caesar’s funeral. He wished them to pay respect and reverence to Caesar’s body and listen to Antony’s speech.

 (b)What reason has Brutus given for Caesar’s assassination? How did his listeners react to it?

Answer-Brutus said that he killed Caesar because he was ambitious. His listeners did not understand his logic.

 (c)Under what conditions has Antony been given the permission to speak?

Answer-Antony was given the permission to speak on condition that he may speak as highly of Caesar as he wishes but he must tell the people that he did so with permission of the conspirators. He must also not speak any ill of the conspirators.

 

  1. ANTONY ‘Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears;                                                                      I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him.                                                                                       The evil that men do lives after them;                                                                                         The good is oft interred with their bones;

So let it be with Caesar. The noble Brutus

                                                Hath told you Caesar was ambitious:

                                                If it were so, it was a grievous fault,

                                                And grievously hath Caesar answered it.’

(a)Explain: ‘The good is oft interred with their bones.

 Answer-The above line means that a man’s good qualities are forgotten soon after his death.

 (b)Which two reasons does Antony give to prove that Caesar was not ambitious?

Answer-Antony tells the mob that Caesar had brought many prisoners to Rome, and the ransom obtained by him for the release of those prisoners had filled the public treasury. This act of Caesar’s showed that he was not ambitious. Furthermore, Caesar had wept whenever the poor people had cried in their distress. This sympathy of Caesar for the poor people showed that he was not ambitious as ambitious people are hard-hearted. Finally, Caesar had refused the offer of a crown at the feast of Lupercal though Antony had thrice offered the crown to him.

 

  1. ANTONY ‘But yesterday the word of Caesar might                                                                                      Have stood against the world; now lies he there.                                                                            And none so poor to do him reverence.                                                                                          O masters, if I were disposed to stir                                                                                            Your hearts and minds to mutiny and rage,                                                                               I should do Brutus wrong, and Cassius wrong,                                                                                     Who, you all know, are honourable men:                                                                                       I will not do them wrong’

 

 (a)How might Caesar’s word have stood against the world?

 Answer-Caesar was a mighty conqueror who conquered many lands. His power and glory had spread all over the world and his word was considered the law.

 (b)Who are the people Antony does not wish to wrong? Whom does he choose to wrong instead?

 Answer-Antony does not wish to wrong the honourable Brutus and Cassius. He chooses to wrong the dead Caesar, himself and the common people of Rome.

 (c)How can Antony wrong the conspirators?

 Answer- Antony can wrong the conspirators by stirring the mob to mutiny and anger.

 

  1. ANTONY ‘Let but the commons hear this testament—         

Which, pardon me, I do not mean to read—                                                          And they would go and kiss dead Caesar’s wounds                                       And dip their napkins in his sacred blood,                                                  Yea, beg a hair of him for memory,                                                                        And, dying, mention it within their wills,                                                                Bequeathing it as a rich legacy                                                                                 Unto their issue.’                                                                                           

 (a)  What is the testament? Who are the ‘commons’?

  Answer-The testament is Caesar’s will. The ‘commons’ refer to the common people of Rome.

 (b)  What will the common people do if they hear the will?

  Answer-The common people would run to kiss the dead Caesar’s wounds and dip their handkerchiefs in Caesar’s blood and beg for a hair of Caesar to keep as a memento if they heard the will.

  (c) What were the terms of Caesar’s will?

   Answer-Caesar had bequeathed a sum of seventy-five drachmas from his personal holdings to every man in Rome. Also, Caesar had made his private parks and gardens available for the people’s pleasure.

 

  1. ANTONY                  ‘If you have tears, prepare to shed them now.                                                                              You all do know this mantle: I remember

                                                The first time ever Caesar put it on;                                                                                               ‘Twas on a summer’s evening, in his tent,

                                                That day he overcame the Nervii:                                                                                                   Look, in this place ran Cassius’ dagger through:                                                                           See what a rent the envious Casca made:                                                                                              Through this the well-beloved Brutus stabb’d;’

 (a)  What is the significance of the mantle referred to? Why do ‘unto me’ refer to it?

 Answer-Caesar had worn the mantle for the first time when he defeated the Nervii. The phrase ‘unto me’ reminds the listeners about Caesar’s greatness as a conqueror.

 (b) Who were the Nervii?

  Answer-The Nervii were the most war-like of the Gallic tribes who were defeated by Caesar in 57 BC.

  (c)  Why does Antony mention the conspirators? Why is Brutus’ stabbing of Caesar said to be ‘the most unkindest   cut of all’?

 Answer-Antony mentioned the conspirators to remind the listeners that they had killed their beloved Caesar. Caesar loved Brutus dearly and Brutus had betrayed Caesar and hence was referred to as the ‘the most unkindest cut of all’.

 

  1. CASSIUS ‘You know not what you do: do not consent                                                                                 That Antony speak in his funeral:                                                                                                   Know you how much the people may be moved

                                    By that which he will utter?’

 (a) Who advises whom?

Answer-Cassius advises Brutus.

  (b) Whose ‘funeral’ is referred to?

Answer-Cassius is referring to Caesar’s funeral.

(c) What light do these words throw on the character of the speaker?

Answer-The speaker Cassius, is a good judge of character.

 

  1. Good countrymen, let me depart alone,

                                    And, for my sake, stay here with Antony:

(a) Identify the speaker of the above lines?

Answer- Marcus Brutus.

(b) When were the above lines spoken?

Answer-The above lines were spoken on Caesar’s funeral. 

(c) Bring out the irony in the above extract?

Answer-The irony in the above extract is that Brutus was too simple to understand the intentions of Antony. Despite Cassius’ repeated denial, he allowed Antony to address the funeral procession of Caesar wherein Antony provoked the mob against the senators and Brutus.

 

  1. Over thy wounds now do I prophesy,-

                        Which, like dumb mouths, do ope their ruby lips,

                        To beg the voice and utterance of my tongue-

(a) Who spoke the above words?

Answer-The above mentioned words are spoken by Antony addressing to the dead Caesar.

 (b) Whose ‘wounds’ is the speaker referring to in the above lines?

Answer-‘Wounds’ here is referred to that of the dead Caesar.

 (c) Identify and explain the figure of speech used in the above extract?

Answer-The figure of speech used in the above lines is ‘Apostrophe’ because Antony directly addresses the corpse of Caesar as if it were alive and present and was able to reply

 

  1. “The dream is all amiss interpreted;

                                    It was a vision fair and fortunate.”

(a) Who is the speaker?

 Answer-Decius Brutus.         

 (b) Whose dream is he/she talking about?

 Answer-He is talking about Calpurnia’s dream.

  (c) What was seen in the dream?

  Answer-She saw the bleeding body of Caesar.

 

  1. ” And you shall speak

                        In the same pulpit where to I am going,

                        After my speech is ended.”

  (a) Who is the speaker?

  Answer- Brutus.

  (b) Who is he speaking to?

  Answer-Antony.

 (c) On what other condition does he allow the listener to speak?

  Answer-That Antony shall speak no ill of the conspirators.

  1. “He speaks by leave and by permission.”

(a) Who is ‘he’ in this line?

Answer-Antony.

(b) Identify the speaker.

 Answer-Brutus.

(c) What is the significance of permission to speak?

Answer-He has our permission to speak; we have everything under control. We are the leaders now.

 

  1. “Nor heaven nor earth have been at peace tonight:

Thrice hath Calpurnia in her sleep cried out,

Help, ho! They murder Caesar!’ Who’s within?”

(a) Who is Calpurnia?

Answer-What does the disturbance in the sky indicate?

 (c) Does Calpumia’s dream come true?

Answer-Calpurnia is Caesar’s wife.

(b) The disturbance in the sky indicates some mishappening.

 AnswerYes, Caesar was murdered.

 

  1. Calpurnia: What mean you, Caesar?

                                    Think you to work forth?

                                    You shall not stir out of your house today.                                                             Caesar:            Caesar shall forth.                                                                                                                      

(a) Calpurnia stopped Caesar from going out of the house because

Answer-Calpurnia saw Caesar being killed in her dream.

(b) Caesar wanted to go out of the house because he

Answer-Had to attend an important meeting.

(c) These lines tell us about Caesar that he

Answer-Was proud.

 

  1. “Do not go forth today: call it my fear

That keeps you in the house, and not your own,

Let me, upon my knee prevail in this.”

            (a) Calpurnia’s fear is that 

Answer-Caesar may be killed if he goes out.

(b) Caesar reacts to Calpumia’s fear saying that 

Answer-He is not afraid of death as it comes only once.

(c) What Calpumia says shows that she is 

Answer-A devoted wife.

 

45                    “Cowards die many times before their deaths,

The valiant never taste of death but once.”

            (a) What does ‘Cowards die many times before their deaths’ mean?

Answer-Cowards are so afraid of death that their very fear prevents them from living life to the fullest.

(b) What does ‘The valiant never taste of death but once’ means?

Answer-The brave are not afraid of death as they know it is inevitable and thus do not fear it.

(c) Which trait of the speaker’s character is revealed in these lines?

Answer- Arrogance.

 

  1. “Your wisdom is consumed in self confidence

Do not go forth today: call it my fear

That keeps you in the house, not your own.”

(a) Who is speaking to whom?

Answer-Calpumia to Caesar.

(b) What is the speaker’s fear?

Answer-The speaker’s fear is that Caesar would be murdered.

(c) Explain ‘Your wisdom is consumed in self-confidence’.

Answer-Caesar is over-confident therefore his wisdom is destroyed.

 

 

 

  1. “This dream is all amiss interpreted;

It was a vision fair and fortunate:

Your statue spouting blood in many pipes,

In which so many smiling Romans bathed.”

(a) Who is the speaker?

Answer-Decius Brutus.

(b) What is Calpurnia’s fear?

Answer-That Caesar would be murdered.

(c) How is the vision fortunate according to the speaker?

Answer-According to him it is dream and symbol of prosperity.

 

 

  1. “If thou thus bend and pray and fawn for him,

I spurned thee like a cur out of my way Know,

Caesar doth no wrong nor without cause will he be satisfied”

(a) Who speaks these lines and to whom?

Answer-Caesar speaks these lines to Metellus Cimber.

(b) Who is ‘him’ in the above lines?

Answer-‘Him’ is referred to Publius Cimber in the above lines.

(c) Why is ‘thou’ praying and fawning on him?

Answer-He wants him to be forgiven and his banishment to be lifted.

 

  1. “These couching and these lowly courtesies

Might fire the blood of ordinary men,

And turn pre-ordinance and first decree

Into the law of children.

Thy brother by decree is banished:

If thou dost bend and pray, and fawn, for him,

I spurn thee, like a cur, out of my way.”

(a) Who is Caesar speaking to here?

Answer-Metellus Cimber.

 (b) Why was Caesar angry with the person he was speaking to?

Answer-Because he was pleading for his banished brother.

(c) Which figure of speech is used in the last line?

Answer-Simile. 20. “You know not what you do. Do not

  1. Cassius: Brutus, a word with you (Aside to Brutus)

You know not what you do: do not consent

That Antony speak in his funeral

(a) What had Brutus consented to?

AnswerBmtus had consented to Antony’s request to allow him to produce Caesar’s body at the market place and speak at his funeral as was expected of a friend.

(b) Why did Cassius warn Brutus?

Answer-Cassius warned Brutus saying that they could never know how much the people would be affected by what Antony spoke.

(c) How did Brutus ignore Cassius’ warning?

Answer-Brutus said that he would first go to the pulpit to explain the reason for Caesar’s murder and would also announce that Antony was speaking with his permission.

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