Thinking about the text
1. Given in the box are some headings. Find the relevant paragraphs in the text to match the headings.
An orphaned cub; Bruno’s food-chart; an accidental case of poisoning; playful Baba; the pain of separation; the joy of reunion, A request to the zoo; An island in the courtyard.
- An orphaned cub: Paragraph 3
- Bruno’s food-chart: Paragraph 6
- An accidental case of poisoning: Paragraph 8
- Playful Baba: Paragraph 7
- The pain of separation: Paragraph 14
- The joy of reunion: Paragraph 16
- A request to the zoo: Paragraph 19
- An island in the courtyard: Paragraph 21
II. Answer the following questions.
1.’I got him for her by accident.’
(i) Who says this?
Ans. The author says this.
(ii) Who do ‘him’ or `her’ refer to?
Ans. The word ‘him’ refers to the sloth bear and ‘her’ refers to the author’s wife.
(iii) What is the incident referred to here?
Ans. It is the incident when the author and his friends were passing through the sugarcane fields near Mysore. They saw a black sloth bear in their way. One of the author’s companions shot the bear. It was a mother bear. It died on the spot leaving behind its orphaned cub. The author picked up the cub and brought home for his wife.
2.’He stood on his head in delight.’
(i)Who does ‘he’ refer to?
Ans. ‘He’ refers to Bruno of Baba, the pet bear.
(ii) Why was he delighted?
Ans. He was delighted to see the author’s wife. He howled with happiness. When the author’s wife petted him through the bars, he stood on his head in delight.
3.’We all missed him greatly, but in a sense we were relieved.’
(i)Who does ‘we all’ stand for?
Ans. ‘We all’ stands for the author, his wife, his sons and his friends.
(ii) Who did they miss?
Ans. They missed Bruno or Baba because he had been sent to the zoo.
(iii) Why did they nevertheless feel relieved?
Ans. They felt relieved that the bear was going to the zoo. Now it had become too big to be kept at home.
III. Answer the following questions in 30 to 40 words each :
1. On two occasions Bruno ate/drank something that should not be eaten/drunk. What happened to him on these occasions?
Ans. On one occasion Bruno ate barium carbonate poison which was kept by the author in his library for killing rats. Bruno got paralysis. He was taken to a veterinary doctor. He gave Bruno two injections of antidote. It cured Bruno. On another occasion, Bruno drank one gallon of engine oil. But it had no ill effects on Bruno
2. Was Bruno a loving and playful pet? Why, then, did he have to be sent away?
Ans. Bruno was a loving and playful dog. He loved the author’s wife very much. Now he had become very strong and powerful. He had to be sent to a zoo because of the tenant’s small children. It was feared lest he should make them harm.
3. How was the problem of what to do with Bruno finally solved?
Ans. The author’s family finally decided to send Bruno to the zoo. They wrote a letter to the curator of the zoo if he wanted a tame, bear for his zoo. He gave a positive response. Bruno was sent to a zoo in a cage.
Thinking about Language
1. Find these words in the lesson. They all have ie or ei in them.
F_ _ds, ingred_ _nts, h_ _ght, misch_vous, fr_nds,
_ _ ghty-seven, rel_ _ ved, p_ _ce
field, ingredients, height. mischievous
friends, eighty-seven, relieved piece
2 .Now here are some more words. Complete them with ei or Consult a dictionary if necessary.
Bet_ _ ye rec _ _ ve w_ _ rd I_ _ sure
s_ _ze w_ _ght r_ _gn f _ _ gn
gr_ _f P_ _ rce
(There is a popular rule of spelling : ‘i’ before ‘e’ except after ‘c’ “. Check if this rule is true by looking at the Words above. )
believe receive weird leisure
seize weight reign feign
1 .Here are some words with silent letters. Learn their spelling. Your teacher will dictate these words to you. Write them down and underline the silent letters.
knock, wrestle, walk, wrong,
knee, half, honest, daughter,
hours, return, hornet, calm,
could, sign, island, button
knock, wrestle, walk, wrong,
knee, half, honest, daughter,
hours, return, hornet, calm,
could, sign, island, button
III. How to look at an Index
An index is a list of names or topics that are to be found in a book. It is a list arranged in alphabetical order at the end of a book.
The following paragraph shows that the doctor is consulting the index of a medical book to find out which injection is appropriate for Bruno.
“Out came his medical books, and a feverish reference to index began : ‘What poison did you say, sir?’ Barium carbonate’. `A,h yes-B-Ba-Barium Salts-Ah! Barium carbonate! Symptoms-paralysis-treatment-injections of…….. Just a minute, sir. I’ll bring my syringe and the medicine.'”
1 .You have read about the French Revolution and you want to know more about the Third Estate in the context of the French Revolution. You can refer to the index of the book Living World History by T. Walter Wallbank and Arnold Schrier :
|French-Algerian War, 696|
French and Indian War, 370,401
French Revolution, 393, 404-405,408,427, 489
Freud (froid), Sigmund (1856-1939), 479, illus. 477
Frobisher (fro’bisher), Martin (1535-1594), 321, 338
| Third Coalition, 415|
Third Communist International, See Comintern
Third Estate (France), 404, 405
Third Reform Bill, 454
Third Reich (riH), 641,643,652,653
On which pages in this book will you find information about the French Revolution at d the Third Estate?
2 .To know what ‘Food Security’ and ‘Minimum Support Price’ mean in the context oftl eeconomic growth of a country you can go to the subject index given below from Poverty and Famines-An Essay on Entitlement and Deprivation by Amartya Sen. Under which heading in the index are you likely to find these topics ?
|Famine relief, 43, 57, 87-8, 96-8, 116-17. 131-2|
Fishermen, 51,67-9,71, 724,78, 119
Floods, 52-3, 58, 131-2,147-8
Food availability decline (FAD thesis), 6-
7, 7-8,41-2,43-4, 53, 57-63, 80-
1,82-3,88-93, 111,117-20, 125
Food countermovement, 94, 138, 160-2
Food habits, 12-3,25-6, 45, 50,164
3.Given below is a portion of an Index, a page from a book ‘French’s Index of Differential Diagnosis‘, edited by E Dudley Hart M.D., F.R.C.P. Study the entries and find out whether the following topics are discussed in the book.
– – pulmonary fibrosis .. 346 – chronic, associated with
– – – osteo-arthropathy .. 271 yellow nail syndrome 519
– – pyrexia .. 636, 643 – – bacterial infection
— rigors .. 669, 671 complicating ..729
–vomiting .. .. 804 – – causing cough
Bronchitis, acute, causing 179,182,223
cough .. .. .. 178 – – – dyspnoea 222,223,229
– – – haemoptysis .. 322 – – – haemoptysis.. 322
– associated with costo- — cigarette smoking causing ..223
chondral swellings .. 133
– – emphysema .. .. 131 — heart failure due to ..82
– – mediastinal emphy – Bronchitis , chronic, contd.
-sema .. .. 605 — simulating indigestion 583
– capillary, causing head – – sputum of, during
retraction .. 325, 328 smog .. .. ..728
– casts in sputum .. 728 – – – production in 727, 729
– causing epistaxis .. 240 – complicating incomplete
– in children, pertussis sternal fusion .. .. 130
distinguished from .. 178 – coughing in, causing
surgical emphysema .. 235
(i ) bronchitis due to cigarette smoking
(ii) heart failure due to bronchitis
(iii) bronchitis in children
IV.1. The Narrative Present
Notice the incomplete sentences in the following paragraph. Here the writer is using incomplete sentences in the narration to make the incident more dramatic or immediate. Can you rewrite the paragraph in complete sentences ?
(You can begin : The vet and I made a dash back to the car. Bruno was still floundering…)
(i) A dash back to the car. Bruno still floundering about on his stumps, but clearly weakening rapidly; sonic vomiting, heavy breathing, with heaving flanks and gaping mouth.
Hold him, everybody! In goes the hypodermic-Bruno squeals-10 c.c. of the antidote enters his system without a drop being wasted. Ten minutes later : condition unchanged! Another 10 c.c. injected! Ten minutes later : breathing less stertorous—Bruno can move his arms and legs a little although he cannot stand yet. Thirty minutes later : Bnino gets up and has a great feed! Ile locks at us disdainfully, as much as to say, ‘What’s barium carbonate to a big black bear like me?’ Bruno is still eating.
Ans. The vate and I made a dash back to the car. Bruno was still floundering about on his stumps, but clearly weakening rapidly. He was having vomiting, heavy breathing with heaving flanks and gasping mouth.
The vate says, “Hold him, everybody!” The vate gives an injection of the hypodermic. As soon as the injection goes in, Bruno squeals. 10 c.c. of the antidote enters his system without a drop being wasted. Ten minutes later his condition remains unchanged. Another 10 c.c. injected! Ten minutes later he started breathing less stertorous. Bruno can move his arms and legs a little although he can not stand yet. Thirty minutes later finally Bruno gets up and has a great feed! He looks at us disdainfully, as much as to say, ‘What’s barium carbonate to a big black bear like me?’ Bruno is still eating.
(ii) In the paragraph above from the story the verbs are in the present tense (cg. hold, goes, etc.). This gives the reader an impression of immediacy. The present tense is often used when we give a commentary on a game (cricket, football, etc.), or tell a story as if it is happening now. It is, therefore, called the narrative present.
You will read more about the present tense in unit 10.
Find the adverbs in the passage below (You’ve read about adverbs in unit 1.)
We thought that everything was over when suddenly a black sloth bear came out panting in the hot sun. Now I will not shoot a sloth-bear wantonly but, unfortunately for the poor beast, one of my companions did not feel that way about it, and promptly shot the bear on the spot.
(i) Complete the following sentences, using a suitable adverb ending in —ly.
(a) Rana does her homework
(b) It rains in Mumbai in June.
(c) He does his work
(d) The dog serves his master
Ans. (a) clearly, (b) heavily, (c) slowly, (d) faithfully
(ii) Choose the most suitable adverbs or adverbial phrases and complete the following sentences.
(a) We should get down from a moving train. (never, sometimes, often)
(b) I was in need of support after my poor performance. (badly, occasionally, sometimes)
(c) Rita met with an accident. The doctor examined her . (suddenly, seriously, immediately)
Ans. (a) never, (b) badly, (c) immediately
3. The following story has been scrambled. Take down the dictation given by the teacher with appropriate punctuation marks, Then, read the scrambled story carefully and try to rewrite it rearranging the incidents.
A grasshopper, who was very hungry, saw her and said, “When did you get the corn? I am dying of hunger.” She wanted to dry them. It was a cold winter’s day, and an ant was bringing out some grains of corn from her home. She had gathered the corn in summer.
“I was singing all day,” answered the grasshopper.
“If you sang all summer,” said the ant, “you candance all winter.
“What were you doing?” asked the ant again.
The grasshopper replied, “I was too busy.”
“I collected it in summer,” said the ant. “What were you doing in summer? Why did you not store some corn?”
Ans. It was a cold winter’s day, and an ant was bringing out some grains of corn from her home. She had gathered the corn in summer. She wanted to dry them. A grasshopper, who was very hungry, saw her and said, “When did you get the corn? I am dying of hunger.” “1 collected it in summer,” said the ant. “What were you doing in summer? Why did you not store some corn?” The grasshopper replied, “I was too busy.” “What were you doing?” asked the ant again. “i was singing all day,” answered the grasshopper. “If you sang all summer,” said the ant, “you can dance all winter.”
`Animals also feel the pleasure of love and the pain of separation.’ Make a presentation by giving examples from your own experience.
Ans. It is true that animals also feel the pleasure of love and the pain of separation. I can prove this point by mentioning, the experiences from my life. Last summer vacation I visited the house of my Nanaji. He lives in a village near Bhiwani. He is a farmer and has many cows. One of the cows is Lakshmi. It is an old cow. All the family members love it very much. I too started loving it.
One day some animal traders came to my Nanaji’s house. He sold the cow Lakshmi to them. They were taking the cow, but it would not go- They took it forcibly. But when it reached its new destination it was very sad. It felt the pain of separation from the house of my Nanaji. It refused to take food and drink water and kept weeping continuously till four days. The people in that family could not bear this pain of the cow. They loaded it in a tractor-trolley and drove it back to my Nanaji’s house. As soon as the cow got down the trolley, its eyes gleamed. It was happy to be reunited. It drank water and ate grass from the hands of my Nanaji. I was so much impressed by watching all this. My Nanaji repaid their amount and kept the cow back.
Pets have unique care and handling requirements and should only be kept by those with the commitment to understand and meet their needs. Give your argument in support of or against this statement.
Ans. Pets have the same understanding of love and pain as the human beings have. If we have any problem, we can express it to others very easily by speaking but if the animals have any such trouble, they can’t express themselves so easily because they can’t speak. We can understand their love and pain by their expression.
The pets should be kept only by those who have a commitment to understand and meet the needs of animals. If the person having pets is unable to understand the behaviour of his pets, their life becomes very troublesome. They deserve the same love and attention as we do to our dear ones.
There must be legal provisions to ban the cruelties on pets and these legal provisions must be put into practice strictly. If we arc kind and noble to our pets it will be a great service to Almighty God because all these creatures are His creation.
There is an on-going debate on whether snake charmers should continue in their profession. You can get some idea about the debate from the newspaper clipping (The Hindu, 16 June, 2004) given below. Read it, discuss in pairs or groups, and write either for or against the profession of snake charmers.
REPORT COMES IN SUPPORT OF SNAKE CHARMERS
BY OUR STAFF REPORTER
NEW DELHI, JUNE 15. Over 30 years after the introduction of the Wildlife Protection Act (WPA) that banned the catching of snakes in India, a small community of snake charmers continues to practise the trade catching over 400,000 snakes every year — which ultimately die — in defiance of the law.
A report based on new research by the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), however, has strongly recommended that the traditional knowledge of the snake charmers and skills be now utilised for education and medicine by setting up sapera centres. This is mainly because the community has virtually no access to land, education or employment opportunities. They are dependent on snake charming to earn a livelihood. They trade around
as vendors of traditional medicine, snake catchers and musicians. Ignorance about the law is quite common.
The report entitled “Biodiversity, Livelihoods and the Law: The Case of the Jogi-Nath Snake Charmers of India” based on path-breaking research was formally released by the Inspector General of Forests. V.K. Bahuguna, along with a presentation by members of the sapera community in the Capital on Monday.
“Despite thirty years of the law being in existence, over 70 per cent of the Jogi-Naths are still dependent on snake charming to earn a livelihood. Ignorance about the law was quite common. None of them owns the land, even though they would like to,” said Bahar Dutt, who led this research. Notably, most of those practising the trade in the current generation are all under 35 years of age.
Trapping occurs throughout the year and during their travels, though this activity increases during the monsoons. According to the data, each family on an average collects at least seven snakes.
Most snakes were force-fed and snake husbandry methods and health were found to be poor. “The snake charmers community council imposes a heavy fine on a person if the snake dies in his custody as it is considered an extremely bad omen. As a result, the snakes are released when the charmers realise that their condition is deteriorating,” said Dutt. Their ambition to showcase the reptiles and earn money was not fulfilled, as they flouted four WPA provisions, for illegally possessing the animals, not feeding them properly, causing injuries by extracting teeth unscientifically and killing snakes for the valuable snake parts and bones. Their offence generally invites imprisonment for three to seven years and a fine up to Rs. 25,000 in each case.
“On the positive side researchers found that the snake charmers possess a unique ability to handle venomous snakes with a tremendous knowledge of the different species and their behaviour. They are also called by local farmers to retrieve snakes, who would otherwise just kill them from agricultural fields or human inhabited areas,” she said.