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SAMPLE QUESTION PAPER (2020-21)
ENGLISH – Language and Literature
CLASS-X (Rationalized syllabus)
Time 3 hrs Max. Marks: 80
1.This paper is divided into two parts: A and B. All questions are compulsory.
2. Separate instructions are given with each section and question, wherever necessary. Read these instructions very carefully and follow them.
3. Do not exceed the prescribed word limit while answering the questions.
Part -A (40 Marks)
Reading (20 Marks)
1.Read the passage given below. (10)
1.Like Bunny and me, perhaps you too are beginning to think twice before having people over for lunch or dinner. Soaring food prices of everything from tomatoes to tapioca, from potatoes to pumpkins, are part of the problem, but only part.
2. The real problem is diets. Many, if not most, of the people you know, gender and age no bar, are on some sort of diet. To further complicate matters, everyone’s on a different diet from everyone else. In middle-class India, everyone is becoming health-conscious, diets are the latest fad, and going on a special designer diet is even more fashionable than snapping selfies with your latest model customized iPhone.
3. There’s one diet, called the Atkins diet, in which people will eat only proteins (meat, fish, eggs) and veggies, but no cereals or carbs, as carbohydrates are referred to in diatese, the special language in which dieters speak to each other.
4. Then there are people who’ll eat all carbs, but won’t eat wheat because wheat has gluten in it. There are diehard non-vegetarians who become vegetarian on Tuesday or during certain phases of the moon. There are vegans who are not only pure vegetarian but won’t eat any animal products, like cheese or paneer, though food cooked in ‘ash ghee’ is presumably exempt.
5. There’s even something called the paleo diet or caveman’s diet, in which you are only allowed to eat what our prehistoric ancestors ate before they invented agriculture. So, paleo will eat only meat (one Woolly Mammoth Butter Masala coming up), and berries, and other stuff that grows in the wild.
6. The keto diet is the latest low-carb craze to hit the active scene. In truth, it’s been around for a while-decades, in fact, and has been used in the treatment of children with epilepsy-but the term is now finding mainstream health following. On the plus side, it offers fast weight loss, and on the minus side……. well, according to Australian nutritionist Susie Burrel, there really isn’t much on the minus side.
7. The keto (short for ketogenic) diet works when your body produces ketones from broken-down fats in the liver for energy, rather than relying on insulin to convert carbohydrates. The body enters a state of ketosis-in layman’s terms, using fat rather than sugar for energy.
8. Will diets spell the doom of the shared dinner table? Not at all. There’s one form of diet, popularised by the likes of Anna Hazare, that’ll solve the problem. It’s a special diet called ‘fasting’, so-called because the fast is exactly that: it’s so fast it’s over almost as soon as it’s begun. The fast feast will provide the perfect social evening, guaranteed to reduce both food bills and waistlines. And, best of all, friends can get together without worries that one day diet will do us apart.
On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any ten of the following questions. (1x 10 = 10)
(i) According to the passage, why do we need to think twice before inviting someone for dinner?
(a) Soaring prices
(b) Lack of time
(c) Different diets of everyone
(d) Both (a) and (c)
(ii) For what reason are people attracted towards different diets?
(a) They are becoming fashionable.
(b) They are becoming health conscious.
(c) They come under peer pressure.
(d) They want to become thin.
(iii) Select the option that makes the correct use of ‘diehard’ as used in the passage, to fill in space.
(a) He never held office again, but he was…………. in support of the causes which he had at heart.
(b) You don’t have to be a………… video game fan to buy a Game Boy.
(c) Digital scrapbook supplies are………… for scrapbooking with your computer.
(d) Despite this being such an electronically driven age, it should come as no surprise that some old habits………..
(iv) Why do people avoid wheat?
(a) They are allergic to it
(b) It contains an amount of carbohydrates
(c) It contains gluten
(d) It is not a protein
(v) Which of the following lists the tone and mood of the author in the given passage?
(a) 1 and 6 (b) 2 and 5 (c) 3 and 4 (d) 2 and 4
(vi) How was the Keto-diet used earlier?
(a) For the treatment of obesity-related problems.
(b) For the treatment of children with epilepsy.
(c) For weight loss.
(d) For treatment of diabetics
(vii) Which of the following will be the most appropriate title for the passage?
(a) The Differing Diets
(b) What’s your Diet?
(c) Perfect Meal for a Get-Together
(d) Food Tantrums!
(viii) What type of diet does the passage suggest?
(a) Fasting (b) Keto
(c) Paleo (d) Atkins
(ix) What is diabetes?
(a) A special diet and the words associated with it
(b) A language used by dieticians
(c) A language used by dieters
(d) A language talking of a special diet
(x) How does keto-diet work?
(a) It reduces the storage of fat.
(b) It do not rely on insulin for conversion of carbohydrates.
(c) It uses fat instead of sugar for energy.
(d) Both (b) and (c)
(xi) What do people generally avoid in Atkins diet?
(a) Carbohydrates (b) Proteins
(c) Vegetables (d) Wheat
(xii) Choose the option that incorrectly states the meaning of ‘conscious’, as used in the passage.
1.To be careful
2. To be aware
3. To be knowledgeable
4. To have experience
5. To have ethics
6. To be alarmed
(a) 1,2 and 3 (b) 4,5 and 6 (c) 1,3 and 5 (d) 2,4 and 6
2. Read the passage given below. (10)
1. According to the majority of Americans, women are every bit as capable of being good political leaders as men. The same can be said of their ability to dominate the corporate boardroom. And according to a new Pew Research Center survey on women and leadership, most Americans find women indistinguishable from men on key leadership traits with many saying they’re stronger than men in terms of being compassionate and organized leaders.
2. So why, then, are women in short supply at the top of government and business in the United States? According to the public, it’s not that they lack toughness, management chops or proper skill sets. It’s also not all about work-life balance. While previous survey findings have shown that career interruptions related to motherhood may make it harder for women to advance in their careers, relatively few adults in the new survey point to this as a key barrier.
3. When it comes to characteristics that apply specifically to political and business leadership, most Americans don’t distinguish between men and women. But among those who do draw distinctions, women are perceived to have a clear advantage over men in some key areas.
4. Many adults (34%) think that female politician are better at working out compromises than their male counterparts. Only 9% say men are better. Women are perceived to have an edge over men when it comes to being honest and ethical (34% say women are better at this; 3% say men are better at it). They also have a somewhat narrower advantage over men when it comes to working to improve the quality of life and standing up for what they believe in despite political pressure.
5. Just as in the political realm, the public does not see major differences between men and women on key business leadership qualities. Where they do see gaps, women have a clear advantage over men on honesty and ethics, providing fair pay and benefits, and offering mentorship to young employees.
6. The pipeline for female leaders seems to be widening. Women have made significant gains in educational attainment in recent decades, better positioning themselves not only for career success but also for leadership positions.
On the basis of your reading answer any ten of the following questions. (1x 10 = 10)
(i) What does the majority of Americans accept?
(a) Women suffer partiality into positions.
(b) Women have been unable to get to the top position because of society
(c) Women are much more capable of handling top positions.
(d) Men do not justify their positions.
(ii) Which characteristics of women make them leaders equivalent to men?
(a) Proper skills sets
(b) Compassion and organization
(d) All of these
(c) Managerial power
(iii) In the line “… as capable of being”, the capability DOES NOT include
(a) Political leadership
(b) Boardroom positions
(c) Training and mentorship
(d) Speed and quantity
(iv) With respect to the characteristics that are needed for political and business leadership, females
(a) are at a lower position to men
(b) are at a higher position
(c) are on equal footing
(d) can’t be compared to men
(v) The passage clearly DOES NOT indicate that
(a) many women don’t have time to take other jobs because of family responsibilities.
(b) American people are against-female leaders.
(c) women have made many education attainments in previous years.
(d) motherhood is not a key barrier for women to advance in their careers.
(vi) What does the passage tell us about female politicians?
(a) They have a higher ability at working out compromises.
(b) They are more honest and ethical.
(c) They have higher standards.
(d) Both (a) and (b)
(vii) Based on your understanding of the passage, choose the option that lists the thing at which women have an advantage;
(a) 1,2 and 3
(b) 4,5 and 6
(c) 1,2 and 4
(d) All of these
(viii) In which fields do the women have an advantage over men?
(a) Honesty and ethics
(b) Providing fair pay and benefits
(c) Offering mentorship to young employees
(d) All of these
(ix) What did the previous surveys state regarding women?
(a) Women have to leave their careers for motherhood.
(b) Women have to face double standards.
(c) Women have to twice as hard to prove themselves.
(d) Women are not as educated for the top positions.
(x) Where do the people see gaps between men and women?
(a) In how women are more suited to top positions over men.
(b) In how women are harassed to prove herself.
(c) In how men are more suited to top-level positions.
(d) In how both stand on equal footing.
(xi) What was the result of the comparisons drawn in the survey research?
(a) Many old people believe that women can’t become good mangers.
(b) Most males think that women are not tough enough to handle higher positions.
(c) Most companies are hesitant to hire women at top positions.
(d) Women have key advantages over men.
(xii) What does the author mean by ‘The pipeline for female leaders seems to be widening’?
(a) More and more women are taking leadership roles.
(b) Opportunities for women have grown significantly.
(c) With awareness, women are getting educated.
(d) Women have the power to control society.
Literature Textbooks (10 Marks)
3. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow. (1 x 5 = 5)
It was only when 1 began to learn that my boyhood freedom was an illusion when I discovered as a young man that my freedom had already been taken from me, that I began to hunger for it. At first, as a student, I wanted freedom only for myself, the transitory freedoms of being able to stay out at night, read what I pleased and go where I chose.
Later, as a young man in Johannesburg, I yearned for the basic and honourable freedoms of achieving my potential, of earning my keep, of marrying and having a family – the freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.
(i) ‘I’ here refers to ………….
(a) Oliver Tambos (b) Yusuf Dadoos
(c) Bram Fischers (d) Nelson Mandela
(ii) Why was freedom an illusion for him?
(a) Because he was born in an apartheid country.
(b) Because he was not free to educate himself.
(c) Because he was not free to many and have a family.
(d) All of the above
(iii) From where did his hunger for freedom begin?
(a) Childhood (b) Adolescence
(c) Adulthood (d) Old age
(iv) Choose the option that lists the set of statements that are NOT TRUE according to the given extract.
1.I was the first President of South Africa.
2. I fought for the freedom of his community.
3. I supported the supremacy of one race over the other.
4. The concept of freedom changed with age for ‘I’.
5. As a young man, I wanted to get married.
6. I was a very meek personality.
(a) 3 and 4 (b) 1 and 2 (c) 5 and 6 (d) 3 and 6
(v) Pick the option that correctly classifies fact/s(F) and opinion/s (O) given below.
(a) F-1 and 0-2,3,4 (b) F-1,4 and 0-2,3
(c) F-2,3 and 0-1,4 (d) F- 1,3 and 0-2,4
Brilliant scientist though he was, Griffin was rather a lawless person. His landlord disliked him and tried to eject him. In revenge, Griffin set fire to the house. To get away without being seen he had to remove his clothes. Thus, it was that he became a homeless wanderer, without clothes, without money, and quite invisible – until he happened to step in some mud and left footprints as he walked!
(i) How can you say that Griffin was a brilliant scientist?
(a) As he carried on various experiments.
(b) As his experiments were used for common people.
(c) As he carried on various experiments to prove that the human body could become invisible.
(d) All of the above
(ii) How did he reach to the position of invisibility?
(a) He swallowed certain drugs.
(b) As a mistake during one of his experiments.
(c) He drank chemicals.
(d) None of these
(iii) Choose the answer that lists the correct option about Griffin’s discovery
(a) Option 1 (b) Option 2 (c) Option 3 (d) Option 4
(iv) Griffin was disliked by ………….
(a) his Landlord (b) Mr Hall
(c) Constable Jaffers (d) Clergymen
(v) Why was he wandering on the streets?
(a) Because he had set fire to his landlord’s house.
(b) Because he was shifting to another place.
(c) Because he was poor.
(d) Because he was travelling.
4. Read the extract given below and answer the following questions. (1x 5=5)
I would not intrude on him,
A dime, another ball, is worthless.
Now He sense first responsibility
In a world of possessions.
(i) Who does not want to intrude on him?
(a) The poet (b) The boy
(c) Boy’s friend (d) Boy’s mother
(ii)The loss of the ball teaches the boy ……………..
(a) Sense of responsibility
(b) To be carefree
(c) To be materialistic
(d) None of these
(iii)A world of possessions means………….
(a) World of deception
(b) World of fantasy
(c) World of materialism
(d) World of reality
(iv)Which word in the above extract is an antonym of ‘abandoning’?
(a) Worthless (b) Responsibility
(c) Possessions (d)Intrude
(v)What does ‘dime’ represent here?
(a) Money (b) Moral lesson
(c) Another ball (d) Loss
He should be lurking in shadow,
Sliding through long grass,
Near the water hole,
Where plump deer pass.
(i)The fact that he is ‘lurking in shadow’ tells us that he is
(a) in the cage
(c) in his natural habitat
(ii)In the given lines, the tiger is near the water hole because
(a) he is thirsty
(b) he is hiding
(c) he is resting
(d) he is waiting for his prey
(iii)The stanza in the context of the poem, presents
(a) the nature of tigers
(b) a contrast between tigers in zoo’s and natural habitats.
(c) the strength and weaknesses of a tiger.
(d) the importance of every animal.
(iv)The word in the passage that does not indicate the movement is
(a) lurking (b) sliding
(c) pass (d) plump
(v)Which poetic device is used in the last line of the given extract?
Grammar (10 Marks)
5. Fill in the blanks given below with the help of options that follow. (1 x 3 = 3)
Information technology (i) …………. the way we access information. Since its introduction in the 1980s, the internet has become cheap and commonplace. Some people (ii)……….. this as an opportunity to deal with problems like unemployment. They (iii)…………. that the government should provide free internet access to people looking for a job. I do not agree with this point of view for several reasons.
(i)(a) had changed (b) has changed (c) changes (d) will change
(ii) (a) saw (b) will see (c) had seen (d) saw
(iii) (a) argue (b) argued (c) will argue (d) are arguing
6. Choose the correct options to fill in the blanks to complete the narration. (1 x 3 = 3)
Mr. Swami’s secretary told him that Mr. Rangarajan was on the line. He (i)………… if he had received the fax. Swami told his secretary that he did not know anything about it and asked him to check the fax machine. (ii) ………… the secretary informed Swami that there was fax which says that he had not replied to the e-mail sent to him last week. There was a request to reply (iii) ………….
(i)(a) wants to knew (b) wanted to know
(c) wants to know (d) wanting to knew
(ii) (a) As he checked (b) After he checks
(c) Because he check (d) As he was checking
(iii) (a) as early (b) very soon
(c) at the earliest (d) in the early time
7. Fill in the blanks by choosing the correct option for any four of the six sentences given below. (1 x 4 = 4)
(i) As the tree was too high to climb, the mischievous boys …………their ball down only by throwing sticks at it.
(a) would have knocked
(b) were able to knock
(c) will have to knock
(d) may have knocked
(ii) The truth is, I’m not…………. pleased with Mike’s grades this year.
(a) a little
(b) a lot
(c) at least
(d) at all
(iii) I’m ready to do anything, I can do to help you……….. your hardship.
(c) to have overcome
(d) having overcome
(iv) She keeps saying that she has got ………. patience with kids, but forgets that she didn’t have ………..before she gave birth to her own kids.
(a) too many, any
(b) such, none
(c) enough, as much
(d) so, some
(v) My mother is making a steady recovery from flu and……….. hospital by next week.
(a) should be able to leave
(b) is leaving
(c) has left
(d) will have left
(vi) Frost occurs in valleys and on low grounds……….. on adjacent hills.
(a) more frequently than
(b) as frequent as
(c) too frequent
(d) frequently enough
Part – B (40 Marks)
Writing (10 Marks)
8. You are Raashi, a resident of Noida. You are a subscriber of a monthly magazine named Femina. Lately you have not been receiving the copies of the magazine. Write a letter to the circulation Manager, Femina explaining the situation regarding the non-receipt of copies in about 100-120 words. (5)
You eat at your college cafeteria at lunch time every day. However, recently you saw the condition of it which made you think that it needs some improvements. Write a letter to the college authority explaining the situation in about 100-120 words.
9. The following pie-chart shows the kinds of book categories preferred by students of age group 7-12 years. Using the data provided, complete the paragraph. (5)
The chart given below shows the value of one country’s exports in various categories during 2015 and 2016. The table shows the percentage change in each category or exports in 2016 compared with 2015.
Literature Textbooks (30 Marks)
- (a) Answer any two of the following questions in 20-30 words each. (2 x 2 = 4)
(i) How did the young seagull’s mother trick him into taking his first flight?
(ii) What does Buddha tell Kisa Gotami to do?
(iii) What do ‘Fire’ and ‘Ice’ stand for?
(b) Answer any two of the following questions in 20-30 words each. (2 x 2 = 4)
(i) Why Matilda did not want to see her rich friends?
(ii) Who was Richard A. Weiherer? How did he help Richard Ebright?
(iii) What suggestions were given by Dr Herriot to Mrs Pumphrey at the initial stage?
11. (a) Answer any two of the following questions in 40-50 words each. (3 x 2 = 6)
(i) Give a brief description of Maddie.
(ii) How do Coorg’s location and natural features add to the diversity of India?
(iii) Explain the qualities of the post office employees. (Letter to God)
(b) Answer any two of the following questions in 40-50 words each. (3×2=6)
(i) Why was Matilda always unhappy?
(ii) Bholi found a ray of hope in her teacher. Justify.
(iii) Why do you think that Lutkin’s neighbours were anxious to meet the lawyer?
12. Answer the following question in 100-120 words. (5)
Man is a social animal. He has some obligations to society. Nelson Mandela says In life, every man has twin obligations.” What twin obligations does Mandela mention? How can one fulfill these obligations?
It is a common observance that more attention is paid to unimportant issues at the cost of important ones. The play ‘The Proposal’ beautifully portrays this fact. Suggest some steps how we can avoid this unhealthy practice.
13. Answer the following question in 100-120 words. (5)
Give a brief character sketch of Anil highlighting his qualities. (The Thief’s Story)
How did Richard Ebrights’ not winning anything at his first fair act as motivation?
1. (i) (d) Both (a) and (c)
(ii) (a) They are becoming fashionable.
(iii)(b) You don’t have to be a video game fan to buy a Game Boy.
(iv) (c) It contains gluten
(v)(d) 2 and 4
(vi) (b) For the treatment of children with epilepsy.
(vii) (c) Perfect Meal for Get-Together
(viii) (a) Fasting
(ix) (c) A language used by dieters
(x) (d) Both (b) and (c)
(xi) (a) Carbohydrates
(xii) (a) 1,2 and 3
2. (i) (c) Women are much more capable of handling top positions.
(ii) (b) Compassion and organisation
(iii)(d) Speed and quantity
(iv) (c) are on equal footing
(v)(b) American people are against-female leaders.
(vi)(d) Both (a) and (b)
(vii) (d) All of these
(viii) (d) All of these
(ix) (a) Women have to leave their careers for motherhood.
(x) (a) In how women are more suited to top positions over men.
(xi) (d) Women have key advantages over men.
(xii) (a) More and more women are taking leadership roles.
3. (i) (d) Nelson Mandela
(ii) (d) All of the above
(iv) (d) 3 and 6
(v) (b) F-1,4 and 0-2,3
(i)(c) As he carried on various experiments to prove that human body could become invisible.
(ii) (a) He swallowed certain drugs
(iii)(b) Option 2 (Invisible)
(iv) (a) his Landlord
(v) (a) Because he had set fire to his landlord’s house.
4.(i) (a) The poet
(ii)(a) Sense of responsibility
(iii)(c) World of materialism
(v) (a) Money
(i)(c) in his natural habitat
(ii) (d) he is waiting for his prey
(iii)(b) a contrast between tigers in zoo’s and natural habitat.
(iv) (d) plump
(v) (b) Alliteration
5. (i) (b) has changed (ii) (d) saw (iii) (a) argue
6. (i) (b) wanted to know (ii) (a) As he checked (iii) (c) at the earliest
7. (i) (b) were able to knock (ii)(d) at all
(iii) (a) overcome (iv) (c) enough, as much
(v) (d) will have left (vi) (a) more frequently than
April 14, 20XX
The Circulation Manager
14/5 Supertech Enclave
Subject Not receiving the copies of Femina Magazine
I am a subscriber of the monthly Femina Magazine with the subscription number 102XXXXX. I am writing this letter to inform you that I have not been receiving the copies of the magazine for the past 3 months. The last copy that I had received was issued on 12th January, 20XX.
Initially, the copies were not delivered on time but now it is not being delivered at all. Regarding this issue. I had a word with the delivery boy and he told me that there was an issue from the circulation department’s end.
I had also contacted your helpline number but the issue had not yet being fixed. I would appreciate if you could look into the issue and make sure that I get the copies on time. Looking forward to your speedy action.
186, Dharma Hostel
10 August. 20XX
Subject The condition of the cafeteria
I am writing in connection with our college cafeteria whose condition seems to be very bad. The cafeteria itself is modern, spacious, and attractive. The newly painted murals of the seaside give the seating area an open, airy, outdoor feeling which makes it very pleasant to eat meals there.
However, it is not very well-maintained. The corners of the cafeteria are covered with dirt and dust and the tables are not properly cleaned. Apart from maintenance. there is a very limited selection of food items available Not only is the selection provided unhealthily, but also not filling, which comes as a massive problem for hostel students like myself. Further, since this is a student cafeteria, prices need to be low. We have unfortunately seen too much price hikes in the last two years.
I am sure if we offer a wider range of foods, at better prices, the cafeteria will continue to run profitably as more students choose to eat there.
9. Books and Students
In the modern technological world, we all accept the fact that more and more students are getting dependent on e-books. Although, the medium of books have changed, the kind of books liked by children does not seem to change drastically. They still love their comic books with a limited number of themes.
The given data clearly depicts that students between the age of 7-12 still prefer superhero based comic books. Just like the earlier times when the super hero comic books of Marvel and DC were loved. 30 % of the students today are more inclined to it. Funny books are also preferred by a significant number of students followed by novels prescribed by the school with 25% and 15 % students spending time reading them. Apart from them, short story books and mythology based comic books are also equally loved by students.
While there are many options that are emerging daily for reading, children still stick to their favorite visual books with certain heroic or comic themes for entertainment.
Country Exports Data in 2015-2016
The bar chart and table give information about a country’s export earnings from five groups of products in 2015 and 2016. It is noticeable that export revenues one of the five product categories increased over the period. While petroleum products were the highest-earning exports in both years, the textile industry saw the most significant growth in earnings.
Export earnings from petroleum products rose from around $61 billion in 2015 to $63 billion in 2016. Income from engineered goods reached a similar level. The country’s export earnings from these goods went up to approximately $62 billion in 2016.
From 2015 to 2016, there was an increase in export revenue from textiles, with earnings rising from roughly $25 billion to over $30 billion. By contrast, there was almost no change in the amount of money earned from agricultural products, which remained at just over $30 billion. Finally, the only decline in income, occurred in the gems and jewellery product group, where export earnings fell by from about $ 43 billion to approximately $40 billion in 2016.
10. (a) (i) To make the young seagull fly, his mother trick him. She flew very near to him with a fish in her beak. The young seagull who was extremely hungry jumped forward to catch the fish from his mother’s mouth. He was falling but suddenly his wings stretched and he found himself flying.
(ii) When Kisa Gotami went to Buddha to ask for medicine, he told her to get a handful of mustard seeds which must be taken from a house where no one has lost a child, husband, parent or friend.
(iii) In the poem, ‘Fire’ is associated with greed, cruelty, and lust. whereas ‘Ice’ is associated with rigidity, hatred, coldness, and indifference.
(b) (i) Matilda did not want to see her rich friends because she suffered from an inferiority complex. She was married to a simple clerk, whereas her friends were rich and prosperous.
(ii) Richard A Weiherer was Richard Ebright’s Social Studies teacher and adviser to the debating and Model United Nations Club. He helped Ebright by opening his mind to new ideas. He encouraged him and boosted his research.
(iii) Dr. Herriot suggested Mrs. Pumphrey to cut down on the sweet things and not to give extra food to Tricki. He also suggested her to give him more exercises and keep him on a very strict diet.
11. (a) (i) Maddie was a poor girl who usually wore somebody’s hand-me-down clothes. Although she did not like Peggy making fun of Wanda, she did not say anything as she was afraid that Peggy would start making fun of her too. Peggy’s friendship was important to her as Peggy was the most liked girl in the school. Maddie was not really a cruel girl, she only lacked courage.
(ii) Coorg’s location and natural features add to the diversity of India as it is beautifully located and described as a piece of heaven that must have drifted from the kingdom of God It has rolling hillsides with a pollution-free river and forests teeming with wildlife. Further, it has coffee and spice plantations, quite different from the rest of India.
(iii) The post office employees represented the people who believed in helping others. They were kind and helpful. They cooperated with each other and contributed to their best of their capability just to keep Lencho’s faith in God. They had love, concern, compassion, and empathy for Lencho.
(b) (i) Matilda was always unhappy because she had been born into a simple family of clerks and married also to a clerk. Thus ,her desires to be rich or distinguished or of becoming known were never fulfilled which caused her to be unhappy
(ii) Bholi’s family had always neglected her. They ignored her and made fun of her all the time. It was her teacher who gave her importance and boosted her confidence. She not only comforted her but also treated her with affection to bring hope to Bholi. Thus, her teacher became a ray of hope for Bholi.
(iii) Lutkins took the lawyer all across the New Mullion in search of Lutkins himself. He successfully fooled the lawyer. During this process of deception, almost all the people in the town got to see the lawyer. His neighbours were the only people in town who had missed seeing the lawyer Thus, lutkins neighbours wanted to meet him.
12. Man is a social animal and has some social obligations to society. Nelson Mandela understood the importance of being social. Mandela talks about twin obligations to his family, to his parents, to his wife and children. This is the first and the most important obligation that every man has to fulfill in his life. Another obligation is to his people, to his community and to his nation.
He emphasises that in civil society, each one of us should fulfill these obligations. It is the responsibility of the government to provide an atmosphere where a person can fulfill these obligations But in a country like South Africa, it was not possible to fulfill these obligations because of discrimination It was an era of oppression and torture for the black Africans in their own country. They were not allowed even the basic freedom of living a dignified life.
In the play, ‘The Proposal’ both Natalya and Lomov are found draging up small matters and wasting their time arguing on who is correct. Lomov who had visited Natalya’s home to propose her to marriage forgot about the important issue and argued with her on unimportant issues. This marriage proposal, which was priority for him, became unimportant as they start arguing again and again.
In such a scenario, it is best to first set our priorities right. One must ignore the unimportant issues and not pay too much attention on trivialities. It will not only save our time and energy but will lead to success in life. If Lomov and Natalya would have focused on the priority i.e. the marriage proposal, the disruption created due to small irrelevant issues could have been avoided.
13. Mil was a young man of 25 years. He was an easy-going, kind and simple man. He was a writer and wrote books as well as contributed to magazines. His income was not regular. He did not give any importance to materialism. He was an extravagant man, who would spend money lavishly on his friends.
He was sympathetic towards Hari Singh and did not throw him out of his house when he could not cook well. He trusted a stranger and gave him the keys. He was a nice person as he gave Hari Singh a chance to improve He did not say anything to Hari Singh on knowing about his guilt, rather gave him a fifty rupee note with a promise to give him regularly.
Richard Ebright from a very young age showed deep curiosity in butterflies and insects. He had collected many species of butterflies found in his hometown. However, the real motivation for him to become a scientist came when he was in seventh grade. In the country science fair he had entered with a project. His project was slides of frog tissues that he showed under a microscope. In this fair, he failed miserably as he did not get anything while all others had won something. It was then. Ebright got to know what real science was He realized that while he had taken slides of tissues all other participants had tried real experiments This motivated him to look forward towards new ideas and suggestions from Dr. Urquhart.
From then, he moved forward in his continuous research and experimentations that lead to his success He not only won honours and prizes locally but also excelled internationally. Thus, one can say that his not winning anything at his first fair acted as motivation.