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Chapter-11.1 For Anne Gregory NCERT Solution

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NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Thinking About the Poem (Page 141)

Q1. What does the young man mean by “great honey-coloured/Ramparts at your ear?” Why does he say that young men are “thrown into despair” by them?

Ans. The young lady, Anne Gregory’s hair are blonde or yellow. They are honey-coloured. The hair falling on Anne’s ears look like the rampart-walls surrounding a fort. The young man is thrown into despair as he doesn’t get a suitable response from the lady he loves.

Q2. What colour is the young woman’s hair? What does she say she can change it to? Why would she want to do so?

Ans. The colour of the young woman’s hair is yellow. Her hair can be called ‘blonde’. She says that she can change the colour of her hair according to her choice. She can dye the hair brown, black or of carrot’s colour. She wants to show that outward appearances can easily be changed. A young man should not fall in love with her only after seeing her yellow hair or outwardly appearance.

Q3. Objects have qualities which make them desirable to others. Can you think of some objects (a car, a phone, a dress  ) and say what qualities make one object more desirable than another? Imagine you were trying to sell an object: what qualities would you emphasise?

Ans. Yes, objects do have certain qualities which make them desirable to others. A car is an easy way of personal transport. A phone is the easiest way of communication. Similarly, a dress can be used to make your personality more presentable before others. While selling an object, I will emphasize not only its appearance but also its inherent positive characteristics and features.

Q4. What about people? Do we love others because we like their qualities, whether physical or mental? Or is it possible to love someone “for themselves alone”? Are some people ‘more lovable’ than others? Discuss this question in pairs or in groups, considering points like the following:

(i)a parent or caregiver’s love for a newborn baby, for a mentally or physically challenged child, for a clever child or a prodigy

(ii) the public’s love for a film star, a sportsperson, a politician, or a social worker.

(iii) your love for a friend, or brother or sister.

(iv) your love for a pet, and the pet’s love for you.

Ans. Human beings act and react differently to different people in different circumstances. It is true that generally, we love others because we like their qualities. Their physical appearances and their mental qualities may attract us towards them. There is no doubt that some people are ‘more lovable’ than others. That may be due to the fact that individuals differ in temperaments and traits.

 It is possible to love others only ‘for themselves alone’. The love between a mother and a child, a father and son, a brother and sister, etc. depends on what they are rather than what they should be.

(i) A parent’s love for a newborn baby depends on his or her blood relationship and emotional ties with the newborn baby. Similarly, a caregiver’s love depends on his or her responsibility for the safe bringing up of the newborn baby. Parents’ love for a mentally or physically challenged child is equally strong and passionate. It doesn’t depend much if the child is clever or a prodigy.

(ii) People’s love for film stars, sportsmen, politicians or social workers depends on their social, cultural and political backgrounds and ideas. Some may like Amitabh while others may love  Salman Khan. People love them for their extraordinary feats. When these public figures fall short of their expectations, their liking, craze and love for them naturally go down accordingly.

(iii) My love for a friend depends on the areas of agreement which I share with him or her. But my love for my brother or sister depends on familial ties and bondage.

(iv) My love for a pet depends on how much I am attached to that pet. The pet’s love for me depends on the degree of intimacy I have for that pet.

Q5. You have perhaps concluded that people are not objects to be valued for their qualities or riches rather than for themselves. But elsewhere Yeats asks the question: How can we separate the dancer from the dance? Is it possible to separate ‘the person himself or herself’ from how the person looks, sounds, walks and so on? Think of how you or a friend or member of your family has changed over the years. Has your relationship also changed? In what way?

Ans. Life and people are not to be judged and evaluated in absolute terms. The truth lies somewhere in between the lines.

It would be wrong to say that people are objects. And hence, they can’t be valued for their qualities or riches. But the truth may be the other way around. Some people do value people for their qualities. Their physical, material and mental qualities do influence our love and liking for them. But there are certain relations where we love and like people for themselves. Familial ties bind us to our parents, brothers and sisters. We love them for themselves.

Yeats’ question can’t be ignored. “How can we separate the dancer from the dance? We simply can’t. It is not possible to separate ‘the person himself or herself’ from how the person looks, sounds walks and so on. Naturally, a person can’t be separated from his inherent characteristics and traits. The seem and substance of all these things from what we call his or her ‘personality’. Man’s growth is organic. Over the years, we find a marked change in a friend or in a member of the family. It is quite natural. Our relationship with that friend or the member of the family depends on how much we can adjust to him. It depends on how common interests and areas of agreement we share.

Class-10 Chapter-7 THE NECKLACE NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

NCERT Solutions

The Necklace

Chapter – 7

Read and Find Out

1. What kind of a person is Mme Loisel − why is she always unhappy?

Answer:- Mme. Loisel is a dreamy woman. She gives much value to her dreams. She overlooks the realities of life. That is why she is always unhappy because dreams can’t be true. She wants them to be true.

2. What kind of a person is her husband?

Answer:- Her husband is a very simple-hearted person. He is an ordinary person. He is a caring husband. He wants to see Mme. Loisel happy.

Read and Find Out

 1. What fresh problem now disturbs Mme Loisel?

Answer:- After buying a pretty dress, Mme Loisel was bothered by yet another problem. She had no jewel to adorn herself with. She said she would have a poverty-stricken look. Her husband suggested that she should wear some natural flowers. However, she refused and said that there was nothing more humiliating than to have a shabby air in the midst of rich women.

2. How is the problem solved?

Answer:- Mme Loisel’s husband solved this problem. He told his wife to request her friend, Mme Forestier to lend her some jewels. When she went to Mme Forestier, the latter brought a jewel case, so that Mme Loisel could choose whichever jewels she liked.

Read and Find Out

1. What does M. and Mme Loisel do next?

Answer:- When M. and Mme Loisel realized that the necklace was missing, they tried finding out where she could have lost it. They concluded that it could have been dropped in the cab. They did not know its number. Therefore, Loisel went over the track where they had walked. When he found nothing, he went to the police and to the cab offices. He even put an advertisement in the newspapers, offering a reward. He then asked Matilda to write a letter to Mme Forestier, explaining that she had broken the clasp of the necklace and would get it repaired. This gave them time to find the necklace. However, they eventually decided to replace the necklace with a new one.

Thinking about the text

1. The course of the Loisels’ life changed due to the necklace.

Answer:- The course of the Loisel’s life changed due to the necklace. After replacing the lost necklace with a new one, they had to replay all the money that they had borrowed to buy the new necklace. They sent away the maid and changed their lodgings. They rented some rooms in an attic. Matilda learnt the odious work of a kitchen. She washed the dishes, soiled linen, their clothes and dishcloths. She took down the refuse to the street each morning and brought up the water, stopping at each landing to catch her breath. She went to the grocer’s, the butcher’s, and the fruiter’s, with her basket on her arm, shopping, haggling to save her money. Loisel worked in the evenings, putting the books of some merchants in order. At night, he did copying at five sous a page. This lasted for ten years, and at the end of the said period, they were able to repay their lenders.

2. What was the cause of Matilda’s ruin? How could she have avoided it?

Answer:-  The cause of Matilda’s ruin was her dissatisfaction with whatever life offered her. She was always unhappy. She felt that she was born for all the delicacies and luxuries. She disliked her circumstances.

She could have avoided the ruin by being content with what she had.

3. What would have happened to Matilda if she had confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace? Answer:- If Matilda would have confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace, she might have been in lesser trouble than what she faced after having replaced the necklace. Her friend would definitely have been angry with her. Most probably, she would have asked Matilda to replace it. She would have given her the details from where she had bought the necklace and how much it had cost her. Matilda would thus have known that the jewels in the necklace were not real diamonds. It would have cost her a far lesser amount to replace it.

Matilda would thus have saved herself and her husband all the trouble they went through.

4. If you were caught in a situation like this, how would you have dealt with it?

Ans. If I caught in a situation like this, I would have gone to my friend from whom I had borrowed the necklace. Then I would have confessed before her that I had lost the necklace. I paid the cost of the necklace to her directly if she demanded.

Talk about it (Page 46) 

1. The characters in this story speak in English. Do you think this is their language? What clues are there in the story about the language its characters must be speaking in?

Ans. This story was originally written in French. So the language of the characters is not English. There are many clues to it. The names of the characters are essentially French. The currency mentioned in the story is `franc’, which is French. The names of places are French, for example, `Palais-Royal’, Champs-Elysees’ etc.

  1. Honesty is the best policy.

Ans. It is a well-known proverb that honesty is the best policy. Honesty is a great blessing. An honest person shines like a gem in the world. On the other hand, everyone dislikes a dishonest man. Honesty is like a weapon which enables man to face all the difficulties of life. In today’s life, an honest man may not become rich. He may not possess all the comforts of life. He may be troubled by difficulties. But still, he will never lose his peace of mind. An honest person is honoured and respected by everybody. In spite of his poverty, he leads a satisfied life. He has peace of mind. Therefore, we should be honest. It will earn us the respect of our friends.

  1. We should be content with what life gives us.

Ans. Contentment is the greatest of all virtues. We must learn to be content with what life gives us. God is all-powerful. He looks after all human beings. He gives us joys and sorrows, according to our fate. We must remember that we cannot get anything more than what written in our destiny. At the same time, we cannot get anything before the time fixed for it by our destiny. Those who are not content, lead a life of misery. A contented labourer is much better than a discontented millionaire. The labourer works hard, earns some money, then has a sound sleep at night. It is because he is contented. On the other hand, a businessman earns millions, but still spends sleepless nights. He wants to earn more and more. That is a miserable life. In this story, Matilda suffers because she is not contented with her lot.

Download Chapter-7 THE NECKLACE in PDF

Class-10 Chapter-6 THE MAKING OF A SCIENTIST NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

 NCERT Solutions

The Making of a Scientist

Chapter – 6

Read and Find Out

1. How did a book become a turning point in Richard Ebright’s life?

Answer:- Richard Ebright was interested in collecting butterflies. By the time he was in the second grade, he had collected all the twenty-five species of butterflies found around his hometown. This would have been the end of his butterfly collecting. But at this point, his mother got him a book called “The Travels of Monarch X’. This book told him about the migration of monarch butterflies to Central America. This book aroused his interest in Monarch butterflies and opened the world of science to him. This proved to be a turning point in the life of young Richard Ebright. He began to raise Monarch butterflies in the basement of his home, and study them in a different stage of their development.

2. How did his mother help him?

Answer:- Richard Ebright’s mother helped him by encouraging his interest in learning. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment, and helped him in many other ways. If he did not have anything to do, she found things for him to learn. Even the book that became a turning point in his life was given to him by his mother. Hence, it can be said his mother played a crucial role in the making of the scientist.

Read and Find Out

 1. What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair?

Answer: Edbright realizes that mere display of something does not mean science. To win at a science fair he will have to do real experiments.

2. What experiments and projects does he then undertake?

Answer:- He makes experiments to find out what causes the viral disease that kills nearly all monarch caterpillars.

He undertakes a project to test the theory that victory butterflies copy monarchies to survive.

3. What are the qualities that go into the making of a scientist?

Answer:- The author mentions three qualities that go into the making of a scientist—a first-rate mind, curiosity, and the will to win for the right reasons. Richard Ebright was a very intelligent student. He was also a champion debater, a public speaker, a good canoeist and an expert photographer. He always gave that extra effort. He was competitive, but for the right reasons. From the first, he had a driving curiosity along with a bright mind, and it was this curiosity that ultimately led him to his theory about cell life.

Think about It

1. How can one become a scientist, an economist, a historian…? Does it simply involve reading many books on the subject? Does it involve observing, thinking and doing experiments?

Answer:- Reading books is just one aspect of learning. This is an exercise in information gathering. It is how your brain processes the information that affects the degree of learning. The first and the foremost criteria to become a genius in one’s chosen field is to have a great curiosity and unending hunger to discover more. Next criteria is a good sense of observation which helps you to correlate your findings with what you see or experience in the real world.

Experiments are just to test your findings against possible variables and in real life situations. And last, but not the least criteria is an urge to work really hard on your area of interest.

2. You must have read about cells and DNA in your science Discuss Richard Ebright’s work in the light of what you have studied. If you get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright on projects and experiments, which field would you like to work on and why?

Answer:- Ebright’ work is directly related to Biology. Discovery of a cell’s structure has helped the scientific community to understand the way any organism functions and grows. This has helped scientists to discover how disease-causing organisms attack us and grow inside our body. This must have given the idea to counter a particular disease. DNA fingerprinting is helping police to pinpoint the real culprit. This was not possible when DNA was discovered. Monarch butterflies present an amazing example of a tiny creature migrating thousands of miles from North America to the rainforest of Amazon. Someday we can be in a position to develop as sturdy and reliable navigation system as that of the Monarch butterflies.

Talk about it (Page 38)

  1. Children everywhere wonder about the world around them. the questions they ask are the beginning of the scientific inquiry. Given below are some questions that children in India have asked Professor Yash Pal and Dr Rahul Pal as reported in their book, Discovered Questions (NCERT, 2006)

(1) What is DNA fingerprinting? What are its uses?

(ii) How do honeybees identify their own honeycombs?

(iii) Why does rainfall in drops?

Can you answer these questions? You will find Professor Yash Pal’s and Dr Rahul Pal’s answers (as given in Discovered Questions) on page 75.

Ans. Students may see the answers to these questions on page 75 of their textbook.

  1. You also must have wondered about certain things around you. Share these questions with your class, and try to answer them.

Ans. It should be discussed at the class level.

Download Chapter-6 THE MAKING OF A SCIENTIST in PDF

Chapter-10.1 The Tale of Custard the Dragon NCERT Solution

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Thinking About the Poem (Page 132)

Q1. Who are the characters in the poem? List them with their pet names.

Ans. There are six characters described in the poem.

(i)There is a girl and her name is Belinda.

(ii) There is a black kitten. His pet name is Ink.

(iii) There is a little grey mouse. His pet name is Blink.

(iv) There is a little yellow dog and his pet name is Mustard.

(v) There is a pet dragon. He is called Custard.

(vi) There is a pirate who is killed and swallowed by the dragon.

Q2. Why did Custard cry for a nice safe cage? Why is the dragon called the “cowardly dragon”?

Ans. Custard, the dragon was not conscious of his strength. He was constantly worried about his safety. He always cried and begged for a nice safe cage in case he was in danger.

Outwardly, the dragon had big sharp teeth. He had spikes on the top and scales underneath. He spat fire and his mouth looked like a fireplace. He looked very ferocious and strong. Unfortunately, he was not conscious of his power and strength. He swallowed the pirate but couldn’t convince himself that he was not a coward.

Q3. “Belinda tickled him, she tickled him unmerciful…” Why?

Ans. Belinda didn’t have a good opinion of Custard, the dragon. He was thought to be a coward who was always worried about his safety. Therefore, Belinda always mocked and tickled Custard. She taunted him for his cowardice and was quite merciless in tickling, taunting and troubling him.

Q4. The poet has employed many poetic devices in the poem. For example: “Clashed his tail like iron in a dungeon”—the poetic device here is a simile. Can you, with your partner, list some more poetic devices used in the poem?

Ans.

Lines Poetic Device
1. And the little yellow dog was sharp as Mustard Simile
2. Mouth like a fireplace  Simile
3. Chimney for a nose Metaphor

4. Belinda was as brave as a barrel full of bears Simile
5. Mustard was as brave as a tiger in a rage Simile
6. But up jumped Custard snorting like an engine Simile
7. Clashed his tail like irons in a dungeon Simile
8. He went at the pirate like a robin at a worm Simile

Q5. Read stanza three again to know how the poet describes the appearance of the dragon.

Ans. In the third stanza, the poet describes the appearance of the dragon, Custard. The custard had big sharp teeth. He had spikes on the top of him. There were scales underneath. His mouth spat fire and looked like a fireplace. His long nose resembled a chimney. And he had `daggers’ on his toes.

Q6. Can you find out the rhyme scheme of two or three stanzas of the poem?

Ans. The rhyme scheme of all the stanzas is the same.

The rhyme scheme is: aa, bb

Q7. Writers use words to give us a picture or image without actually saying what they mean. Can you trace some images used in the poem?

Ans. Writers, particularly poets, use words to give us a picture or image without actually saying what they mean. Some words that give such images are in the poem:

(i)realio, truly, little pet dragon

(ii)Custard the dragon

(iii)Chimney for a nose

(iv)daggers on toes

Q8. Do you find ‘The Tale of Custard the Dragon’ to be a serious or a light-hearted poem? Give reasons to support your answer.

Ans. Basically, Ogden Nash’s, ‘The Tale of Custard the Dragon’ has been written for children. It is a humorous poem. The poet tries to create a light-hearted atmosphere through the use of words and sounds which may tickle the young readers. All pet names Ink, Blink, Mustard and Custard are funny names.

 However, the poet gives quite a serious message. The poem highlights that outwardly strength and power may not convince cowardly people like Custard that they are not cowards. Self-confidence and self-respect are the traits which Custard, the dragon lacks in him.

Q9. This poem, in ballad form, tells a story. Have you come across any such modern song or lyric that tells a story? If you know one, tell it to the class. Collect such songs as a project.

Ans. A ballad is a story told in verse or poetry. A ballad is simply a narrative poem or song. Rudyard Kipling’s ‘The Ballad of East and West’, William Butler Yeats’ `The Ballad of Moll Magee’ and Ezra Pound’s ‘Ballads of the Goodly Fere’ are some of the famous ballads written in verse.

Writing: (A Classroom Activity)

Class-10 Chapter-5 FOOTPRINTS WITHOUT FEET NCERT Solution

TEXTUAL EXERCISES

Read and Find Out (Pages 26 & 28)

1. How did the invisible man first become visible?

Ans. The invisible man entered a big London store. He broke open boxes and wrappers and fitted himself with warm clothes. He wore shoes, an overcoat and a hat. Now he was a fully visible man.

2. Why was he wandering the streets?

Ans. Griffin had set fire to his landlord’s house. He feared lest the police should catch him. So he was invisibly wandering the streets of London.

3. Why does Mrs Hall find the scientist eccentric?

Ans. Griffin came to Iping in winter. His coming at that time was strange. His appearance and habits were also strange. Mrs Hall tried to be friendly with him. But he got angry. He said that he did not want to be disturbed. These things compelled Mrs Hall to think that he was an eccentric person.

4. What curious episode occurs in the study?

Ans. One day, early in the morning, the clergyman and his wife heard noises in their study room. They went to doDownstairs. They heard the chink of money. Someone was stealing money from the desk. They opened the door silently. But they were surprised to find the room empty. Yet the money was missing. This was very curious.

5. What other extraordinary things happen at the inn?

Ans. First, Mrs Hall heard a sniff close to her ear. This was very strange as she did not see anyone near her. Secondly, the hat leapt up and struck her face. Thirdly, the bedroom chair sprang into the air and attacked her. These were the three extraordinary things.

 Think about it (page 31)

1. “Griffin was rather a lawless person.” Comment.

Ans. Griffin was a scientist. He made strange experiments. He discovered how to make human body invisible. Griffin was a lawless person. His landlord did not like him. He tried to get the house vacated. Griffin became angry. He set the house on fire. Then he became invisible and came out. He went into a big London store and stole clothes from there. Then he went to a shop of a theatrical company. He stole clothes and other things from there. He attacked the shopkeeper and robbed him. Then he came to Iping village. He stayed at an inn. He stole money from a clergyman’s house. When the policeman came to arrest him, he became invisible and beat him. Then he became free and walked out.

2. How would you assess Griffin as a scientist?

  Ans. Griffin was not a true scientist. A true scientist does not misuse his knowledge. Griffin was a brilliant scientist. He discovered a rare drug. But he misused that drug. He became invisible. He stole clothes and money. He hit the shopkeeper and robbed him. He stole the clergyman’s money also.

Talk about it (Page 31)

Q.1. Would you like to become invisible? What advantages and disadvantages do you foresee, if you did?

Advantages Disadvantages

 

1. one can do one’s work without being disturbed.

2. Deception or treachery of others can be found out.

3. Evil things can be checked.

4. Crime can be detected easily.

1. Privacy of a person can be violated by an invisible person.

2. There will be disorder in the society.

 3. Criminals like thieves would commit the crime without being seen.

 4. Honesty, love, fellow feeling, sympathy etc. will disappear.

 2. Are there forces around us that are invisible, for example, magnetism? Are there aspects of matter that are ‘invisible’ or not visible to the naked eye? What would the world be like if you could see such forces or such aspects of matter?

  Ans. It is good that these things are not visible. Otherwise if one could see every force, there would be disorder in society. There are certain things which are better when they are felt only and not seen. There are many aspects of the matter that are invisible and should remain so.

3. What makes glass or water transparent (what is the scientific explanation for this?) Do you think it would be scientifically possible for a man to become invisible, or transparent? (Keep in mind that writers of science fiction have often turned out to be prophetic in their imagination!)

Ans. Glass or water is transparent because it does not block the light falling on it. The light passes through them. I think it will not be possible for a man to become invisible or transparent. However, nothing can be said with certainty. Science has made some mind-blowing inventions. Perhaps after many years, scientists may succeed in making human beings transparent.

Class-10 Chapter-3 THE-MIDNIGHT-VISITOR NCERT Solution

Read and Find out (Page 14)

Q1. How is Ausable different from other secret agents?

 Ans. Ausable was a secret agent with a difference. Generally, secret agents are believed to be like James Bond. They are smart, they are trigger-happy and crack-shots. They are surrounded by ‘dark-eyed beauties’. However, Ausable was a very fat and sloppy man. In gestures and appearance, he didn’t fit any description of a secret agent.

 Q2. Who is Fowler and what is his first authentic thrill of the day?

Ans. Fowler is a young and romantic writer. He wants to write a book on detectives. He comes to meet Ausable. Fowler gets disappointed when he meets Ausable. He doesn’t in any form look like a secret agent. But soon, Fowler gets his first authentic thrill of the day. When he sees a young man standing halfway across the room holding a small automatic pistol in his hand, the real thrill starts.

Read and Find out (Page 15)

 Q1. How has Max got in?

Ans. Max entered Ausable’s room by using a passkey. He entered the room in his absence. When Ausable switched on the light, he found Max standing halfway in the room holding a pistol in his hand.

 Q2. How does Ausable say he got in?

 Ans. Actually, Ausable gets in his room as he has been normally getting in every day—through the door. However, just to confuse Max, he says that it is the second time in a month that someone has got into his room through that nuisance of the balcony.

Think About It (Page 18)

 Q1. “Ausable did not fit any description of a secret agent Fowler had ever read.” What do secret agents in books and films look like, in your opinion? Discuss in groups or in class some stories or movies featuring spies, detectives and secret agents, and compare their appearance with that of Ausable in this story. (You may mention characters from fiction in languages other than English. In English fiction, you may have come across Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot, or Miss Marple. Have you watched any movies featuring James Bond?)

Ans. Definitely, Ausable didn’t fit any description of a secret agent. Fowler, the young and romantic writer was rather disappointed to see such fat and sloppy man as a secret agent.

In books and films, the secret agents are exceptionally smart. They are well dressed. They move about in long and costly cars. They usually have a hat on their heads, wear black goggles. They wear long coats and gloves in their hands. They are always surrounded by ‘dark-eyed’ beauties. They shoot more often than they talk. Fowler is disappointed because he finds no such quality of a secret agent in Ausable. In English fiction, we come across such smart and sharp characters like Sherlock Holmes, Hercule Poirot or Miss Marple.

Yes, I have watched movies featuring James Bond. Films like ‘Dr. No’, ‘Goldfish’, 007 with Love’ which present secret agents with exceptionally sharp features and minds.

 Q2. How does Ausable manage to make Max believe that there is a balcony attached to his room? Look back at his detailed description of it. What makes it a convincing story?

Ans. Ausable might not be physically smart but he possessed an exceptionally sharp brain. He was a wonderful secret agent. He found Max standing halfway across the room holding a small automatic pistol in his hand. It was a challenge to outsmart Max. Ausable at once cooked up a story. He told that his balcony had become a big nuisance. It was the second time someone had entered his room through the balcony. It was not his balcony but belonged to the next apartment.

Ausable wanted to trap Max in. He wanted Max to go near the window in panic and jump out of it. He presented the cooked up story in such a simple, natural and convincing manner that Max couldn’t help but believe it. The moment Max jumped out of the window, Ausable got rid of his crafty enemy.

Q3. Looking back at the story, when do you think Ausable thought up his plan for getting rid of Max? Do you think he had worked out his plan in detail right from the beginning? Or did he make up a plan taking advantage of events as they happened?

Ans. When Ausable switched on the light, he found a young man holding a small automatic pistol in his hand. He was Max, a crafty rival who had the countenance of a fox. The moment Ausable saw his rival, he thought of getting rid of him. There was no pre-planning. He made up a plan taking advantage of events as they happened. He cooked up a story regarding the balcony outside the window. It was a very smart plan of confusing Max and forcing him to jump out of the window. The false report of the police knocking at the door made Max panic and he quickly jumped out of it. He gave Max no time to think and got rid of him just according to his instantly made up plan.

Talk About it (Page 18)

 Q1. In this story, Ausable shows great ‘presence of mind,’ or the ability to think quickly and act calmly and wisely, in a situation of danger and surprise. Give examples from your own experience, or narrate a story, which shows someone’s presence of mind.

 Ans. No doubt, Ausable was an absolute master of any situation and knew how to exploit it to his advantage. He had a great presence of mind and the ability to think quickly. Even in a situation of danger and surprise, he acted wisely and calmly. I, too remember an incident where the presence of mind saved a life in a very dangerous situation. One day, we were playing in the courtyard. We were four friends. We were having a jolly time. Suddenly, Anil cried, “Oh! Oh!” His hand touched an exposed electric wire. He was crying and another friend rushed to save him. My presence of mind worked. I knew that both of them would be in trouble. So, I took a log of wood and hit on Anil’s hand. The electric wire and Anil’s hand were disconnected. No doubt, Anil got a little injury but his life was saved. I also saved another life being endangered.

Q2. Discuss what you would do in the situations described below. Remember that presence of mind comes out of a state of mental preparedness. If you have thought about possible problems or dangers, and about how to act in such situations, you have a better chance of dealing with such situations if they do arise.

  • A small fire starts in your kitchen.

Ans. In case of fire in the kitchen, don’t panic. If you don’t show your presence of mind, it can lead to disastrous consequences. The most inflammable thing in the kitchen is the gas cylinder. First of all, close the regulator and open the windows. Moving it to a safer place may prevent it from bursting or blasting. Similarly, we should cut off the main line of electricity.

  • A child starts to choke on a piece of food.

Ans. In such a situation, instead of creating a panic, use your mind immediately. If a child starts to choke on a piece of food, we must pat him slowly but repeatedly on his back. Immediately give him water to drink. Warm water may be more beneficial. Rubbing his back would certainly comfort the child.

  • An electrical appliance starts to hiss and gives out sparks.

Ans. If an electrical appliance starts to hiss and give out sparks, it can be quite dangerous. Immediately, cut off the main switch. Throwing water in case of fire can prove to be dangerous.

  • A bicycle knocks down a pedestrian.

Ans. If a bicycle knocks down a pedestrian, first of all, we should take the man to a safe place. Otherwise, he can be knocked down again. If he is hurt, take him to the nearest hospital for treatment. If we inform the members of his family, then, they will themselves take charge of the situation.

  • It rains continuously for more than twenty-four hours.

Ans. If it rains continuously for more than twenty-four hours, we should take care of the following things. (i) All drains and outlets must be cleared. (ii) All doors and windows must be closed so that rainwater may not come in. (iii) If there is water logging near the house, arrangements for pumping the water must be made with the help of the concerned authorities.

  • A member of your family does not return home at the usual or expected time.

 Ans. If a member of our family does not return home at the usual or expected time, we tend to get restless and panicky. We must at once contact all his friends, colleagues and relatives, to find out where he can be at that time. If no response is there, then the local police should be informed.

Class-10 Chapter-2 THE THIEF’S STORY NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

 NCERT Solutions

The Thief’s Story

Chapter – 2

Read and Find Out (Pages 8 & 10)

1. Who does ‘I’ refer to in this story?

Answer:- In this story, ‘I’ refers to the thief.

2. What is the “a fairly successful hand” at?

Answer:- He was “a fairly successful hand” at stealing and robbing people.

3. What does he get from Anil in return for his work?

Answer:- When Hari asked Anil if he could work for him, Anil said that he could not pay him. Finally, the agreement was that if he would cook, then Anil would feed him. However, Anil soon found out that he did not know how to cook. Therefore, he taught him how to cook and later, how to write his name. He promised he would teach him how to write whole sentences and how to add numbers. Apart from this, when Hari went out to buy the day’s supplies, he would make a profit of a rupee a day.

4. How does the thief think Anil will react to the theft?

Ans. The narrator is a thief. Anil gives him shelter and rood. But he steals Anil’s money. After that, the thief thinks that Anil will be sad when he discovers the theft.

5. What does he say about the different reactions of people when they are robbed?

Ans. He says that different people react differently when they are robbed. A greedy man shows fear. A rich man shows anger. A poor man shows acceptance.

6. Does And realise that he has been robbed?

Ans. It is possible that Anil does realise that he has been robbed. The next morning he gives a fifty rupee note to Hari Singh. The note is still wet. This might have made him realise the truth. But he is a large-hearted person. He behaves as if nothing has happened.

Read and Find Out

1. How does the thief think Anil will react to the theft?

Answer:- The thief thought that on discovering the theft, Anil’s face would show a touch of sadness. The sadness would not be for the loss of money, but for the loss of trust.

2. What does he say about the different reactions of people when they are robbed?

Answer:- In his short career as a thief, he had made a study of men’s faces when they lost their goods. He said that the greedy men showed fear; the rich men showed anger and the poor men showed acceptance.

3. Does Anil realize that he has been robbed?

Answer:- Yes, Anil had realized that he had been robbed. He knew this probably because all the notes were wet and damp from the rain. However, he did not say anything to the thief and behaved normally.

Think about it (Page 13)

1. What are Hari Singh’s reactions to the prospect of receiving an education? Do they change over time? (Hint: Compare, for example, the thought: “I knew that once I could write like an educated man there would be no limit to what I could achieve” with these later thoughts: “Whole sentences, I knew, could one day bring me more than a few hundred rupees. It was a simple matter to steal — and sometimes just as simple to be caught. But to be a really big man, a clever and respected man, was something else.”) What makes his return to Anil?

Ans. Hari Singh comes to Mil’s house as a servant. Anil offers to educate him. He is overjoyed. But his reactions to the prospect of receiving an education undergo a change with the passage of time. In the beginning, he thinks that if he wrote like an educated man he could achieve limitless success (or money). Later, there is some change in this perception. He feels that if he wrote whole sentences, they could bring him more than a few hundred rupees. Then money loses attraction for him with reference to education. What he wants from education is to become a big man, a clever and respected man. This makes him return to Anil because only Anil could teach him as he wants.

2. Why does not Anil hand the thief over to the police? Do you think most people would have done so? In what ways Is Anil different from such employers?

Ans. The next morning, Anil does not find the money missing. But he might have noticed that the notes were damp. It would have been clear to him that Hari Singh had tried to steal the money. But he does not show any emotion. Han Singh studies his face. There is no sign of his having detected the theft. However, it is possible that he detected the truth. But he does not hand over Han Singh to the police. He is a large-hearted person. Perhaps Han Singh’s coming back changed his mind. But most people do not behave like Anil. In Anil’s position, they could have handed over such persons to the police after beating them themselves. Anil is different because he decides to reform the thief through kindness and sympathy.

Talk about it (Page 13)

1. Do you think people like Anil and Hari Singh are found only in fiction, or are there such people in real life?

Ans. It is true that people are becoming materialistic and hard-hearted. But it is also true that people like Anil and Hari Singh are still found in real life also. But their number is very small.

2. Do you think it a significant detail in the story that Anil is a struggling writer? Does this explain his behaviour in any way?

Ans. It is a significant detail in the story that Anil is a struggling writer. He leads a hand to mouth existence. He earns money by fits and starts. So he knows what it means to be without money. He can understand Hari Singh’s position. That is why he takes him as a servant although he has no money to pay his a salary. He has a large heart. So, although he may have detected the theft of his money, he does not report to the police.

3. Have you met anyone like Hari Singh? (‘you think and imagine the circumstances that can turn a fifteen-year-old boy into a thief?

Ans. Yes, I have met a hoy like Han Singh. a lie used to commit petty crimes. I studied his life. I came to the conclusion that the circumstances make one a thief. Poverty is the biggest factor. One is prepared to do anything to douse the fire burning in his belly. This can turn a young man into a thief.

4. Where is the story set? (You can get clues from the names of the persons and places mentioned in it.) Which language or languages are spoken in these places? Do you think the characters in the story spoke to each other in English?

Ans. It appears that the story is set in Delhi. A number of clues point to this fact. These are: The Jumna Sweet Shop’, ‘railway station’, ‘The Lucknow Express was just moving out’. Hindi, English and other Indian languages are spoken in it. I do not think the characters in the story spoke to each other in English. However, they might have used some English words like ‘time’, ‘train’, ‘clock tower’. examination Style Additional Questions

Download Chapter-2 THE THIEF’S STORY in PDF

Class-10 Chapter-1 A TRIUMPH OF SURGERY NCERT Solution

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Read and Find out (Page 1)

Q1. Why is Mrs Pumphrey worried about Tricki?

Ans. Mrs Pumphrey, the mistress of Tricki, is really worried about her dog. He has grown quite fat and listless. He has lost his appetite. He often vomits and lies down motionless on the carpet. His eyes have become blood-red and rheumy. Naturally, Tricki’s condition is a cause of deep concern for Mrs Pumphrey.

Q2. What does she do to help him? Is she wise in this?

Ans. Being the mistress of Tricki, Mrs Pumphrey is naturally worried about the condition of the dog. She at once calls Dr Herriot telling him that Tricki has lost his appetite and is constantly vomiting. Though she goes on overfeeding the dog, her action is quite natural and expected. After all, Dr Herriot is a famous veterinary surgeon and the dog is in his safe hands.

Q3. Who does ‘I’ refer to in this story?

Ans. ‘I’ refers to Dr James Herriot, a famous veterinary surgeon.

Read and Find out (Page 3)

Q1. No, Is the narrator as rich as Tricki’s mistress?

Ans. No, the famous surgeon doesn’t seem to be as rich as Tricki’s mistress.

Q2. How does he treat the dog?

Ans. Dr Herriot realises that the only fault of Tricki is his greed for food. He simply can’t refuse any food. Dr Herriot keeps the dog under his own observation. He doesn’t give him any medicine. For two days, he gives no food to him except for plenty of water. After three days, Tricki starts developing signs of recovery. Within a fortnight, the dog is completely cured and handed over to his mistress.

Q3. Why is he tempted to keep Tricki on as a permanent guest?

Ans. Dr James Herriot is tempted to keep Tricki on as a permanent guest. Mrs Pumphrey, the mistress of Tricki, is quite a rich and resourceful woman. The days he spends in treating Tricki, are days of deep content. She sends all the delicacies and drinks for breakfast. Fresh eggs, wine and brandy are served quite liberally. Naturally, it is a temptation to keep Tricki as a permanent guest.

Q4. Why does Mrs Pumphrey think the dog’s recovery is “A triumph of Surgery”?

Ans. Tricki is in a miserable condition. He has become hugely fat, loses his appetite, vomits quite often and lays motionless panting on the carpet. Saving such a dog is nothing less than a miracle for the mistress of Tricki. Naturally, she gratefully thanks the doctor and calls his feat “A triumph of Surgery!”

Think About It (Page 6)

Q1. What kind of a person do you think the narrator, a veterinary surgeon, is? Would you say he is tactful as well as full of common sense?

Ans. Dr James Herriot is a famous veterinary surgeon. He is very sensible, practical but genuinely concerned about Tricki. He is really worried about his miserable condition. He is tactful as well as full of common sense. He doesn’t give him any medical treatment. He knows that the only fault of Tricki is his greed for food. So, he gives him no food but plenty of water. And, his tactfulness and common sense help in curing the dog.

Q2. Do you think Trial was happy to go home? What do you think will happen now?

Ans. Tricki was completely cured. He was now a totally transformed animal. He was flexible and hard-muscled. Naturally, he was happy to go home. The moment he saw his mistress, Mrs Pumphrey, he took a tremendous leap and sailed into her lap. Now, he would run around the garden joining the friendly barkings of his fellow dogs.

Q3. Do you think this is a real-life episode or mere fiction? Or is it a mixture of both?

Ans. The story ‘A Triumph of Surgery’ seems to be a real-life episode. It doesn’t look like merely a fictional episode. There are such rich ladies like Mrs Pumphrey, who is so much devoted to their pet dogs. They pamper their pet dogs by overfeeding them and not giving them the necessary exercise. However, pampering Tricki with fresh eggs, wine and brandy seem rather a little exaggerated and even silly.

Talk About it (Page 7)

Q1. This episode describes the silly behaviour of a rich woman who is foolishly indulgent, perhaps because she is lonely. Do you think such people are merely silly, or can their actions cause harm to others?

Ans. Mrs Pumphrey seems to be a lonely woman. It is quite natural that she should keep a pet dog. She treats Tricki as a mother treats her child. But her overindulgence looks silly and exaggerated. Her silly overindulgence hurts the dog. His greed for food and Mrs Pumphrey’s liberal supplies of delicacies, make him hugely fat. He loses appetite and vomits quite often.

Q2. Do you think there are also parents like Mrs Pumphrey?

Ans. Yes, there are parents like Mrs Pumphrey. There is no dearth of indulgent parents who pamper their children. Their silly and overindulgent behaviour spoils their children in the same way as Mrs Pumphrey pampers Tricki. This indulgence and pampering only make children obese and dullards.

Q3. What would you have done if you were: (i) a member of the staff in Mrs Pumphrey’s household, (ii) a neighbour? What would your life have been like, in general?

Ans. (i) If I had been a member of the staff in Mrs Pumphrey’s household, I would have suggested her the same things as were done by Dr Herriot. I would have suggested her cutting down Tricki’s diet and give him some exercise.

(ii) Being a neighbour of such an overindulgent and silly woman would not have been very easy and comfortable. Perhaps, she and her pampered dogs would have been a nuisance.

 Q4. What would you have done if you were in the narrator’s place?

Ans. If I had been in the narrator’s place, I would have behaved in the same way as he had done. I would have realised soon that Tricki’s main fault had been his greed for food. Not giving him any solid food for a few days and giving him plenty of exercises would have brought him in proper shape. I would have thus transformed him into a flexible and hard-muscled dog.

Chapter-8.1 The Trees NCERT SOLUTION

NCERT TEXTBOOK QUESTIONS SOLVED

Thinking About the Poem (Page 100)

Q1. (i) Find in the first stanza, three things that cannot happen in a treeless forest.

Ans. The three things which have been described in the first stanza can never happen in a treeless forest. They are:

(i)Without trees, birds can’t perch on them.

(ii) In a treeless forest, insects will find no place to hide.

(iii)The scorching sun can’t find cool shade in a treeless forest.

(ii)What picture do these words create in your mind? “… sun bury its feet in the shadow …”? What could the poet mean by the sun’s ‘feet’?

Ans. Adrienne Rich uses the poetic device of ‘personification’ in these lines. Here the sun has been personified having feet like a man. The words create an image when the scorching rays of the sun are desperately needing shade to cool themselves. Sadly, it can’t happen in a treeless forest.

Q2. (i) Where are the trees in the poem? What do their roots, their leaves and their twigs do?

Ans. The trees are not in their natural habitat — the forest. They have been planted by humans in their artificial glasshouses. The trees in the poem represent the metaphor of man. As a man loves freedom, so leaves, twigs and roots of the trees struggle to free themselves. They are struggling to break open the artificial barriers put up by man. They are struggling to go to their natural habitat. And the forest is their original home.

(ii)What does the poet compare their branches?

Ans. The poet uses very effectively the poetic device of simile. The cramped branches are shuffling under the roof of the house to come out. Their restlessness is compared to the newly discharged patients who are Impatiently running towards the hospital door to come out.

Q3. (i) How does the poet describe the moon: (a) at the beginning of the third stanza, and (b) at its end? What causes this change?

Ans. At the beginning of the third stanza, the poet describes a full moon shining in the open sky. The night is fresh. However, at the end of the poem, the same full moon is broken into pieces. This happens because the trees have departed to the forest. The full-grown up oak tree is spread so widely that only a fragmented or broken moon is visible through its leaves and branches at the top.

(ii)What happens to the house when the trees move out of it?

Ans. The artificial barriers to confine the vast power of nature by man are broken. The trees move to their natural habitat — the forest. The house becomes treeless as the forest was a day before. Only the poet is left alone to reflect upon this unique act of nature.

(iii)Why do you think the poet does not mention “the departure of the forest from the house” in her letters? (Could it be that we are often silent about important happenings that are so unexpected that they embarrass us? Think about this again when you answer the next set of questions.)

Ans. It is rather a mystery that the poet writes long letters and she doesn’t even mention the great change of nature that is happening before her eyes. The departure of the trees finds no mention in her letters. Perhaps the change is so sudden and unexpected that she is shaken and embarrassed at the departure of the trees.

Q4. Now that you have read the poem in detail, we can begin to ask what the poem might mean. Here are two suggestions. Can you think of others?

Ans. After going through the poem, it is clear that the poet wants to explain that trees want to be free. They don’t want to be imprisoned.

(i)Does the poem present a conflict between man and nature? Compare it with ‘A Tiger in the Zoo’. Is the poet suggesting that plants and trees, used for ‘interior decoration’ in cities while forests are cut down, are ‘imprisoned’, and need to ‘break out’?

Ans. Certainly, the poem ‘The Trees’ does represent a universal conflict between man and nature. Nature can’t be subdued and controlled by man. Man’s greed and arrogance may put the tiger (‘A Tiger in the Zoo’) in a concrete cell. But the tiger’s the urge for freedom never dies. He can find his natural growth and grandeur only in his natural habitat—the forest. Similarly, in ‘The Trees’, the victorious march of the trees to the forest underlines man’s failure to subdue and tame nature. Trees can’t find their full growth and grandeur in artificial glasshouses. Only in the forest, which is their natural habitat and home, the trees can flourish to their full glory and growth.

(ii)On the other hand, Adrienne Rich has been known to use trees as a metaphor for human beings; this is a recurrent image in her poetry. What new meanings emerge from the poem if you take its trees to be symbolic of this particular meaning?

Ans. There is no doubt that Adrienne Rich uses trees as a metaphor for human beings, particularly women. In the male-dominated society, women have been forced to live within the four-walls erected by men. The attempt of the trees to break upon the artificial glasshouses represents the struggle of women too. Women too are struggling to break open the chains and shackles they have been imprisoned in. They are fighting for their liberation. Like the victorious march of the trees in the poem, one day they will surely be liberated from the artificial barriers created by men.

Q5. You may read the poem ‘On Killing a Tree’ by Gieve Patel (Beehive –Textbook in English for Class IX, NCERT). Compare and contrast it with the poem you have just read.

Ans. Both the poems ‘The Trees’ and ‘On Killing a Tree’ are a beautiful study in contrast. In ‘The Trees’, Adrienne Rich describes man’s attempt to disturb the natural balance of the environment. Here, there is a futile attempt of confining the all-powerful nature within artificial barriers. There is a stupid but arrogant attempt to shift trees from their natural habitat — the forest. The trees don’t value freedom less than men. They struggle, break open the artificial barriers and march victoriously to their original home, the forest. In ‘On Killing a Tree’ Gieve Patel describes man’s attempt to kill the natural wealth of this world—trees and forests. Man’s greed leads to deforestation. But the killing of a tree can’t be taken for granted. A tree is not killed suddenly with a blow. Every part of a tree struggles. The roots, the twigs, branches and even leaves put up a heroic fight before dying in the end. Man’s arrogance and cruelty are challenged step by step. Man’s diabolic attempt to subdue and destroy nature is vehemently challenged by nature itself.

 The only difference is that man’s arrogance and cruelty ultimately succeeds in ‘On Killing a Tree’. On the other hand, the victorious march of the trees to the forest in ‘The Trees’ tells the story of the victory of nature over man.

Class-10 Chapter-11 THE PROPOSAL- NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

NCERT solution

Chapter – 11

The Proposal

पाठ का संपूर्ण हिंदी अनुवाद

[PAGE 144] : पात्र :

1 . स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच शुबुकोव    –      ज़मींदार

2 . नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन         –      उसकी (जमींदार की) लड़की , आयु 25 वर्ष

  1. 3. इवान वेसीलविच लोमोव – शुबुकोव का पड़ोसी , एक हष्ट-पुष्टएवं खुशमिजाज़ ,लेकिन शक्की

किस्म का ज़मीदार  

शुबुकोव के घर में मेहमान कक्ष

लोमोव प्रवेश करता है , जाकेट और सफ़ेद दस्ताने पहने हुए हैं । शुबुकोव उसे मिलने के लिए उठता है ।

शुबुकोव : मेरे प्यार साथी .. मैं किससे मिल रहा हूँ । इवान वेसीलविच ! मैं अत्यन्त प्रसन्न हूँ ! (अपने हाथों को मरोड़ते हुए ) अरे यह तो एक अचम्भा है , मेरे प्रिय …… आप कैसे हो ?

लोमोव : आपका धन्यवाद ! आजकल आप कैसे चल रहे हो ?

शुबुकोव : हम ठीक प्रकार से आगे बढ़ रहे हैं , मेरे दिव्य , आपकी प्रार्थनाओं के लिए धन्यवाद , और इत्यादि । नीचे बैठिए , कृपया बैठो ना …. अब आप जानते हैं , मेरे प्रिय आपको अपने पड़ोसियों के बारे में नहीं भूलना चाहिए । मेरे प्रिय मित्र – आप अपने पहनावे में आज इतने क्यों औपचारिक दिखाई दे रहे है । सायं के कपडे, दस्ताने और इत्यादि –इत्यादि ।मेरे प्रिय अमूल्य निधि क्या आप कहीं जा रहे है ?

लीमोव  : नहीं। सम्मानित स्टीपन स्टेपनोविचमैंतो केवल आपसे मिलने आया हूँ।

शुबुकोव :  तो आप सांय की ड्रैसमें क्यों है , मेरे अमूल्य खजाने ? आप तो ऐसे लग रहे हैं मानों आज नववर्ष  हेतु मिलने आये है !

लोमोव : ठीक आप जानते हैं ऐसा ही है (अपनी भुजा बाहर लाते हुए ) आदरणीय स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच, मैं आपको एक प्रार्थनापूर्वक कष्ट देने आया हूँ मैंने एक अथवा दो बार ही नहीं आपसे सहायता माँगी है और आपने सदैव जैसाकि मैं कह सकता है ….आपसे नम्र निवेदन की अपेक्षा करते हुए कहता हूँ कि मैं उत्तेजित होता रहा हूँ । सम्मनित स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच, मैं कुछ पानी पीना चाहूँगा । (पानी पीता है )

शुबुकोव : (एक ओर हटकर ) यह जरुर कुछ रुपया उधार लेने आया है । मैं उसे कुछ नहीं दूंगा । (जोर से) अरे मेरे प्रिय-यह क्या है ?

लोमोव  : देखिए, सम्मान-योग्य स्टेपनोविच….… क्षमा करना, स्टेपन आनरिच…. मेरे कहने का भाव है, मैं भयानक रूप से उत्तेजित हो रहा हूँ , जैसेकि आप कृपया देख ही सकते हैं …..संक्षेप में, केवल आप ही मेरी मदद  सकते हैं, यद्यपि मैं इसका पात्र नहीं हूँ ,सचमुच ……और मुझे कोई अधिकार नहीं हैं कि आपकी सठायता पर निर्भर करूँ ।

शुबुकोव : अरे, बात को इधर-उधर घुमाते मत जाओ, प्यारे, जल्दी उगल दो । कहों ?

लोमोव  : एक पल रुकिए….. अभी बनाता हूँ । वास्तव में बात यह हैं, मैं आपकी बेटी नातान्या स्टेपनोविच का का विवाह के लिए हाथ माँगने आया हूँ ।

[ PAGE145 ] : शुबुकोव  : (प्रसन्नतापूर्वक ) भगवान कसम ! इवान वेसीलविच ! दोबारा से कहो -मैंने बिल्कुल सुना नहीं है ।

लोमोव  : मुझे आपसे यह कहने में सम्मान महसूस हो रहा है …..

शुबुकोव  : (दखल देते हुए) मेरे प्रिय हजूर …….. मुझे कितनी खुशी हो रही है , और क्या –क्या ….. । हाँ, सचमुच और इस तरह का वह सब कुछ  । (लोमोव का गले लगाता हैं और उसे चूमता है ) मैं बहुत देर से इसकी आशा कर रहा हूँ । यह मेरी निरंतर इच्छा रही है। (एक आँसू बहा देता हैं) और मैं तुमसे सदा प्यार करता हूँ , मेरे फरिश्ते, मानोतुम मेरे ही पुत्र हो; ईश्वर तुम दोनों को अपनी सहायता और अपना प्यारप्रदान करे , और क्या –क्या , तथा मैं कितनी ज्यादा आशा रखता था…….. । मैं इस  मूर्खतापूर्ण ढ़ंग से किसलिए व्यवहार  करने लगा हूँ ? खुशी से मैंहिल गया हूँ, बिल्कुल अपना संतुलन खो बैठा हूँ । अरे, अपनी पूरा आत्मा सहित …… मैं अभी जाता हूँ  नाताल्याको बुलाकर लाता हूँ , और वगैरह –वगैरह ।

लोमोव  : (अत्यन्त प्रभावित होते हुए) सम्मान –योग्य स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच, क्या आप समझते हैं कि मैं उसकी सहमति का भरोसा कर सकता हूँ ?

शुबुकोव : क्यों , बिल्कुल , मेरे लाड़ले , और ….तुम समझते हो वह सहमत नहीं होगी । उसे प्यार हो गया है …….. ईश्वर कसम , वह तो प्रेम में पागल हुई एक बिल्ली के जैसी है, और क्या –क्या ।मैं ज्यादा देर नहीं लगाऊँगा ।

(बाहर चला जाता है ।)

[PAGES 145-146] :लोमोव : अरे बहुत ठंड है …. मैं तो काँप रहा हूँ , ऐसा लगता है कि मुझे अपना परीक्षण कराना होगा । बहुत बड़ी बात तो यह है कि मुझे अपना फैसला करना होगा । अगर मैं सोचने में समय लेता हूँ , हिचकता हूँ , बहुत बातें करनी है , एक आदर्श की तलाश है अथवा सच्चे प्यार के लिए. तो मैं कभी भी शादी नहीं कर पाऊँगा ….. परंतु अब ठंड है ।नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन एक उत्कृष्ट गृहणी है , देखने में भी अच्छी है , अच्छी पढ़ी –लिखी है और मुझे क्या चाहिए ? परंतु मेरे क्या चाहिए ? परन्तु मेरे तो उत्तेजना से  कान भी गूँज रहे हैं । (पीता है) और यह मेरे लिए असम्भव है कि मैं शादी न करूँ । प्रथम स्थान पर तो मेरी आयु 35 वर्ष है – कहने का तात्पर्य है कि यह एक नाजुक स्थिति है । दूसरी बात यह है कि मुझे शांत और नियमित जीवन व्यतीत करना चाहिए , मुझे ह्रदय की धड़कन की बीमारी है , मैं उत्तेजित हो जाता हूँ  और सदैव शीघ्र ही अघिक परेशान हो उठता हूँ ।इस समय मेरे होंठ काँप रहे है । और मेरी दाहिनी भौहें फड़फड़ा रही हैं ।परन्तु दुर्भाग्यपूर्ण बात तो यह है कि मैं जिस प्रकार सोता हूँ । ज्यों ही मै बिस्तर मैं जाता हूँ । शीघ्र सो जाता हूँ फिर अचानक मेरी बाँई ओर मुझे कोई खींचता है । और मैं इसे अपने कंघे और सिर से भीमहसूस कर सकता हूँ । मैं एक पागल की भाँति उछलता हूँ , थोड़ा –सा चलता हूँ और पुनः लेट जाता हूँ । परन्तु जब शीघ्र ही नींद से उठता हूँ फिर मुझे कोई खींचता है । और यह लगभग बीस बार हो सकता है ।

(नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन अन्दर आती है । )

[PAGE 146] : नाताल्या: अरे , आप यहाँ है और पापा ने कहा –“जाओ , देखो कोई व्यापारी अपने सामान के साथ आया है ।“ आप कैसे हैं इवान वेसीलविच ?

लोमोव : सम्मानित नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन –आप कैसे हो ?

नाताल्या : आप मेरे वस्त्र और उपेक्षा के लिए माफ़ करेंगे । हम यहाँ पर बहुत देर से है । बैठिये ना ….(वे दोनों बैठते हैं )-आप क्या कुछ भोजन लेगें ?

लोमोव : नहीं ! आपका धन्यवाद , मैंने पहले ही कुछ ले रखा है ।

नाताल्या : फिर सिगरेट पी लीजिए । यहाँ पर माचिस है मौसम अब बहुत शानदार है ।परन्तु कल बहुत गीला था और मजदूर ने सारे दिन कार्य ही नहीं किया । आपने कितनी घास कटवा ली है ? जरा सोचें ,मुझे अच्छा है कि मैं सारा खेत कटवा दूँ । परन्तु अब मुझे ख़ुशी बिल्कुल नहीं है क्योंकि मुझे डर है कि कहीं घास सड़ न जाए । मुझे कुछ प्रतीक्षा करनी करनी चाहिए । परंतु यह क्या है ? क्यों –अरे ठीक आप तो सायंकाल की ड्रैसपहने है, में तो कभी भी नहीं होती-क्या आप किसी डॉस पार्टी में जा रहे है और क्या बात है ? यद्दपि  मुझे कहना चाहिए कि आप सुन्दर लग रहे हैं, मुझे बताएँ । आप इस प्रकार क्यों अच्छे कपड़े पहने हुए है ?

लोमोव : (उत्तेजित होते हुए) जाप जानते है माननीय नाताल्या स्वीपनोवन … बात यह है कि मैंने अपना विचार बना लिया है कि मैं आपसे अपने बारे में कुछ कहूँ … शायद, आपको हैरानी होगी और शायद गुस्सा भी परंतु… (एक ओर हटकर) बहुत ही अधिक ठंड है !

नाताल्या : क्या बात है ? (रूककर) अच्छा ?

[PAGES 146-147] : लोमोव : मैं संक्षिप्त से कहने का प्रयत्न करूंगा । आपको जानना चाहिए, माननीयनाताल्या स्टीपनोवन कि बहुत लंबे समय से अर्थात् अपने बचपन से ही वास्तव में आपके परिवार को जानता हूँ। मेरी स्वर्गीय चाची और उनके पति,जिन्हें आप जानती हैं, उनसे मैंने भूमि प्राप्त की और वे आपके पिताजी और आपकी स्वर्गीय माताजी को बहुत अधिक सम्मान करते थे । और लोमोव और शुबुकोव अत्यंत ही प्रिय मित्र रहे हैं और मैं यह कह सकता हूँ दोनों का एक-दूसरे के प्रति अत्यधिक सम्मान और स्नेह

भी है । और जैसाकि आप जानती हैं कि मेरी जमीन आपके एक नज़दीकी पड़ोसी के साथ है । आप याद करें कि मेरी Oxen Meadows आपके Birchwoods (भोज-पत्र के जंगलों) के साथ लगती है।

नाताल्या :: मैं आपको बीच से टोकने के लिए माफी चाहूँगी । आप कहते हैं कि मेरी ‘Oxen Meadows’परंतु क्या वे आपकी हैं ?

लोमोव : हाँ , मेरी ।

नाताल्या : आप क्या बातें करते हैं ? Oxen Meadows तो हमारी हैं, आपकी नहीं ।

लोमोव : नहीं ,, मेरी माननीय नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन ।

नाताल्या : अच्छा , मुझे तो पहले कभी इसका पता नहीं था ?  आपने इसका कैसे पता लगाया ?

लोमोव : कैसे ? मैं उनOxen Meadows की बात कर रहा हूँ जो आपके भोज –पत्र के जंगलों औरबणर्ट मार्श वाली जमीन में मध्य में पड़ती है ।

नाताल्या :हाँ ,हाँ वह हमारी है ।

लोमोव: नहीं , आपको गलती लगी है , प्रिय नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन वे मेरी हैं ।

नाताल्या : जरा सोचो , इवान वेसीलेविच ! वे तुम्हारे कब से हैं ?

लोमोव : कब से ? जब से मुझे याद है ।

नाताल्या : सचमुच, तुम मुझे ऐसा विश्वास करने को मनवा नहीं सकते हो ।

लोमोव : माननीयनाताल्या स्टीपनोवन, लेकिन आप लिखित कागज दे सकती हो ।Oxen Meadows , यह सच है कि एक बार वे विवाद का केंद्र थे, लेकिन हर कोई जानता है कि वे मेरे हैं । इसके बारे में बहस करने की कोई बात नहीं है लेकिन आप जानती हो मेरी मौसी की नानी ने तुम्हारे पिता के दादा के मजदूरों को इस चारागाह को सदा के लिए मुक्त प्रयोग करने की इजाजत दे दी थी , जिसके बदले मैं उन्हें इसके लिए ईटें  बनानी होती थी आपकेपिता के दादा के मजदूरों ने चालीसवर्षों तक चरागाह का मुफ्त इस्तेमाल किया और इसे अपनी ही समझने की उनकी आदत हो गई थी जब ऐसा हुआ तो….

नाताल्या : ऐसा बिल्कुल भी नहीं है दोनों दादा और परदादा ऐसा मानते थे कि उनकी जमीन बणर्ट मार्श तक फैली हुई है । जिसका अर्थ यह बनता है कि Oxen Meadowsवीडियो वाली जमीन हमारी है मुझे समझ में नहीं आता कि इसके विषय में विवाद की क्या बात है ऐसा करना बिल्कुल मूर्खता है !
[PAGE 148] :लोमोव : नाताल्यास्टीपनोवन, मैं आपको दस्तावेज़ दिखा सकता हूँ ।

नाताल्या : नहीं,  आप तो मात्र मजाक कर रहे हो या मेरा उपहास उड़ा रहे हो कितनी हैरानी की बात है यह जमीन हमारे पास तीन सौ साल से है ,  और तब अचानक ही हमें बताया जाता है कि यह जमीन हमारी नहीं है इवान वेसीलेविच मुझे तो अपने कानों पर ही विश्वास नहीं होता है इन चरागाहों का मेरे लिए अधिक महत्व नहीं है । ये तो मैंने केवल पॉंच डैस्सीटीस में ली है और शायद 300 रूबल कीमत की है लेकिन मैं गलत बातों को सहन नहीं कर सकती हूँ ।

लोमोव : मेरी बात सुनो, मैं आपसे प्रार्थना करता हूं आपके परदादा के मजदूर जैसाकि मैंने पहले ही इसकी व्याख्या कर दी है मेरी मौसी की नानी के लिए ईटें पकाने का काम किया करते थे अब मेरी मौसी की नानी उन्हें प्रसन्न करने की इच्छा कर रही है….. ।.

नाताल्या : मैं मौसियों और दादाओं के बारे में अधिक कुछ नहीं कह सकती हूँ ।चरागाहें हमारी है ,यही सच है 

लोमोव : ये मेरी हैं ।

नाताल्या : हमारी ! तुम दोदिन लगातार इसे सिद्ध करने की कोशिश करते रहो तुम जाकर पंद्रहसूट-जैकेटपहन सकते हो लेकिन मैं तुम्हें बता दूं कि वह जमीन हमारी है मुझे तुम्हारी कोई चीज नहीं चाहिए और मैं अपनी कोई चीज तुम्हें नहीं देना चाहता हूं , सुन लिया।

लोमोव :नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन,मुझे चरागाहें नहीं चाहिए लेकिन मैं सिद्धांतों की बात कर रहा हूँ यदि तुम चाहो, तो मैं तुम्हें भेंट कर सकता हूँ । 

नाताल्या :मैं स्वयं इन्हेंतुम्हें उपहार में दे सकती हूं क्योंकि भी मेरी हैं ! इवान वेसीलेविच ,तुम्हारा व्यवहार तो विचित्र है ! अब तक तो हम आपको एक अच्छे पड़ोसी एक मित्र के रूप में जानते थे। पिछले वर्ष हमने अपनी भूसा निकालने की मशीन तुम्हें दे दी थी ।इसी वजह से हमें अपनी कटाई का काम नवंबर तक स्थगित करना पड़ा था, लेकिन तुम हमारे साथ ऐसा व्यवहार करते हो जैसेकि हम जिप्सी हो ! मुझे मेरी ही जमीन दोगे, सचमुच ! नहीं वास्तव में यह पड़ोसियों वाली बात बिल्कुल नहीं है मेरे विचार से यह गुस्ताखी वाली बात है यदि तुम जानना ही चाहते हो।

लोमोव : तब तो तुम ही कह रही हो कि मैं एक जमीन को हड़पने वाला हूं , मैडम अपने जीवन में मैंने कभी किसी दूसरे की जमीन नहीं हड़पी है और मैं किसी भी किसी को ऐसा करने की इजाजत नहीं दूँगा (जल्दी से सुराही के पास आ जाता है और वहां से और पानी पीता है) Oxen Meadows मेरी हैं !

नाताल्या : यह सच नहीं है , वे हमारी है !

लोमोव : मेरी हैं !
[PAGE 149] : नाताल्या : यह सच नहीं है ! मैं इसे सिद्ध कर सकती हूँ । मैं अपने कटाई करने वालों को आज ही चरागाह में भेज दूँगी।

लोमोव : क्या ?

नाताल्या : मेरे कटाई करने वाले आज ही वहाँहोंगे !

लोमोव : मैं उनकी गर्दन में यह जड़ दूँगा।

नाताल्या : तुम्हारी यह हिम्मत।

लोमोव  : (अपने दिल को पकड़ते हुए)Oxen Meadows  मेरी है ! तुम्हारी समझ में आया ?  मेरी हैं !

लोमोव : कृपया चिल्लाओ मत ! तुम अपने खुद के घर में इतनी भारी आवाज में चिल्ला सकते हो लेकिन यहाँ मैं तुम्हें ऐसा करने से मना कर सकती हूँ ।

लोमोव : मैडम , अगर ऐसा नहीं था -क्योंकि यह तो अजीब कष्टदायक दिल की धड़कन है अगर मेरा सारा शरीर अंदरुनी रूप से परेशान न होता तो मैं तुमसे दूसरी तरह से बातें करता (हाँफते हुए) Oxen Meadows  मेरी है ।

नाताल्या: हमारी !
लोमोव : मेरी !

नाताल्या: हमारी !

लोमोव : मेरी !
(शुबुकोव को प्रवेश करता है )
शुबुकोव :  क्या बात है तुम क्यों चिल्ला रहे हो ?

नाताल्या : पापा कृपया इस सज्जन पुरुष को बताइए कि Oxen Meadows  किसकी हैं ,  हमारी या इसकी ?
शुबुकोव : (लोमोव से ) प्रिय, चरागाहें हमारी हैं ।
[PAGE 150-151] :  लोमोव : लेकिन कृपया स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच , वे आपके कैसे हो सकते हैं एक

तर्कसंगत आदमी बनो। मेरी मौसी की नानी ने ये चरागाहेंअस्थाई और मुक्त प्रयोग के लिए ये तुम्हारे दादा के मजदूरों को दी थी। मजदूरों ने चालीससाल तक के जमीन का प्रयोग किया और वे उसका ऐसे प्रयोग करने लग गए थे जैसेकि वह जमीन उनकी अपनी हो अब ऐसा हुआ कि…

शुबुकोव : मेरे प्रिय, माफ़ करना ! तुम यह भूल गए कि मजदूरों ने तुम्हारी नानी को कोई भुगतान नहीं किया था क्योंकि चरागाहोंपर विवाद था और वह अभी भी है। और आप सभी जानते हैं कि वह हमारी है। तुमने शायद नक्शा नहीं देखा है।

लोमोव : मैं आपको सिद्ध कर सकता हूँ कि वह हमारी है।
शुबुकोव : मेरे प्रिय , आप ऐसा नहीं कर सकोंगे।
लोमोव :  मैं कर दूँगा।
शुबुकोव : प्रिय, इस तरह क्यों चिल्ला रहे हो ? तुम चिल्लाने से कुछ भी सिद्ध नहीं कर सकते हो ।

मुझे तुम्हारे कोई भी चीज नहीं चाहिए और मैं अपनी कोई चीज छोड़ना भी नहीं चाहता हूँ । मैं छोडूँ भी क्यों ? ओर मेरे प्रिय तुम जानते हो कि यदि तुम इसके बारे में इसी तरह से वाद –विवाद करते रहे ।मैं इन चरागाहों को तुम्हें देने की बजाय मजदूरों को सौंपना अधिक पसंद करूंगा।

समझे।

लोमोव : मैं नहीं समझता ! आपको किसी की सम्पत्ति को किसी अन्य को देने का अधिकार है ?
शुबुकोव ; तुम यह जान लो कि मुझे यही पता है कि इसका मुझे अधिकार है या नहीं। क्योंकि

नवयुवक ,मुझे इस बात की आदत नहीं है कि कोई मेरे साथ ऐसे लहजे में बात करें हे नौजवान !मैं आयु में तुम्हारे से दोगुना हूँ और तुमसे कहता हूं कि तुम अपने को क्रोध में लाए बिना मुझसे बात करो।

       लोमोव : नहीं, तुम तो मुझे सिर्फ एक मूर्ख मानते हो और मुझे दबाना चाहते हो। तुम मेरी जमीन को अपनी बना रहे हो और तब तुम चाहते हो कि मैं तुम्हारे साथ नम्रता और शांत भाव के साथ बात करूं अच्छे पड़ोसी इस तरह से व्यवहार नहीं करते हैं,  स्टीपनोविच, तुम एक पड़ोसी नहीं हूँ, तुम तो एक हड़पने वाले हो !

शुबुकोव :क्या कहा ? तुमने क्या कहा ?
नाताल्या : कटाई करने वालों को तुरंत चरागाहों में भेज दो।
 शुबुकोव : महाशय, आपने क्या कहा ?
नाताल्या : Oxen Meadowsहमारे हैं और मैं उन्हें नहीं छोडूँगी, नहीं छोडूँगी,नहीं छोडूँगी।
लोमोव :  हम भी देखेंगे !मैं इस मामले को अदालत में लेकर जाऊँगा और तब तुम्हें दिखाऊँगा।
शुबुकोव :  अदालत में ? तुम इसे अदालत में ले जा सकते हो , यहीं सब कुछ है मैं तुम्हें जानता हूं

तुम्हें तो अदालत में जाने के लिए मौके की तलाश ही रहती है तुम तो एक चालाक आदमी हो !तुम्हारे सभी लोग ऐसे थे ! सारे के सारे !

[PAGE 151] : लोमोव : मेरे लोगों की चिंता मत करो ! सभी लोमोव  सम्मानित लोग रहें  हैं और उनमें से कभी एक पर भी गबन का मुकद्दमा नहीं चला है। तुम्हारे दादा की तरह !

शुबुकोव : तुम सभी लोमोव लोग तो पागलपन के शिकार रहे हो , सारे के सारे।
नाताल्या : सारे, सारे, सारे, !
शुबुकोव : तुम्हारा दादा एक शराबी था और तुम्हारी छोटी मौसी नस्तस्या मिहेलोवना एक भवन

निर्माता के साथ भाग गई थी।

लोमोव : और तुम्हारी माँ तो एक कुबड़ी थी (अपने दिल को पकड़ता है) मेरे अंदर कुछ हो रहा है…. मेरा सिर…. मदद करो ! पानी !

शुबुकोव : तुम्हारा पिता एक मोटा जुआरी था !

नाताल्या: और चुगली करने में तो तुम्हारी मौसी की कोई बराबरी नहीं कर सकता था

शुबुकोव: मेरा बाँया पैर सो गया है…. तुम एक षड्यंत्रकारी हो…… अरे मेरा दिल ! और यह एक खुला रहस्य है कि पिछले चुनावों से पहले तुमने मुझे रिश्वत …..! मुझे तारे देखने लगेहैं … मेरा टोप कहाँ है ?

नाताल्या : यह नीचता है ! बेईमानी है ! कमीनापन है !
शुबुकोव : और तुम तो एक दुर्भाग्य,दोहरे चेहरे वाले एक षड्यंत्रकारी हो।
लोमोव :  मेरा टोप यहाँ है। मेरा दिल ?  किधर जाऊँ? दरवाजा कहाँ है ? अरे, मुझे लगता है मैं

मर रहा हूँ । मेरा पाँव बिल्कुल ही सुन्नहो गया है।
(दरवाजे की ओर जाता है।)

शुबुकोव : (उसके पीछे जाते हुए) और मेरे घर में दोबारा कभी कदम मत रखना !
नाताल्या : इसे अदालत ले जाओ, हम भी देखेंगे !

(लोमोव लड़खड़ाता हुआ बाहर चला जाता है)

       शुबुकोव : उसे शैतान ले जाए !

(उत्तेजना में इधर-उधर जाता है)

नाताल्या :  क्या बदमाश है ! इसके बाद कोई अपने पड़ोसियों पर क्या विश्वास कर सकता है

शुबुकोव : बदमाश !डरेवा !

नाताल्या: राक्षस ! राक्षस पहले तो हमारी जमीन ले ली और ऊपर से हमें गालियाँ दे रहा है।
शुबुकोव :  और वह अन्धी मुर्गी जैसी शक्ल वाला,हाँ वह शलजम की शक्ल वाला भूत, शादी का प्रस्ताव करने की बदतमीजी भी करता है क्या ?  शादी का प्रस्ताव !
नाताल्या ;  कैसा प्रस्ताव ?
शुबुकोव : क्यों वह यहाँ तुम्हारे साथ शादी करने का प्रस्ताव लेकर आया था।
नाताल्या : शादी का प्रस्ताव करने ?  मुझसे ? आपने मुझे पहले क्यों नहीं बताया ?
शुबुकोव : इसलिए तो वह सांयकाल वाली पोशाक पहन कर आया था मरा हुआ समोसा। झुर्रियों वाली

चेहरे वाला भद्दा आदमी।

       [PAGE 152] : नाताल्या : मुझसे शादी का प्रस्ताव करने ? आह ! (एक आराम कुर्सी पर गिर जाती है और रोने लग जाती है) उसे वापस लाओ ! वापस लाओ !आह ! उसे वापस लाओ ।

शुबुकोव : यहाँ कैसे लाएँ?

नाताल्या: जल्दी करो , जल्दी करो ! मैं बीमार हूं ! उसे पकड़कर लाओ !

(बेहोश हो जाती है)
शुबुकोव : क्या हुआ ? तुम्हें क्या हो गया है ? (उसका सिर पकड़ता है) मैं कितना अभागा आदमी हूँ । मैं स्वयं को गोली मार लूँगा ।मैं स्वयं को फांसी पर लटका लूँगा हमने उसके लिए क्या किया है !
नाताल्या : मैं मरने जा रही हूँ ! उसे पकड़ कर लाओ !
शुबुकोव : मैं अभी जा रहा हूं चिल्लाओ मत।

(बाहर भागता है थोड़ी खामोशी।)

नाताल्या : (वह विलाप करती है) उन्होंने मेरे साथ क्या किया है। उसे वापस लेकर आओ। उसे वापस लाओ।

(थोड़ी खामोशी ! शुबुकोव भागकर अंदर आता है)

शुबुकोव : वह आ रहा है शैतान उसे ले जाए। तुम उससे उसे खुद बात करो मैं उससे बात नहीं करना चाहता।

नाताल्या : (विलाप करती है ) उसे पकड़कर लाओ !
शुबुकोव : (चिल्लाता है) वह आ रहा है, मैंने तुम्हें बता दिया अरे क्या मुसीबत है ,हे भगवान, एक

वयस्क लड़की का पिता होना ।मैं सचमुच में अपना गला काट लूँगा ।हमने उसे कोसा, गालियाँ दी और बाहर निकाल दिया और यह सब तुम्हारी वजह से हुआ।

नाताल्या :  नहीं आपकी वजह से।
शुबुकोव :मैंने तुम्हें बता दिया , यह मेरी गलती नहीं थी।
(लोमोव दरवाजे पर प्रकट होता है)
अब तुम उससे खुद बात कर लो।
(चला जाता है)
लोमोव : (थकी हुई अवस्था में प्रवेश करता है) मेरा दिल भयंकर रूप से धड़क रहा है।मेरा पाँव सो

गया है ।मेरे अंदर कुछ हो रहा है।

नाताल्या : हमें क्षमा कर दो, इवान वेसीलविच, हम थोड़ा गर्म हो गए थे। अब मुझे याद आया कि

Oxen Meadowsतो सचमुच आपकी है।
लोमोव : मेरा दिल भयंकर रूप से धड़क रहा है।मेरी चरागाहें -मेरी दोनों भौहें ऐठरही हैं
नाताल्या : चरागाह आपके हैं, हाँ आपके हैं । बैठ जाइए ( वे बैठ जाते हैं) हमारी गलती थी।
लोमोव : मैंने सैद्धान्तिक बात की थी।मेरी जमीन का मेरे लिए कोई महत्व नहीं है लेकिन मेरे सिद्धांत……
नाताल्या : हाँ , सिद्धांत तो,  ऐसा ही ।आओ अब कोई और बातचीत करें।
लोमोव :  और इसलिए भी क्योंकि मेरे पास सबूत हैं ।मेरी मौसी की नानी ने यह जमीन तुम्हारे

परदादा के मजदूरों को दी थी…

नाताल्या : हाँ , हाँ , अब इसे जाने दो (एक तरफ होकर) काश मुझे पता होता कि उससे बात कैसे शुरू करवाऊँ(ऊँचे स्वर में) क्या आप शीघ्र ही शिकार पर जाना चाहते हो ?

[PAGE 153] : लोमोव : प्रिय नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन, मैं सोच रहा हूँ कि कटाई का काम समाप्त होने के बाद तीतर का शिकार करने जाया करूँ अरे क्या तुमने सुना है ?  जरा सोचो , कितना दुर्भाग्य है गेस मेरा कुत्ता जिसे तुम जानती हो , लंगड़ा हो गया है।

नाताल्या:  कितने दुख की बात है ! क्यों ?

लोमोव : मैं नहीं जानता हूँ । हो सकता है या तो उसकी टाँग में बल पड़ गया होगा या फिर किसी दूसरे कुत्ते के द्वारा काट ली होगी (लंबी सांस लेता है) मेरा सबसे बढ़िया कुत्ता। उस पर हुए खर्च की तो बात ही मत करो मैंने मिरोनोव को उसके 125 रूबल दिए थे।

नाताल्या : इवान वेसिलविच, यह तो बहुत ज्यादा है।

लोमोव :  मेरा मानना है कि वह तो बहुत सस्ता मिल गया ।वह प्रथम दर्जे का कुत्ता है।

नाताल्या: पापा ने स्कूईज़र के लिए 85 रूबल दिए थे और स्कूईज़र गेस से कहीं अधिक अच्छा है।

लोमोव :  स्क्रूईज़रगेस से अच्छा है ?  क्या बात है । (हँसता है) हुआ स्कूईजर गेस से अच्छा है।

नाताल्या : निसंदेह, वह  बढ़िया है निसंदेह स्कूईजर अभी छोटा है, वह  थोड़ा और बड़ा हो जाएगा लेकिन जहाँ तक गुणों और नस्ल का संबंध है वह किसी भी कुत्ते से अच्छा है उस कुत्ते से भी जो बोलचनिस्की के पास है।

लोमोव :  क्षमा करना, नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन, लेकिन तुम भूल गई कि वह ऊँचे जबड़े वाला है और ऊँचे जबड़े वाले कुत्ते का अर्थ है कि वह शिकार करने में अच्छा नहीं है।

नाताल्या : क्या वह ऊँचे जबड़े वाला है ? मैंने तो यह पहली बार सुना है ।

लोमोव :  मैं तुम्हें यकीन दिलाता हूँ कि उसका निचला जबड़ा ऊपर वाले जबड़े से छोटा है

नाताल्या :  क्या तुमने नाप लिया है ?

लोमोव : हाँ ।नि : संदेह पीछा करने में तो वह बिल्कुल ठीक है , लेकिन यदि तुम किसी चीज को पकड़ना चाहते हो …..

नाताल्या : पहली बात तो यह है कि हमारा स्कूईज़रअसली नस्ल वाला जानवर है।यह हारनेस और चिज्लज का बेटा है जबकि तुम्हारे कुत्ते की नस्ल का कोई हिसाब नहीं है। वह बूढ़ा है और देखने में उतना ही भद्दा लगता है जितना की तांगे को खींचने वाला कोई घिसा –पीटा सा घोड़ा।

लोमोव : वह बूढ़ा है, लेकिन उसके बदले में मैं पॉच स्कूईज़र को भी ऐसा नहीं लूँगा ।क्यों, आप कैसे कह सकते हो ? गेस एक कुत्ता है और जहाँ तक रही इस स्कूईज़र की बात, उसके कुत्ता होने पर तर्क-वितर्क करना भी हास्यप्रद है।जिसके पास भी तुम कहोगी उसके पास स्कूईज़र कुत्ता मिलेगा । तुम ऐसे कुत्तों को प्रत्येक झाड़ी के नीचे देख सकते हो ।उसके लिए 25 रूबल की कीमत का भुगतान करना पर्याप्त रहेगा

नाताल्या: आज तो तुम्हारे अंदर झगड़ा करने वाला कोई भूत घुस गया है , इवान वेसीलविच ।पहले तो तुम ढोंग करते हो कि चरागाहें तुम्हारी हैं , अब तुम कह रहे हो कि गेसस्कूईज़र से बेहतर है ।मुझे ऐसे लोग पसंद नहीं है जो दो अर्थी बात करते हैं , क्योंकि तुम इस बात को बहुत अच्छी तरह से जानते हो कि स्कूईज़र तुम्हारे मूर्ख गेस से सैकड़ों गुना बेहतर है । तुम ऐसा क्यों कहना चाहते हो कि वह ऐसा नहीं है।

[PAGE 154] :लोमोव : नाताल्या स्टीपनोवन, मेरे विचार से तुम मुझे या तो अंधा या फिर मूर्ख समझ रही हो तुम्हें महसूस करना चाहिए कि स्कूईज़र ऊंचे जबड़े वाला है।

नाताल्या : यह सच नहीं है।

लोमोव : यह सच है।

नाताल्या : यह सच नहीं है।

लोमोव :  मैडम ,  क्यों चिल्ला रही हो ?

नाताल्या :  तुम बकवास क्यों कर रहे हो ?  यह भयानक बात है ।अब समय है कि तुम्हारे कुत्ते गेस को अब गोली मार दी जाए और तुम उसकी तुलना गेस से कर रहे हो।

लोमोव :  क्षमा कीजिए, मैं इस बहस को जारी नहीं रख सकता, मेरा दिल तेजी से धड़कने लग गया है।

नाताल्या :  मैंने देखा है कि वे शिकारी जिन्हें कुछ भी नहीं पता होता है ज्यादा बहस करते हैं।

लोमोव :  मैडम, कृपया शांत हो जाइए । मेरा दिल टुकड़े-टुकड़े हो रहा है (चिल्लाता है) चुप करो।

नाताल्या ; मैं तब तक चुप नहीं करूँगी जब तक तुम इस बात को स्वीकार नहीं कर लेते कि इस स्कूईज़र गेस से 100 गुना अधिक बेहतर है

लोमोव :  सौ गुना खराब है ।जाओ अपने स्कूईज़र के साथ लटक जाओ , उसका सिर…. आंखें….. कंधे…..।

नाताल्या ; तुम्हारे मूर्ख गेस को तो फाँसी देने की भी जरूरत नहीं है वह तो पहले से ही अधमरा है।

लोमोव : (रोता है ) चुप करो।मेरा दिल फटा जा रहा है।

नाताल्या : मैं चुप नहीं करूँगी ।

(शुबुकोव प्रवेश करता है )

शुबुकोव: अब क्या हुआ ?

नाताल्या : पापा हमें सच-सच बताइए कि बेहतर कुत्ता कौन सा है ,  हमारा स्कूईज़रया उसका गेस ।

लोमोव : स्टीपन स्टेपनोविच। मैं आपसे प्रार्थना करता हूँ कि आप मुझे बताइए कि क्या तुम्हारा स्कूईज़रऊँचे जबड़े वाला है या नहीं ? हाँ या न ?

शुबुकोव : मान लो वह है ?  इससे क्या फर्क पड़ता है। वह पूरे ज़िले में सबसे बढ़िया कुत्ता है।

लोमोव : लेकिन क्या मेरा गेस बढ़िया नहीं है ? सचमुच अब बताइए ?

शुबुकोव : अपने- आपको उत्तेजित मत करो, मेरे प्यारे। मुझे बताने दीजिए।तुम्हारे गेस में भी निश्चित रूप से कुछ अच्छी बातें हैं ।  वह असली नस्ल का है। उसके पाँव मजबूत है उसकी पसलियाँ अच्छी तरह से फूली हुई हैं और यह सभी गुण हैं लेकिन मेरे प्यारे, यदि तुम सच्चाई जानना चाहते हो, तो उस कुत्ते में दोदोस्त हैं वह बूढ़ा है और उसकी थूथन छोटी है।

लोमोव : माफ करना,  मेरा दिल……आओं तथ्यों पर बात करें। आपको याद होगा कि मिरुसिसेकी वाले शिकार के समय मेरा गेस काऊंट के कुत्ते के साथ बिल्कुल बराबर में भागा था जबकि आपका स्क्रूईज़र पूरे दो किलोमीटर पीछे रह गया था।

शुबुकोव : वह इसलिए पीछे रह गया था क्योंकि काऊँट के शिकारी कुत्ता अधिकारी ने चाबुक से उसे मार दिया था।

[PAGE 155] : लोमोव : और ऐसा करने का एक अच्छा कारण था । कुत्ते एक लोमड़ के पीछे भाग रहे थे ,  जब स्कूईज़र ने जाकर एक भेड़ को परेशान करना शुरू कर दिया।

शुबुकोव :  यह सत्य नहीं है ! मेरे प्रिय दोस्त , मुझे बहुत जल्दी क्रोध आ जाता है , और इसलिए इसी वजह से ,  हम बहस करना बंद कर दें ।बहस तुमने शुरू की थी क्योंकि प्रत्येक व्यक्ति हर दूसरे आदमी के कुत्तों  से हमेशा ईर्ष्या करता है । हाँ, हम सब इसी तरह के हैं ।तुम भी,श्रीमान, बिना दोष के नहीं हो !ज्यों ही तुम ऐसी बात शुरू करोगे, तो दूसरा आदमी, और वगैरह-वगैरह….. मुझे हर बात याद है !

लोमोव :  मुझे भी याद है !

शुबुकोव : (उसे चिढ़ाते हुए) मुझे भी याद है ।क्या याद है तुम्हें ?

लोमोव :  मेरा दिल , मेरा पैर सो गया है। मैं ………

नाताल्या : (चिढ़ाते हुए) मेरा दिल !  तुम किस तरह के शिकारी हो ? तुम्हें जाकर रसोई घर के चूल्हे पर बैठ जाना चाहिए और वहाँ काले (तिलचट्टों) को पकड़ना चाहिए , और लोमड़ों के पीछे नहीं भागना चाहिए।मेरा दिल !

शुबुकोव:  हाँ सचमुच, तुम किस तरह के शिकारी हो, किसी भी तरह से ? तुम्हें अपनी तेज धक-धक लेकर घर पर बैठना चाहिए, और शिकार के लिए जानवरों को ढूँढते नहीं फिरना चाहिए।तुम शिकार करने जा सकते हो, लेकिन तुम केवल लोगों के साथ बहस करने के लिए जाते हो और उनके कुत्तों में दखल-अन्दाजी करने के लिए और वगैरह-वगैरह । आओ हम इस विषय को बदल दें, कहीं ऐसा ना हो कि मुझे क्रोध आ जाए । तुमएक शिकारी बिल्कुल नहीं हो ,  किसी भी तरह से !

लोमोव : और क्या आप एक शिकारी हैं ? अगर शिकार पर केवल काऊंट के साथ नजदीकी स्थापित करने के लिए और षड्यंत्र रचने के लिए जाते हैं।ओह ! मेरा दिल आप एक षड्यन्त्रकारी हैं !

शुबुकोव : क्या ? मैं  षड्यन्त्रकारी हूँ ? (चिल्लाता है) बकवास बंद करो।

लोमोव :  एक षड्यंत्रकारी !

शुबुकोव : एक लड़का ,  कुत्ते का पिल्ला !

लोमोव :  बूढ़ा चूहा , एक ढोंगी साधु !

शुबुकोव : बकवास बंद करो वरना मैं तुम्हें काले तीतर की तरह गोली मार दूँगा ! अरे मूर्ख !

लोमोव : हर कोई जानता है कि ………. अरे मेरा दिल ……… तुम्हारी स्वर्गीय पत्नी तुम्हें पीटा करती थी …….मेरे पैर…….. मंदिर……. चिंगारियाँ…. मैं गिरा ……..मैं गिरा।

शुबुकोव :  और तुम तो अपनी नौकरानी के जूतों के नीचे रहते हो !

लोमोव :  यह लो , मेरा दिल फट गया है। मेरे कंधे टूटकर अलग हो गए हैं । मेरा कंधा कहाँ है ?  मैं मर रहा हूँ(एक आराम कुर्सी पर गिर जाता है ) डॉक्टर को बुलाओ ।

शुबुकोव : लड़का !  फूहड़! मूर्ख !  मैं बीमार हूँ (पानी पीता है), बीमार !

नाताल्या : तुम किस किस्म के शिकारी हो ।तुम तो एक घोड़े के ऊपर भी नहीं बैठ सकते हो (अपने पिता से) पापा,  इसे क्या हुआ ? पापा ! देखे, पापा ! (चिल्लाती है)इवान वेसीलविच , वह मर गया है।

शुबुकोव : मैं बीमार हूँ ! मैं साँस नहीं ले सकता हूँ !  हवा !  
[PAGE 156] : नाताल्या : वह मर गया है । (लोमोव को आस्तीन से खींचती है) इवान वेसीलविच !

तुमने मुझे क्या कर दिया है ? वह मर गया है । (एक आराम कुर्सी में गिर जाती है) कोई डॉक्टर बुलाओ,डॉक्टर बुलाओ ! (पागलों की तरह रोने लगती है।)

शुबुकोव : ओह ! क्या हो गया है ? क्या बात है ?

नाताल्या : (रोती है) वह मर गया है…. मर गया है !

शुबुकोव : कौन मर गया है ? (लोमोव की तरफ देखता है) मर ही गया है !  पक्की बात है !  पानी ! डॉक्टर !(एक गिलास उठा कर लोमोव के मुँह के पास लाता है) इसे पी लो ! नहीं, वह पी नहीं रहा है। इसका मतलब है वह मर गया है, और वगैरह-वगैरह ।मैं सभी आदमियों से ज्यादा दुःखी हूँ । मैं अपने दिमाग में एक गोली क्यों नहीं डाल लेता हूँ ? मैंने अभी तक अपना गला क्यों नहीं काटा है ? मैं किस बात की प्रतीक्षा कर रहा हूँ मुझे एक चाकू दे दो ! मुझे एक पिस्तौल दे दो ! (लोमोव हिलता है ) वह होश में आ रहा प्रतीत हो रहा है। कुछ पानी पी लो ! अब ठीक है।

लोमोव :  मुझे तारे दिखाई दे रहे हैं …  धुंध …. मैं कहाँहूँ ?

शुबुकोव : जल्दी करो और विवाह कर लो और….हाँ, तुम्हें शैतान ले जाए ! वह तैयार है ! (वह लोमोव का हाथ पकड़कर अपनी बेटी के हाथ में दे देता है।) वह तैयार है, और वगैरह-वगैरह ।मैं तुम्हें अपना आशीर्वाद देता हूँ और वगैरह-वगैरह ।केबल मुझे चैन में छोड़ दो !

लोमोव  : (ऊपर को उठते हुए)आह ! ? क्या ? किसे ?

शुबुकोव : वह तैयार है ! ठीक है ? अब चूम लो और तुम्हारा बुरा हो।

नाताल्या : (रोते हुए) वह जीवित है …..हाँ, हाँ, मैं तैयार हूँ ।

शुबुकोव : एक – दूसरे को चूमो !

लोमोव : आह ! किसे चुमूँ ? (वेचूमते हैं) बहुत बढ़िया। क्षमा करना, यह सब किसलिए हो रहा है ? ओह,   अब मुझे समझ आने लगा है …..मेरा दिल……. तारे….. मैं प्रसन्न हूँ । नाताल्या स्टीपननोवन …….(उसका हाथ चूमता है) मेरा पाँव सो गया है।

नाताल्या : मैं … मैं  भी खुश हूँ …..

शुबुकोव : उफ़ ! मेरे कंधों से कितना बड़ा भार उतर गया है।

नाताल्या : किंतु अभी आप यह मानेंगे कि गेस स्कूईज़र से घटिया है।

लोमोव :  बढ़िया है !

नाताल्या :  घटिया है !

शुबुकोव : ठीक है ,तुम्हारे जीवन के आनन्द को शुरू करने का यह भी एक तरीका है ।कुछ शैम्पेन (फ्रांस में बनी शराब) ले लो।

लोमोव : वह बढ़िया है ।

नाताल्या : घटिया है ! घटिया है  ! घटिया है !

शुबुकोव : उसे खामोश करने के लिए चिल्लाते हुए)शैम्पेन ! शैम्पेन !

परदा गिर जाता है।

 Thinking About Language

Question 1: 1. This play has been translated into English from the Russian original. Are there any expressions or ways of speaking that strike you as more Russian than English? For example, would an adult man be addressed by an older man as my darling or my treasure in an English play? Read through the play carefully, and find expressions that you think are not used in contemporary English, and contrast these with idiomatic modern English expressions that also occur in the play. 3. Look up the following phrases in a dictionary to find out their meaning, and then use each in a sentence of your own.

(i)You may take it that

(ii)He seems to be coming round

(iii)My foot’s gone to sleep

Answer: 1. Expressions not used in contemporary English

1.“ my darling”, “my beauty”, “my precious”, “my angel”, “my beloved” (here, an older man is addressing an adult man)

2“…and so on…” (here, it is used after a sentence in order to complete it)

3.“…and all that sort of ” (not explaining what it is, just leaving it as it is)

4.“…and all ” (again leaving the sentence as it is)

5.“ the Scarecrow”, “the stuffed sausage”, “the wizen-faced frump” (In this way, they hurled insults at each other)

6.“ And how may you be getting on?” (Here, Lomov is asking Chubukov about his well- being)

Modern English expressions

1.“ Madam”, “my heart”, “honoured Natalya Stepanovna” (used by Lomov for Natalya)

2.“Honoured Stepan Stepanovitch” (used by Lomov for Chubukov)

3.(i)“I beg your pardon…”

4.“My dear fellow” (Chubukov addressing Lomov)

5.“malicious, double-faced intriguer”, “fool” (Chubukov insulting Lomov)

3.(i)You may take it that I am lying, but in fact, it will help you in the long run.

(ii)He seems to be coming round after the trauma of his father’s

(iii)After the three-hour long yoga session, my foot’s gone to

Thinking About the Play

Question 1: What does Chubukov at first suspect that Lomov has come for? Is he sincere when he later says “And I’ve always loved you, my angel, as if you were my own son”? Find reasons for your answer from the play.

Answer: At first, Chubukov suspected that Lomov had come to borrow money. He was not sincere when he told Lomov that he had always loved him and that he was like his own son. He had decided that he would not give Lomov any money if he tried borrowing from him. If he truly meant what he had said, then he would not have thought of not giving him money. He said so only because Lomov had come with the proposal to marry his daughter.

Question 2: Chubukov says of Natalya: “… as if she won’t consent! She’s in love; egad, she’s like a lovesick cat…” Would you agree? Find reasons for your answer.

Answer: Chubukov thought that Lomov was a good marriage prospect for his daughter. He had been waiting for this proposal. When Lomov expressed his doubt regarding Natalya’s consent to the proposal, Chubukov immediately told him that she was in love with him. However, this was not true. Natalya did not seem to be in love with Lomov at any point in the play. It seemed like she was more attached to her land, meadows and dogs than to Lomov. In fact, the way they kept getting into arguments about trivial matters suggests that neither Lomov nor Natalya was in love with the other.

Question 3:

(i) Find all the words and expressions in the play that the characters use to speak about each other, and the accusations and insults they hurl at each other. (For example, Lomov, in the end, calls Chubukov an intriguer; but earlier, Chubukov has himself called Lomov a “malicious, double-faced intriguer.” Again, Lomov begins by describing Nayalya as “ an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated.”)

Answer: (i) Several words and expressions have been used by the characters to describe each other. Some of them are as follows:

Chubukov: grabber; intriguer; old rat; Jesuit

Natalya: a lovesick cat; an excellent housekeeper; not bad-looking, well-educated

Lomov: a good neighbour; a friend; impudent; pettifogger; a malicious, double-faced intriguer; a rascal; blind hen; turnip-ghost; a villain; a scarecrow; monster; the stuffed sausage; the wizen-faced frump; boy; pup; milksop; fool

Thinking About Language

Question 2: You must have noticed that when we report someone’s exact words, we have to make some changes in the sentence structure. In the following sentences fill in the blanks to list the changes that have occurred in the above pairs of sentences. One has been done for you.

1. To report a question, we use the reporting verb asked (as in Sentence Set 1).

2. To report a declaration, we use the reporting verb.

3. The adverb of place here changes to.

4. When the verb indirect speech is in the present tense, the verb in reported speech is in the tense (as in Sentence Set 3).

5. If the verb indirect speech is in the present continuous tense, the verb in reported speech changes to, For example,             changes to was getting.

6. When the sentence in direct speech contains a word denoting respect, we add the adverb in the reporting clause (as in Sentence Set 1).

7. The pronouns I, me, our and mine, which are used in the first person in direct speech, change to third person pronouns such as , or           in reported

Answer: 1. To report a question, we use the reporting verb asked.

2. To report a declaration, we use the reporting verb declared.

3. The adverb of place here changes to

4. When the verb indirect speech is in the present tense, the verb in reported speech is in the past

5. If the verb indirect speech is in the present continuous tense, the verb in reported speech changes to past continuous For example, am getting changes to was getting.

6. When the sentence in direct speech contains a word denoting respect, we add the adverb respectfully in the reporting

7. The pronouns I, me, our and mine, which are used in the first person in direct speech, change to second person pronouns such as he/she, him/her , their or his/hers in reported

Question 3: Here is an excerpt from an article from the Times of India dated 27 August 2006. Rewrite it, changing the sentences in direct speech into reported speech. Leave the other sentences unchanged. “Why do you want to know my age? If people know I am so old, I won’t get work!” laughs 90-year-old A. K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors. For his age, he is rather energetic. “What’s the secret?” we ask. “My intake of everything is in small quantities. And I walk a lot,” he replies. “I joined the industry when people retire. I was in my 40s. So I don’t miss being called a star. I am still respected and given work, when actors of my age are living in poverty and without work. I don’t have any complaints,” he says, adding, “but yes, I have always been underpaid.” Recipient of the Padma Bhushan, Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. “No doubt I am content today, but money is important. I was a fool not to understand the value of money earlier,” he regrets.

Answer: 90-year-old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors, laughingly asked why we wanted to know his age. If people knew he was that old, he would not get work. For his age, he is rather energetic. We asked him what the secret was. He replied that his intake of everything was in small quantities and he walked a lot. He said that he had joined the industry when people retired. He had been in his 40s. So he did not miss being called a star. He was still respected and given work when actors of his age were living in poverty and without work. He said he did not have any complaints, adding that he had always been underpaid. Recipient of the Padma Bhushan, Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. He said that no doubt he was content at present, but money was important. He said regretfully that he was a fool not to understand the value of money before.

Activity

1. The word ‘proposal’ has several meanings. Can you guess what sort of proposal the play is about?

(i)a suggestion, plan or scheme for doing something

(ii) an offer for a possible plan or action?

(iii)the act of asking someone’s hand in marriage

Ans. (iii) the act of asking someone’s hand in marriage

A Russian Wedding

Do you know anything about a Russian marriage ceremony? Read this article about a Russian wedding.

For students: Read the article about Russian Wedding on pages 142-143 of the textbook.

2. Do you think Indian and Russian weddings have any customs in common? With the help of a partner, fill in the table below.

Wedding Ceremonies in Russia and India

Customs similar to Indian ones

 

Customs different from Indian ones

 

   
   
   
   
   
   
   

 Ans.

Indian and Russian weddings have many customs in common. The information showing it is given as:          

Customs similar to Indian ones

 

Customs different from Indian ones

 

1. wedding procession 1. making posters, writing speeches,

organising contests

2. groom coming to bride’s house 2. fight involving this
3. honeymoon 3. climbing stairs and answering questions,

etc.

4. reception 4. city tour
5. ‘stealing’ of the shoe 5. ceremonial toasting
6. grooms’ paying 6. kissing the bride
7. ‘stealing’ of the bride

 

 

Thinking about the Play (Page 157) 

1. What does Chubukov at first suspect that Lomov has come for? Is be sincere when he later says “And I’ve always loved you, my angel, as if you were my own son”? Find reasons for your answer from the play.

Ans.    When Lomov tells Chubukov that he has come to make a special request. Chubukov at first suspects that Lomov has come to borrow money. Chubukov is not sincere in using terms of endearment for Lomov. After some time. Chubukov starts quarrelling with Lomov- over petty matters. In fact., the sides with his daughter in quarrelling with Lomov. He even abuses Lomov. This shows his insincerity in saying this flattering sentence.

2. Chubukov says of Natalya: “…..as if she won’t consent! She’s in love; egad, she’s like a lovesick cat…” Would you agree? Find reasons for your answer.

 Ans… Yes, Natalya is in love. This becomes clear when she starts weeping on knowing that Lomov came to purpose to her. She asks her father to bring him back at once. She becomes hysteric.

3. (i) Find all the words and expressions in the play that the characters use to speak about each other, and the accusations and insults they hurl at each other. (For example, Lomov, in the end, calls Chuhukov an intriguer; but earlier, Chubukov has himself called Lomov a “malicious, double-faced intriguer.” Again, Lomov begins by describing Natalya as “an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated.”)

(ii) Then think of five adjectives or adjectival expressions of your own to  describe each character in the play.

(iii) Can you now imagine what these characters will quarrel about next?

Ans.(i)Natalya calls Lomov ‘rascal’, ‘The monster’.

Chubukov calls him ‘The villain! The scarecrow !” that blind hen’. ‘turnip-ghost’, ‘The stuffed sausage’. The wizen-faced frump’, ‘malicious, double. faced intriguer’ etc.

Chubukov calls Lomov’s father as ‘a guzzling gambler’.

Lomov calls Chubukov ‘Intriguer’, Natalya’s mother as ‘hump-backed’, ‘backbiters’, etc.

 Chubukov calls Lomov as ‘my precious’.

Lomov calls Natalya as ‘an excellent housekeeper, not bad-looking, well-educated.

(ii)    Lomov: showy, weak-hearted, diffident, stupid, idiotic, quarrelsome,etc.

Natalya: quarrelsome, nagging, foolish, unwise, immature etc.

Chubukov: mean, low-minded, abusive, quarrelsome, insensible

(iii) Next, they will tight about the arrangements to be made for marriage.

Thinking about Language

1. This play has been translated into English from the Russian original. Are there any expressions or ways of speaking that strike you as more Russian than English? For example, would an adult man he addressed by an older man as my darling or my treasure in an English play?

Read through the play carefully, and find expressions that you think are not used in contemporary English. and contrast these with idiomatic modern English expressions that also occur in the play.

Ans.

1.The following expressions or ways of speaking strike as more Russian than English :

Like a lovesick cat, honoured Natalya Stepanovna, pettifogger, malicious, double-faced intriguer, rascal, The villain! The scarecrow! The stuffed sausage! The wizen-faced frump! Pup! And you’re under the slipper of your house-keeper!

She’s willing, kiss and be damned to you.

These insulting words and phrases used in the play are not used in contemporary English. These expressions are contrasted with the ones like: ‘villain’. ‘buffoon’. ‘ostrich’. ‘pig’. ‘swine’. ‘fool’, ‘dog, ‘devil’, ‘scoundrel’, ‘bitch’, etc.

2.Look up the following words in a dictionary and find out how to pronounce them.

Pay attention to how to marry syllables there are in each word, and find

out which syllable is stressed, or said more forcefully.

palpitations               interfere                     implore           thoroughbred

pedigree                    principle                     evidence        misfortune

malicious                   embezzlement          architect         neighbours

accustomed              temporary                  behaviour      documents

Ans.

palpitations =   / ‘p@lpi’tOonz/ (4 syllables) (‘t is stressed and said more forcefully.

pedigree =       / ‘pedigri: /                    (2 syllables)(2 syllables)(‘p-do-)

malicious =      / m[‘lio{s /                     (2 syllables)(2 syllables)(1-do-)

accustomed = /[k^st[md /                   (4 syllables)(‘k is stressed and said more forcefully.)

interfere =       / Int[‘fi( (r) /                  (3 syllables)) (‘f-do)

principle =       / ‘prins{ pl /                   (2 syllables)(‘p o-do)

embezzlement = / imbezlment /         (3 syllables)(‘b-do-)

temporary =/ lempr[ ri /                       (3 syllables)(‘t-do-)

 implore = / im’pl0:(r) /                         (2 syllables)(‘p-do-)

evidence =/ ‘evid(ns /              (2 syllables)(‘e-do-)

architect =/ ‘a:kitekt /              (2 syllables)(‘a-do-)

 behaviour =/ bi’heivj((r)                      (2 syllables)(‘h-do-)

 thoroughbred = / ‘T^rbred /                (2 syllables) (‘-e-do)

misfortune =      / mis’fO:tOu:n /         (3 syllables)(‘f-do)

neighbours =/ ‘neib{(r)% /                   (2 syllables)(‘n-do-)

 documents = / ‘dj kjum[nt /                (2 syllables)(‘d-do-)

 3.Look up the following phrases in a dictionary to find out their meaning, and then use each in s sentence of your own.

(i) You may take it that

(ii) He seems to be coming round

(iii) My foot’s gone to sleep.

Ans.

(i) You may take it that = You may understand that.

You may take it that cannot tolerate your impudent behaviour.

(ii) He seems to be coming round = He seems to be understanding.

Previously he always opposed me. But now he seems to be coming round what I said.

(iii) My foot’s gone to sleep = I foot has become numb.

I have been squatting for a long time. My foot has gone to sleep.

1.Reported Speech

A sentence in reported speech consists of two pans: a reporting clause, which contains the reporting verb, and the reported clause. Look at the following sentences.

(a) “I went to visit my grandma last week,” said Mamta.

(b) Mamta said that she had gone to visit her grandma the previous week.

In sentence (a), we have Mamta’s exact words. This is an example of direct speech sentence.

(b), someone is reporting what Mamta said. This is called indirect speech or reported speech. A sentence in reported speech is made up of two parts—a reporting clause and a reported clause.

In sentence (b), Mamta said is the reporting clause containing the reporting verb said. The other clause—that she had gone to visit her grandma last week—is the reported clause.

Notice that in a sentence (b) we put the reporting clause first. This is done to show that we are not speaking directly, but reporting someone else’s words. The tense of the verb also changes; past tense (went) becomes past perfect (had gone).

Here are some pairs of sentences in direct and reported speech. Read them carefully, and do the task that follows :

1.(i) LOMOV: Honoured Stepan Stepanovitch, do you think I may count on her consent? (Direct Speech)

(ii) Lomov asked Stepan Stepanovitch respectfully if he thought he might count on her consent. (Reported Speech)

2. (i) LOMOV: I’m getting a noise in my ears from excitement. (Direct Speech)

(ii) LOMOV said that he was getting a noise in his ears from excitement. (Reported Speech)

3. (i) NATALYA: Why haven’t you been here for such a long time? (Direct Speech)

(ii)  Natalya Stepanovna asked why he hadn’t been there for such a long time. (Reported Speech)

4. (i) CHUBUKOV: What’s the matter? (Direct Speech)

(ii) Chubukov asked him what the matter was. (Reported Speech)

  5. (i) NATALYA: My mowers will be there this very day! (Direct Speech)

   (ii) Natalya Stepanovna declared that her mowers would be there that very day.

(Reported Speech)

You must have noticed that when we report someone’s exact words, we have to make some changes in the sentence structure. In the following sentences fill in the blanks to list the changes that have occurred in the above pairs of sentences. One has been done for you.

To report a question, we use the reporting verb asked (as in Sentence Set I).

1. To report a statement, we use the reporting verb ___

2. The adverb of place here changes to ____

3. When the verb indirect speech is in the present tense, the verb in reported speech is in the____ tense (as in Sentence Set 3).

4. If the verb indirect speech is in the present continuous tense, the verb in reported speech changes to___ tense. For example,_____ changes to was getting.

5. When the sentence in direct speech contains a word denoting respect, we add the adverb _____in the reporting clause (as in Sentence Set I).

6. The pronouns I, me, our and mine, which are used in the first person indirect speech. change to second person pronouns such as____,_____,______ Or______in reported speech.

1.declared

2. there

3. past

4. past continuous …..is getting

5. respectively

6. he. him, their or his

 III. Here is an excerpt from an article from the Times of India dated 27 August 2006. Rewrite it changing the sentences in direct speech into reported speech. Leave the other sentences unchanged.

“Why do you warn to know my age? If people know I am so old. I won’t get work !” laughs 90-years, old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors. For his age, he is rather energetic. “What’s the secret ?” we ask. “My intake of everything is in small quantities. And I walk a lot”, he replies. “I joined the industry when people retire. I was in my 40s. So I don’t miss being called a star. I am still respected and given work when actors of my age are living in poverty and without work. I don’t have any complaints,” he says, adding, “but yes, I have always been underpaid.” Recipient of the Padma Bhushan Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. NO doubt I am content today, but money. is important. I was a fool not to understand the value of money earlier,” he regrets.

Answer :

90-year-old A.K. Hangal, one of Hindi cinema’s most famous character actors laughs asking the interviewer why he wants to know his age, adding that if people know he is so old, he won’t get work. For his age, he is rather energetic. They ask him what the secret is. He replies that his intake of everything is in small quantities and he walks a lot. He further states that he joined the industry when people retire. He was in his 40s. So he doesn’t miss being called a star. He is still respected and given work when actors of his age are living in poverty and without work. He doesn’t have any complaints, he says, adding that he has always been underpaid. Recipient of The Padma Bhushan, Hangal never hankered after money or materialistic gains. He regrets that no doubt he is content today but money is important. He was a fool not to understand the value of money earlier.

 Speaking and Writing

1.Anger Management: As adults, one important thing to learn is how to manage our temper :

Some of us tend to get angry quickly, while others remain calm.

Can you think of three ill effects that result from anger? Note them down. Suggest ways to avoid losing your temper in such situations. Are there any benefits from anger?

Ans     There is many ill effects of anger. Some of them are as follows :

(a) Anger increases blood pressure.

(b) It accelerates the heartbeat.

(c) It causes harm to the body.

(d) Sometimes, out of anger one may commit a deed for which he repents later.

In order to control our anger, we must speak as little as possible in a conversation. We must listen to the other fellow and let him speak. You must say to yourself. “most of what he says is  nonsense.” You should think that the other fellow wants to harm you by making you angry. Yoll should not allow him to make you a victim. Moreover, anger leads to anger. If you remain calm’ the other fellow will also become calm after some time.

2. In pairs, prepare a script based on the given excerpt from The Home and the World by Rabindranath Tagore. You may write five exchanges between the characters with Ail directions such as movements on stage and way of speaking, etc.

One afternoon, when I happened to be especially busy, word came to my office room that Bimala had sent for me. I was startled.

“Who did you say had sent for me ?” I asked the messenger.

“The Rani Mother”.

 “The Bara Rani ?”

“No. sir, the Chona Rani Mother ”

The Chow Rani! It seemed a century since I had been sent for by her. I kept them all waiting there, and went off into the inner apartments. When I stepped into our room I had another shock of surprise to find Bimala there with a distinct suggestion of being dressed up. The room, which from persistent neglect, had latterly acquired an air of having grown absent-minded, had regained something of its old order this afternoon. I stood there silently, looking enquiringly at Bimala.

She flushed a little and the fingers of her right hand toyed for a time with the bangles on her left arm. Then she abruptly broke the silence. “Look here! Is it right that ours should be the only market in all Bengal which allows foreign goods ?”

 “What, then, would be the right thing to do ?” I asked.

“Order them to be cleared out!”

“But the goods are not mine.”

“Is not the market yours ?”

“It is much more theirs who use it for trade.”

“Let them trade in Indian goods, then.”

“Nothing would please me better. But suppose they do not ?”

“Nonsense! How dare they be so insolent? Are you not….”

“I am very busy this afternoon and cannot stop to argue it out. But I must refuse to tyrannise.” “It would not be tyranny for selfish gain, but for the sake of the country.”

“To tyrannise for the country is to tyrannise over the country. But that I am afraid you will never understand.” With this, I came away.

Ans.    For an attempt at group and class level.

3. In groups, discuss the qualities one should look for in a marriage partner. You might consider the following points.

  • Personal qualities

— Appearance or looks

— Attitudes and beliefs

— Sense of humour

  • Value system

— Compassion and kindness

— Tolerance, ambition

— Attitude to money and wealth

  • Education and professional background

Ans.

(a) Personal qualities :

(i) The marriage partner should be good looking. But inner qualities are more important than outer looks.

(ii) His or her attitudes and beliefs should be healthy and constructive.

(iii) He or she must have a healthy sense of humour.

(b) Value System :

(i) The partner must be kind towards all. There should be no streak of cruelty in him or her.

(ii) The Marriage partner must have tolerance and ambition to rise high in life.

(iii) The marriage partner should have a balanced attitude towards money. He or She should neither be stingy or a spendthrift.

(c) Education and professional background :

The marriage partner must have good educational or professional qualifications.

4. Are there parts of the play that reminds you of film scenes from romantic comedies? Discuss this in groups, and recount to the rest of the class episodes similar to those in the play.

Ans.

For discussion in groups and at the class level. The student may consider romantic comedy films like ‘Chalti Ka  Naam Gaadi.”Padosan’. ‘Shriman 420″ Hera Pheri’, Hangama’, etc.

Download Chapter-11 THE PROPOSAL in PDF

Chapter-7.1 Animals NCERT Solution

TEXTUAL EXERCISES

Thinking about the Poem (Page 84)

1. Notice the use of the word ‘turn’ in the first line, “I think I could turn and live with animals …”. What is the poet turning from?

Ans. The poet compares animals and humans. He thinks that animals are better than human beings. So he thinks that he can turn away from a human being and go to live with the animals.

2. Mention three things that humans do and animals don’t.

Ans. (i) Human beings cry about their conditions, but animals do not do so.

(ii) Human beings lie awake in the dark and weep for their sins. But the animals do not weep for their sins.

(iii) Human beings make the poet sick by discussing their duty to God, but the animals do not do so.

3. Do humans kneel to other humans who lived thousands of years ago? Discuss this in groups.

Ans. Yes, human beings do that. They do so to show respect to the elderly. It is a cultural/moral feature of our society.

4. What are the ‘tokens’ that the poet says he may have dropped long ago, and which the animals have kept for him? Discuss this in class. (Hint: Whitman belongs to the Romantic tradition that includes Rousseau and Wordsworth, which holds that civilisation has made humans false to their own true nature. What could be the basic aspects of our nature as living beings that humans choose to ignore or deny?)

Ans. The ‘tokens’ that Whitman speaks of are the tokens of love, affection, kindness, truth, honesty, sympathy, fellow-feelings, etc. towards one and all. It is sad that these good human virtues have disappeared. The poet feels very bad. He thinks that in this regard animals are better than human beings.

Chapter-6.1 Amanda NCERT Solution

TEXTUAL EXERCISES

Thinking about the Poem (Page 62)

1. How old do you think Amanda is? How do you know this?

Ans. I think Amanda is a teenager, that is, around 12 or 13. She has acne on her face. Usually, boys or girls at this` age have them on their faces.

2. Who do you think is speaking to her?

 Ans. It is either her mother father, one speaking to her.

3. Why are Stanzas 2, 4 and 6 given in parenthesis?

Ans. Stanzas 2, 4 and 6 are given in parenthesis because they are not spoken by the speaker. Hem, there is a change in narration. These stanzas reflect the thoughts of a day-dreaming girl, that is, Amanda.

4. Who is the speaker in Stanzas 2, 4 and 6? Do you think this speaker is ‘listening to the speaker in Stanzas 1, 3, 5 and 7?

Ans. In stanza 2, 4 and 6 the speaker is Amanda. In Stanza 2fthe speaker is Amanda in the form of a mermaid, in stanza 4 in the form of an orphan and in stanzatr6i.in the form of a fairy. She does not listen to the speaker of stanzas 1, 3, 5 and 7 as she is a daydreaming girl.

5. What could Amanda do if she were a mermaid?

Ans. If Amanda were a mermaid, she could move about in the green sea blissfully.

6. Is Amanda an orphan? Why does she say so?

Ans. No, Amanda is not an orpar1Lnvandering in the street. It is clear in stanza 4. She says so because she wants to have freedo3which perhaps she does not have to be a parental child.

7. Do you know the story of Rapunzel? Why does she want to be Rapunzel?

Ans. Rapunzel is the heroine of a fairy story. She is a beautiful girl with long hair. She is imprisoned in a tall tower by a witch. In the story, a handsome prince comes and is able to climb to the top of the tower to meet her. He calls out to her. “Rapunzel. Rapunzel, let down your long hair.” Amanda wants to be Rapunzel because then she will have long hair and her prince charming will come to rescue her from her dull life.

8. What does the girl yearn for? What does this poem tell you about Amanda?

Ans. The girl yearns for freedom. She wants to lead her life the way she likes. Perhaps she does not get freedom in her house. That is why, in her day-dreams, she imagines her to be free and charming.

9. Read the last stanza. Do you think Amanda is sulking and is moody?

Ans. The speaker thinks that Amanda is sulking. In fact, Amanda is not happy with her surroundings. She often escapes to the world of day-dreams. That is why, when she comes back from those dreams to the world of harsh reality, she seems to be sulking.

Class-10 Chapter-10 THE SERMON AT BENARES NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

NCERT solution

Chapter – 10

10 The Sermon at Benares

पाठकासंपूर्ण हिंदीं अनुवाद

[PAGE 133] : गौतम बुद्ध (563 ईस्वीपूर्व)ने अपना जीवन उत्तरी भारत में सिद्धार्थ गौतम के नाम से शुरू किया था । 12 वर्ष की आयु में , हिन्दू धार्मिक ग्रन्थों का अध्ययन करने के लिए भेज दिया गया और चार वर्ष पश्चात् एक राजकुमारी से शादी करने के लिए वह घर लौटा । उनका एक बेटा था तथा दस वर्ष तक उन्होंने एक शाही परिवार वाला जीवन बिताया । लगभग 25 वर्ष की आयु में , राजकुमार , जिसे अब से  पहले तक संसार  के कष्टों से बचाकर रखा गया था , शिकार पर जाते समय उसे एक बीमार आदमी , फिर एक बुढा आदमी, फिर एक मृत आदमी की शवयात्रा और अन्त में भीख माँग रहा एक भिक्षु मिल गया । इन द्रश्यों ने उसे इतना हिला दिया कि वह तुरन्त उन दुखों के बारे में ज्ञान प्राप्त करने के लिए बाहरी संसार में चला गया जो उसने देखे थे । वह सात साल तक घूमता रहा और अंततः एक पीपल के वृक्ष के नीचे बैठ गया , जहाँ उसने तब तक बैठे रहने की प्रतीक्षा की जब तक उसे ज्ञानकी प्राप्ति नहींहोजाती।

[PAGE 134] : सात साल के पश्चातज्ञानकीप्राप्ति होने पर उसने उस वृक्ष का पुन: नामकरण करते हुएउसे बोधि वृक्ष (ज्ञान का पेड़ ) का नाम दे दिया और वहाँ पर उपदेश देना तया अपनी नई समझ का प्रसार करना शुरु कर दिया । उस समय वह बुद्ध (जागृत एवं ज्ञानी) के रूप में प्रसिद्ध हो गया । बुद्ध ने अपना पहला उपदेश बनारस शहर में दिया था ,जो गंगा नदी पर स्थित घाटों में सबसे अधिक प्रसिद्ध है ।  उस उपदेश को सुरक्षित रखा गया जो यहाँ पर दिया गया । इससे एक अति कठिन प्रकार के दुःख के बारे में बुद्ध की बुद्दिमता का पता चलता है ।

किसा गौतमी का एक इकलौता पुत्र था , और वह मर गया । अपने दुःख में वह मृत बच्चे को अपने सभी पड़ोसियों के पास लेकर गई और उनसे औषधि की माँग की और लोग कहते थे , “वह पागल हो गई हैं। यह लड़का मर गया है।”

अंततः किसा गौतमी एक आदमी से मिली जिसने उसकी प्रार्थना का उत्तर दिया, “मैं तुम्हें तुम्हारे बच्चे के लिए  औषधि नहीं दे सकता हूँ लेकिन मैं एक चिकित्सक को जानता हूँ जो औषधि दे सकता है।”

और औरत ने कहा , “भगवान के लिए मुझे बताइए, श्रीमान जी, वह कौन है ?” और उत आदमी ने उतर दिया,

“शाक्यमुनि , बुद्ध के पास जाओ ।”

            किसा गौतमी बुद्ध के पास चली गई और रोते हुए बोली , “भगवान और स्वामी ,मुझे औषधि दीजिए जो मेरे लड़के को ठीक कर देगी ।”

बुद्ध ने उत्तर दिया , ” मुझे मुठ्ठी –भर सरसों के दाने चाहिए ।” और जब औरत ने अपनी प्रसन्नता में इसे प्राप्त करवाने का वायदा किया तो बुद्ध ने आगे कहा ,” सरसों के दाने ऐसे घर से हासिल करने हैं जिस घर में किसी बच्चे , पति ,माता-पिता या फिर मित्र की मौत न हुई हो ।”

बेचारी किसा गौतमी घर-घर भटकती रही तथालोग उस पर दया व्यक्त करते हुए कहते ,”ये रहे सरसों के दाने , इन्हें ले लो !” लेकिन जब वह पूछती ,  “क्या कोई बेटा या बेटी , पिता या माता की तुम्हारे परिवार में मृत्यु हुई है ?”वे उसे उतर देते, “अफसोस ! जीवित तो बहुत थोड़े हैं परन्तु मृत अनेकों है । हमें हमारे अत्यन्त गहरे दुःखों की याद न दिलाओ । तथा वहाँ कोई ऐसा घर नहीं था जहाँ किसी प्रियजन की मृत्यु न हुई हो ।

किसा गौतमी हताश और निराश हो गई , और सड़क के किनारे बैठकर शहर की रोशनियोंको निहारने लगी, जैसे-जैसे वे चमक रहीं थी और फिर लुप्त हो जाती थीं । अंत में रात का अँधेरा सभी जगह छा गया । तथा वह मनुष्य के भाग्य के बारे में सोचने लगी कि उनके जीवन टिमटिमाते हैं और फिर बुझ जाते हैं। तथा वह अपने मन में सोचने लगी, “मैं अपने दुख मैं कितनी स्वार्थी है ! मृत्यु तो सभी के लिए सांझी है , फिर भी गहरे दुःखों की इस घाटी में, एक रास्ता है जो ऐसे व्यक्ति को अमरता की ओंर ले जाता है जिसने सारे स्वार्थी का त्याग कर दिया है ।”

बुद्ध ने कहा, !”इस संसार में नश्वर लोगों का जीवन कष्टों से भरा हुआ है और बहुत छोटा तया पीड़ा से युक्त है।”

[PAGE135] :क्योंकि कोई भी ऐसा तरीका नहीं है कि जिसका इस पृथ्वी पर जन्म हुआ है उसकी मृत्यु न हो ।  बुढ़ापे में पहुँचने के पश्चात मौत आती हैं । जीवित जीवों की प्रवृत्ति ऐसी ही होती है । क्योंकि पके हुए फलों के नीचे गिरने का खतरा पहले होता है, इसलिए नश्वर जीव जब जन्म लेते है तो उनके लिए हमेशा मौत का खतरा है । जिस प्रकार कुम्हार के द्वारा बनाए गए मिट्टी के सभी बर्तनों का अंत टूटने से होता है , नश्वर जीवों का जीवन भी वैसा ही होता डै । छोटे तथा बड़े दोनों ऐसे जो मूर्ख हैं तथा वे जो बुद्धिमान हैं सभी मृत्यु के वश में आ जाते हैं । सभी मृत्यु के अधीन है ।

“‘वे जिनकी मृत्यु आ जाती है, जीवन से प्रस्थानकर ज्ञाते हैं, एक पिता अपने पुत्रको नहीं बना सकता है, न ही सम्बन्धी अपने किसी रिश्तेदार को । देख लीजिए । जिस समय सम्बन्धी देख रहे होते हैं और विलाप कर रहे होते हैं एक-एक करके नश्वरों को उसी प्रकार से उठाकर ले जाया जाता है जैसे किसी बैल को  वध करने के लिए ले जाया जाता है। इसलिए संसार मृत्यु और जीर्णता से पीड़ित है , इसलिए बुद्धिमान लोग संसार की सीमाओं का ज्ञान रखते हुए दु:ख प्रकट नहीं करते है।”

” न तो रोने से और न ही दु:खी होने से किसी व्यक्ति को  मन की शांति मिलतीहै, वल्किइसके विपरीत उसकी पीड़ा और बढ़ जाती है और उसका शरीर पीड़ित होता है । वह स्वयं को बीमारऔर कमजोर बना लेता है , फिर भी उसके विलाप करने से मृत को नहीं बचाया जा सकता है। वह जिसे शांति चाहिए होती है उसे विलाप करने, शिकायत करने और दुखी होने के तीर को निकाल बहार फैंक देना चाहिए। वह जिसनेइसतीर को बाहरनिकाल लिया है और शांत हो गया है उसे मन की शांति मिलेगी ।

वह जिसने सारे दु:खों पर काबू पा लिया है, वह सारे दु:खों से मुक्त हो जाएगा और भगवान का आशीर्वाद प्राप्त रहेगा।”

Thinking About the Text

Question 1: When her son dies, Kisa Gotami goes from house to house. What does she ask for? Does she get it? Why not?

Answer: When Kisa Gotami’s son died, she went from house to house, asking if she could get some medicine that would cure her child. No, she did not get it because her child was dead and no medicine could have brought him back to life.

Question 2: Kisa Gotami again goes from house to house after she speaks with  the Buddha. What does she ask for, the second time around? Does she get it? Why not?

Answer: When she met the Buddha, he asked her to get a handful of mustard seeds from a house where no one had lost a child, husband, parent, or friend. She went from house to house, but could not get the mustard seeds because there was not a single house where no one had died in the family.

Question 3: What does Kisa Gotami understand the second time that she failed to understand the first time? Was this what the Buddha wanted her to understand?

Answer: Kisa Gotami understood the second time that death is common to all and that she was being selfish in her grief. There was no house where some beloved had not died. Yes, this was what the Buddha wanted her to understand.

Question 4: Why do you think Kisa Gotami understood this only the second time? In what way did the Buddha change her understanding?

Answer: Kisa Gotami understood that death is common to all and that she was being selfish in her grief. She understood this only the second time because it was then that she found that there was not a single house where some beloved had not died. First time around, she was only thinking about her grief and was, therefore, asking for a medicine that would cure her son. When she met the Buddha, he asked her to get a handful of mustard seeds from a house where no one had died. He did this purposely to make her realize that there was not a single house where no beloved had died and that death is natural. When she went to all the houses the second time, she felt dejected that she could not gather the mustard seeds. Then, when she sat and thought about it, she realized that the fate of men is such that they live and die. Death is common to all. This was what the Buddha had intended her to understand.

Thinking About Language

Question 1: This text is written in an old-fashioned style, for it reports an incident more than two millennia old. Look for the following words and phrases in the text, and try to rephrase them in more current language, based on how you understand them.

give thee medicine for thy child Pray to tell me

Kisa repaired to the Buddha

there was no house but someone had died in it kinsmen

Mark!

Answer: 1. Give you medicine for your child

2. Please tell me

3. Kisa went to the Buddha

4. There was no house where no one had died

5.Relatives

6. Listen

Question 2: You know that we can combine sentences using words like and, or, but, yet and then. But sometimes no such word seems appropriate. In such a case was can use a semicolon (;) or a dash (−) to combine two clauses. She has no interest in music; I doubt she will become a singer like her mother. The second clause here gives the speaker’s opinion on the first clause. Here is a sentence from the text that uses semicolons to combine clauses. Break up the sentence into three simple sentences. Can you then say which has a better rhythm when you read it, the single sentence using semicolons, or the three simple sentences? For there is not any means by which those who have been born can avoid dying; after reaching old age there is death; of such a nature are living beings.

Answer: The single sentence using semicolons has a better rhythm. This is because the three parts of the sentence are connected to each other in their meanings. The second clause gives further information on the first clause. The third clause is directly related to both the first and the second. Their meanings are better conveyed when they are joined by semicolons.

Activity

Use a dictionary or ask for your teacher’s help as you discuss the following questions in groups.

1. What is a sermon? Is it different from a lecture or a talk? Can this word also be used in a negative way or as a joke (as in “my mother’s sermon about getting my work done on time …”)?

Ans. A sermon is a ‘spoken or written discourse on a religious or moral subject’. It is serious in nature. It is different from a lecture or a talk because a lecture or a talk can be on any subject, while a sermon is on religion or a moral subject.

The word ‘sermon’ can be used in a negative way or as a joke also. In that case, it means a taunt, irony or sarcasm. For example, “Mohan is always sermonizing on any topic.”

2. Find out the meanings of these words and phrases given in the box :

afflicted with               be composed              desolation

 

lamentation                procure be                 subject to

Ans. Afflicted with means to be affected with bodily or mental trouble.

Be composed means to have control over our mental faculties or to at peace with self. Desolation means a ruined or neglected state.

Lamentation means expressing one’s sorrow or grieving.

Procure means to obtain, to get, to find, etc.

Be subject to means to be governed by some rules, etc.

3. Have you heard of the Sermon on the Mount? Who delivered it? Who do you think delivered a sermon at Benares?

Ans. I think the ‘Sermon on the Mount’ was delivered by Jesus Christ. ‘A Sermon at Benares’ was delivered by Gautama Buddha. It was his first sermon after he got Enlightenment.

Thinking about the Text (Page 135)

1. When her son dies, Kisa Gotami goes from house to house. What does she ask for? Does she get it? Why not?

 Ans. Gotami goes from door to door and asks for medicine which could bring her dead son back to lift She does not get it because there is no medicine that can revive the dead. It is so because death is inevitable.

2. Kisa Gotami again goes from house to house after she speaks with the Buddha. What does she ask for, the second time around? Does she get it? Why not?

Ans. When she goes door to door for the second time, she asks for a handful of mustard-seed. But there ‘s one condition. She wants mustard-seed from a house where there has not been any death. She does not get a because she finds no house in which there has never been a death. Death spares nobody who has been born.

3. What does Kisa Gotami understand the second time that she failed to understand the first time? Was this what the Buddha wanted her to understand?

 Ans. Now Gotami understands that death is inevitable. She thinks over the fate of men. She realises that man’s life is like the light of the city which flickers and extinguishes again. Yes, it is the very thing that Gautama the Buddha wanted her to understand.

4. Why do you think Kisa Gotami understood this only the second time? In what way did the Buddha change her understanding?

Ans. She understood this only the second time because she finds not even a single family in which there has been no death. Then they asked her not to remind them of their deep grief. Thus in a wise manner, Buddha made her understand that death is inevitable.

5. How do you usually understand the idea of ‘selfishness’? Do you agree with Kisa Gobimi that she was being ‘selfish in her grief?’

 Ans. The idea of `selfishness’means thinking of oneself only and only of those things that concern one only. I agree with Kisa Gotami that she is selfish in her grief. She now understands that death is common to all. One should not grieve over a thing which is inevitable.

Thinking about Language

1. ‘this text is written in an old-fashioned style, for it reports an incident more than two millennia old. Look for the following words and phrases in the text, and try to rephrase them in more current language, based on how you understand them.

  • give thee medicine for thy child
  • Pray tell me
  • Kisa repaired to the Buddha
  • there was no house but someone had died in it
  • kinsmen
  • Mark!

Ans.

  • Give the medicine to your child
  • I request you to tell me
  • Kisa went to the Buddha
  • There was no house in which someone had not died
  • Relatives
  • Listen /pay attention

 2. You know that we can combine sentences using words like and, or. but, yet and then. But sometimes no such word seems appropriate. In such a case we can use a semicolon (:) or a dash (—) to combine two clauses.

She has no interest in music; I doubt she will become a singer like her mother.

The second clause here gives the speaker’s opinion on the first clause.

Here is a sentence from the text that uses semicolons to combine clauses.

Break up the sentence into three simple sentences. Can you then say which has a better rhythm when you read it, the single sentence using semicolons, or the three simple sentences?

For there is not any means by which those who have been horn can avoid dying; after reaching old age there is death; of such a nature are living beings.

Answer :

There are not any means by which the born can avoid dying. After reaching old age there is death. Living beings are of such a nature.

The three simple sentences have more beauty and rhythm than the single sentence using semicolons.

Speaking 

The Buddha’s sermon is over 2500 years old. Given below are two recent texts on the topic of grief. Read the texts, comparing them with each other and with the Buddha’s sermon. Do you think the Buddha’s ideas and way of teaching continue to hold meaning for us? Or have we found better ways to deal with grief? Discuss this in groups or in class.

 1.A GUIDE TO COPING WITH THE DEATH OF A LOVED ONE

Martha is having difficulty sleeping lately and no longer enjoys doing things with her friends. Martha lost her husband of 26 years to cancer a month ago.

Anya. age 17, doesn’t feel like eating and spends the days in her room crying. Her grandmother recently died.

Both of these individuals are experiencing grief.

Grief is an emotion natural to all types of loss or significant change.

Feelings of Grief

Although grief is unique and personal, a broad range of feelings and behaviours are commonly experienced after the death of a loved one.

* Sadness. This is the most common, and it is not necessarily manifested by

crying.

*Anger. This is one of the most confusing feelings for a survivor. There may be

frustration at not being able to prevent the death, and a sense of not being

able to exist without the loved one.

*Guilt and Self-reproach. People may believe that they were not kind enough or

caring enough to the person who died. or that the person should have seen the

doctor sooner.

*Anxiety. An individual may fear that she/he won’t be able to care for

herself/himself.

*Loneliness. There are reminders throughout the day that a partner, family

member or friend is gone. For example, meals are no longer prepared the same

way, phone calls to share a special moment don’t happen.

*Fatigue. There is an overall sense of feeling tired.

*Disbelief. This occurs particularly if it was sudden death.

Helping Others Who Are Experiencing Grief

When a friend. loved one, or co-worker is experiencing grief—how can we help? It helps to understand that grief is expressed through a variety of behaviours.

Reach out to others in their grief, but understand that some may not want to accept help and will nix share their grief. Others will want to talk about their thoughts and feelings or reminisce.

Be patient and let the grieving person know that you care and are there to support him or her.

1.GOOD GRIEF

AMITAI ETZIONI

Soon after my wife died — her car slid off an icy road in 1985 — a school psychologist warned me that my children and I were not mourning in the right way. We felt angry; the proper first stage, he said, is denial.

In late August this year, my 38-year-old son, Michael, died suddenly in his sleep, leaving behind a 2-year-old son and a wife expecting their next child. There is no set form for grief, and no ‘right’ way to express it.

 There seems to be an expectation that. after a great loss, we will progress systematically through the well-known stages of grief. It is wrong, we are told, to jump to anger—or to wallow too long in this stage before moving towards acceptance.

 But I was, and am, angry. To make parents bury their children is wrong; to have both my wife and son taken from me, for forever and a day, is cruel beyond words.

A relative from Jerusalem, who is a psychiatrist, brought some solace by citing the maxim: ‘we are not to ask why, but what.’ The ‘what’ is that which survivors in grief are bound to do for one another. Following that advice, my family, close friends and I keep busy, calling each other and giving long answers to simple questions like, “How did your day go today?” We try to avoid thinking about either the immediate past or the bereft future. We take turns playing with Max, Michael’s two-year-old son. Friends spend nights with the young widow and will be among those holding her hand when the baby is born.

Focusing on what we do for one another is the only consolation we can find.

Answer :

To be discussed at the class level.

Writing

Write a page (about three paragraphs) on one of the following topics. You can think about the ideas in the text that are relevant to these topics, and add your own ideas and experiences to them.

1.Teaching someone to understand a new or difficult idea

2. Helping each other to get over difficult times

3. Thinking about oneself as unique, or as one among billions of others

Answers:           

1. Teaching someone to understand a new or difficult idea

It is very difficult to teach someone to understand a new or difficult idea. Generally, people don’t like to change their old or settled ideas or opinions. When James Watt discovered steam engine, people laughed at him. They said that no force other than that of horses could pull wagons. But with the passage of time, they were adapted to it. In the same way, when Copernicus said that the Sun is stationary and the earth revolves around it. people laughed at him.

Thus if you have a new or difficult idea and want it to be understood, you will have to work hard. You should be prepared to be the object Of people’s satire or even violence. But if you are true, you should not lose art. If your idea is workable. people will learn it sooner or later.

You should make people understand your idea by giving practical examples. You should demonstrator them that your idea has practical benefits. You should never give up. Only this way you can teach understand your idea.

2. Helping each other to get over difficult times

 Our life is a mixture of joys and sorrows. It is a cycle of good and difficult times. Man is a social animal. He lives in society. Therefore it is not possible to avoid the sufferings and difficulties of others. If we find someone in a difficult time. we must extend our helping hand to him.

But sometimes, the whole community or group of people face difficult times. For example. there can be Rood, an earthquake or a draught. When such a calamity is there, many people suffer. In such a situation. the hot remedy is to work together and fight the calamity together. One good example of this was the calamity of Itimnami which struck the people of Tamil Nadu a few years ago. Then the people worked together and faced the calamity.

When such a difficult time comes, we should not think only of ourselves. But we must work collectively. We must pool our resources together and distribute them among all of us. The younger and able-bodied people oat help the weaker and older people. Children and women should also be given preference. We must teach others the lesson of courage.

3. Thinking about oneself as unique, or as one among billions of others

It is not a good idea to think about oneself as unique, or as one among billions of others. If we nourish such an idea it will do us more harm than good. Moreover, having this kind of idea means that we are very proud of ourselves. And we know that pride is evil. Pride has a fall.

History is full of examples where this kind of idea led to destruction. Hitler believed that he was one of a kind in billions. He thought that he belonged to a superior caste. He got millions of Jews killed. He attacked other countries in order to establish the superiority of the Germans. But what was the result? His egotism resulted in the Second World War and there was a lot of destruction.

Guru Nanak has said. “O Nanak, remain low and humble. When the storm comes, the tall and proud trees are uprooted. But the humble grass remains unaffected.” Thus be like a drop of water and mix with the ocean. Don’t become a stone which comes in the way of others and earns curses.

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Class-10 Chapter-9 MADAM RIDES THE BUS NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

NCERT solution

Chapter – 9

Madam Rides the Bus

 पाठ का संपूर्ण हिंदी अनुवाद

पढ़ने से पहले –

[PAGE 116] : इस भावुक कहानी में , एक आठ वर्षीय लड़की की अपने गाँव से बाहर की दुनिया की प्रथम बस यात्रा है और वह उसके जीवन और मृत्यु का रहस्य है । वह इस बात के अंतर को समझती है कि हम मौत के बारे में क्या जानते हैं और क्या समझते है ।

[PART –I]

[PAGE 117] : वलियामायी नाम की एक लड़की थी जिसे संक्षेप में वल्ली कहते थे । वह आठ साल की थीं और चीज़ों के बारे में बहुत उत्सुक रहती थी । उसका प्रिय शौक अपने घर के सामने दरवाजे में खड़े होकर यह देखना था कि बाहर गली में क्या हो रहा है । उसकी गली में उसके साथ खेलने के लिए उसकी उम्र के साथी नहीं थे और वह तो बस यही करती थी ।

लेकिन वल्ली के लिए, अपने सामने वाले दरवाजे पर खडा होना उतना ही आनंददायक था जितना कि अन्य लड़कों के लिए कोई विस्तृत खेल खेलना । गली में देखना उसे बहुत-से नए असाधारण अनुभवों का ज्ञान कराता था ।

[PAGE 118] :  उसके लिए सबसे अधिक आकर्षक चीज वह बस थी जोकि उसके गाँव और निकटतम कस्बे के बीच चलती थी । यह हर घंटे बाद उसकी गली में से गुजरती थी, एक बाहर कस्बे में जाते समय और एक बार वहाँ से वापस आते समय । हर बार नए यात्रियों से भरी उस बस का दृश्य ,वल्ली के लिए निरंतर आनंद का स्रोत था ।

       दिन –प्रतिदिन वह बस देखती थी , और धीरे –धीरे एक छोटी –सी इच्छा उसके दिमाग में रेंगने लगी और वहाँ पैदा हो गई । वह बस पर सवार होना चाहती थी चाहे सिर्फ एक बार ही । यह इच्छा मजबूत –से – मजबूत होती गई ,जब तक कि वह एक तीव्र इच्छा नहीं बन गई । वल्ली बहुत ही गहन इच्छा के साथ एकटक भाव से लोगों को बस में चढ़ते और उतरते हुए देखती थी तब वह गली के कोने पर रूकती थी ।उसकी इच्छाओं ,सपनों और आशाओं को प्रकाशित करते थे । यदि उसकी कोई सहेली बस में सवार हो जाती है और वह उसे शहर के दृश्यों के बारे में बताती, तो वल्ली को उससे इतनी ईष्यों होती थी कि वह उसकी बात नहीं सुनती थी और अंग्रेजी में चिल्ला उठती थी ‘घमंडी ! घमंडी !’न तो वह स्वय और न ही उसकी सहेलियों इस शब्द का अर्थ समझती थीं लेकिन वे असहमति का भाव प्रकट करने के लिए इस शब्द का प्रयोग करती थी ।

बहुत – से –  दिनो और महीना तक वल्ली सावधानीपूर्वक अपने उन पड़ोसियों और लोगों के बीच की बातचीत को सुनती थी जो नियमित रूप से बस में सफर करते थे और कभी-कभार वह उनसे कुछ शांत से सवाल भी पूछ लिया करती थी । इस तरह से बस की यात्रा के बारे में उसने कई छोटी –छोटी जानकारियाँ हासिल कर ली थी । क़स्बा उसके गाँव से छह मील की दूरी पर था । एक तरफ का किराया तीस पैसे था –“जोकि लगभग न के बराबर था“ उसने एक अच्छी पोशाक पहने हुए व्यक्ति को कहते सुना ,लेकिन वल्ली ने इतना अधिक धन  कभी नहीं देखा था । एक महीने से दूसरे महीने ,उसके लिए तो यह बड़ी धन –सम्पत्ति था । कस्बे तक की यात्रा में पैंतालिस मिनट लगते थे । शहर पहुंचकर यदि वह अपनी सीट पर बैठी रहती और पैसे का भुगतान कर देती , तो वह उसी बस पर गाँव लौट सकती थी । इसका अर्थ था कि वह एक बजे की बस ले सकती थी और एक बजकर पैंतालिस मिनट पर कस्बे में पहुँच सकती सकती थी और लगभग दो बजकर पैंतालिस मिनट तक घर लौट सकती थी ….।

जैसे –जैसे वह गणना और पुनर्गणना , योजना और पुनर्योजना बनाती गई उसके मन में विचार चलते रहे ।

[PART –II]

 

[PAGE 119] :  वसंत बस्तु मेँ एक सुहावने दिन को जब दोपहर बाद वाली बस में गाँव से जाने ही वाली थी और मुख्य मार्ग पर मोड़ मुड़ने ही वाली थी , एक छोटी-सी बच्ची के चिल्लाने की आवाज़ सुनाई दी, ‘बस को रोको! बस को रोको !’और आदेशात्मक मुद्रा में एक छोटा – सी बच्ची के चिल्लाने की आवाज़ सुनाई दी , ‘बस को रोको ! बस को रोको !’ और आदेशात्मक मुद्रा में एक छोटासा हाथ उठा।

बस की गति धीमी हो गई और परिचालक ने दरवाजे से सिर बाहर निकालकर कहा, ‘जल्दी करो! जो कोई भी आ रहा है उसे आने को कहो ।’

‘यह मैं हूँ ‘ वल्ली ने चिल्लाकर कहा, ‘मैं ही अकेली हूँ, जिसे बस में चढ़ना है ।‘

अब तक बस रुक चुकी थी और परिचालक ने कहा, ‘ओह सचमुच : तुम ऐसा नहीं कहते !‘

. ‘ हाँ , मुझे तो सिर्फ कस्बे में जाना है” वल्ली ने अभी भी बस से बाहर खडे हुए कहा, ‘और ये मेरे पैसे हैं’ उसने उसे कुछ सिक्के दिखाए ।

‘ठीक है ,ठीक है , लेकिन तुम पहले बस पर तो चढ जाओ”, परिचालक ने कहा  और उसने उसे ऊपर चढ़ाने में मदद करने के लिए अपना हाथ आगे बढ़ाया ।

‘चिंता मत करो , मैं स्वयं ही बस में चढ़ जाऊँगी । आपको मेरी मदद करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है.’उसने कहा ।

परिचालक एक हँसमुख स्वभाव का मजाक का शौकीन व्यक्ति था , ” ओह,मेरी सुन्दर मैडम कृपया मुझसे नाराज मत होइए’

उसने कहा , ‘वहाँ सामने एक सीट ले लीजिए । कृपया सभी रास्ते से हट जाइए । मैडम के लिए रास्ता बनाइए !”

यह दिन का मंदी वाला समय था और बस में केवल छह या सात सवारियाँ थीं । वे सभी वल्ली की ओर देख रहीं थी और परिचालक के साथ हँस रही थीं । वल्ली को शर्म आ रही थी । सभी की नज़रों से बचते हुए ,वह तेजी से एक खाली सीट तक गई और बैठ गई ।

[PAGE 120] : “ मैडम , क्या अब हम चल सकते हैं ?” परिचालक ने मुस्कराते हुए पूछा । तब उसने दो बार अपनी सीटी बजाई और एक शोर के साथ बस आगे चल दी ।

यह एक नई बस थी इसके बाहर चमकदार सफेद रंग हुआ था जिस पर हरे रंग की कुछ पट्टियाँ बनी थी । अंदर अंदर ऊपर लगी  लोहे की सलाखें चाँदी की तरह चमक रहीं थीं । वल्ली के बिल्कुल सामने हवा रोकने वाले शीशे के ऊपर वहाँ एक सुन्दर घड़ी लगी थी । सीटें नर्म और आरामदायक थी ।

वल्ली ने अपनी नज़रों से सब कुछ खोजा । लेकिन जब उसने बाहर देखना शुरु किया उसने पाया की उसकी नजर को मोटे कपड़े से एक पर्दे से रूकावट पेदा हो रही थी जो उसकी खिड़की के निचले भाग को ढके हुए था । इसलिए वह उठकर सीट पर खड़ी हो गई और पर्दे के ऊपर से झाँकने लगी ।

अब बस एक नहर के किनारे के साथ-साथ जा रही थी । सड़क बहुत तंग थी । उसके एक ओर तो नहर थी  तथा इसके पार खजूर के पेड़ , घास  के मैदान, दूरी पर पर्वत व नीला-नीला आसमान था । दूसरी ओर एक गहरी खाई थी और फिर कई एकड़ में फैले हरे खेत, चारों और जहाँ तक नजर जाती थी हरियालीही हरियाली थी ।

‘ओह , यह सब कितना अदभुत था ।

अचानक ही वह एक आवाज़ सुनकर चौंक पड़ी ,”सुनो ,बच्चे ,” आवाज़ ने कहा ,” तुम्हे इस तरह से खड़े नहीं होना चाहिए , नीचे बैठ जाओ । “

[PAGE 121-122] : नीचे बैठते हुए, उसने यह देखने का प्रयास किया कि कौन बोला था । यह एक बूढा आदमी था जो सचमुच में उसके प्रति परवाह कर रहा था , लेकिन वह उसके ध्यान की वजह से नाराज़ हो रही थी ।

“ यहाँ ऐसा कोई नहीं है , जो बच्चा है , “ उसने घमंडपूर्वक  कहा ,”  “मैंने भी अन्य सभी की तरह तीस पैसे का भुगतान किया है । “

परिचालक बीच में बोल पड़ा , “अरे, श्रीमान जी, लेकिन यह तो एक बहुत ही व्यस्क मैडम है । आपके विचार में क्या मात्र एक लड़की अपना किराया खुद दे  सकती है और बिल्कुल अकेली शहर जा सकती है ?”

वल्ली ने क्रोधित नज़रों से परिचालक की ओर देखा और कहा, “मैं मैडम नहीं हूँ। कृपया यह बात याद रखना कि आपने अभी तक मुझे मेरा टिकट नहीं दिया है।”

“मैं याद रखूँगा “परिचालक ने उसकी आवाज़ की नकल उतारते हुए कहा । हर कोई हँसने लगा और धीरे-धीरे वल्ली भी हँसी में शामिल हो गई ।

परिचालक ने  एक टिकट पर नम्बर छेदे और उसे वल्ली को पकड़ा दिया “अब आराम से बैठ जाओ । जब तुमने सीट केपैसे दे रखे है तो तुम खड़ी क्यों हो ?”

“क्योंकि मैं खड़ा होना चाहती हूँ ” उसने उत्तर दिया, फिर सेखड़ी होते हुए ।

” लेकिन यदि तुम सीट के ऊपर खड़ी होती हो तो तुम गिर सकती हो और तुम्हें चोट लग सकती हैं। जब बस कोई तेज मोड़ काटेगी । बच्ची यही कारण है कि हम चाहते हैं कि तुम बैठ जाओं ।”

” मैं एक बच्ची नहीं हूँ , मैं आपको बता देती हूँ “,उसने चिढ़ते हुए कहा, “मैं आठ साल की हूँ ।”

“नि: संदेह , नि:संदेह। मैं भी कितना मूर्ख हूँ ! आठ साल ! हे भगवान !”

बस रूक गई , कुछ नए यात्री अंदर आए और थोडी देर के लिए परिचालक व्यस्त हो गया । अपनी सीट के खो जाने के भय से वल्ली अंततः नीचे बैठ गई ।

       एक वृद्ध महिला उसके पास आकर बैठ गई । “ प्रिय , क्या तुम बिल्कुल अकेली हो ?” जैसे ही बस पुन : चली उसने वल्ली से पूछा ।

       वल्ली को वह औरत पूर्णतया घृणाजनक लगी । उसके कानों के तलवों में कितने बड़े –बड़े सुराख़ थे और उनमें कितनी भद्दी वालियाँ थीं तथा वह उस सुपारी की गंध सूंघ सकती थी जिसे वह महिला चबा रही थी और पान के उस रस को देख सकती थी जो किसी भी पल उसके होंठों से गिरने का भय पैदा कर रहा था । ओह ! इस तरह के व्यक्ति के साथ कौन मिलनसार हो सकता है ?

[PAGE 122] : “ हाँ , मैं बिल्कुल अकेली यात्रा कर रही हूँ “ उसने तीखे स्वर में उत्तर दिया ।

“और मैंने टिकट भी लिया है ।“

”हाँ, वह शहर जा रही है “परिचालक  ने कहा, तीस पैसे का एक टिकट लेकर” ।

” ओह , आप अपने काम पर ध्यान क्यों नहीं देते हो ? ” वल्ली ने कहा । लेकिन  वह फिर भी हँस पड़ी और परिचालक भी हँसने लगा ।

लेकिन बूढ़ीऔरत ने अपनी बकबक जारी रखी है “क्या इतने छोटे व्यक्ति के लिए अकेले यात्रा करना उचित है? क्या तुम्हें सही-सही पता है कि तुम शहर में कहाँ जा रही हो? कीन-सी गली है? क्या मकान नम्बर है ? “

“आपको मेरे बारे में चिंता करने की आवश्यकता नहीं है । मैं अपना ख्याल खुद रख सकती हूँ ।” वल्ली ने खिड़की की ओर अपना चेहरा घुमाते हुए कहा और बाहर देखने लगी ।

[PART-III]

उसकी पहली यात्रा –इसके लिए उसको कितना ध्यानपूर्वक, परिश्रम के साथ और सोच –समझकर योजनाएँ बनानी पड़ी थीं ! जो भी छोटे –छोटे सिक्के उसके हाथ लग जाते थे कितनी किफ़ायत के साथ उन्हें बचाकर के रखा था और कैसे अपने –आपको पुदीने की गोलियाँ , खिलौने, गुब्बारे और इस तरह की अन्य चीज़े खरीदने से रोककर रखा था और आखिरकार उसने 60 पैसे बचा लिए थे । यह सब कुछ उसके लिए कितना कठिन था, खासतौर पर गाँव के मेले वाले दिन लेकिन उसने दुढ़ निश्चय के साय झूलों पर सवार होने की अपनी इच्छा को दबा दिया था , जबकि उसके पास पैसे भी थे ।

पर्याप्त धन बचा लिया था , उसके बाद उसकी अगली समस्या थी अपनी माँ को बिना बताए कैसे घर से बाहर निकले । लेकिन बिना किसी अधिक कठिनाई के उसने इसकी व्यवस्था कर ली । दोपहर का भोजन करने के पश्चात् उसकी माँ एक बजे से लेकर चार बजे तक हल्की नींद लिया करती थी । वल्ली इन घंटों का प्रयोग हमेशा अपने “सैर-सपाटे” के लिए किया करती थी । जब वह अपने घर के दरवाजे पर खडी होकर बाहर देखती थी या फिर कई बार गांव में भी जाने का साहस कर लेती थी । आज वह इन घंटों का प्रयोग गाँव से बाहर उसके पहले भ्रमण के लिए करेगी ।

[PAGE 123] : कभी बस एक पेड़ रहित भूमि क्षेत्र, कभी किसी छोटे-से गाँव से भागती हुई तथा रास्ते के किनारे बनी किसी दुकान के पास सेनिकलती हुई आगे बढ़ रही थी । कई बार ऐसा प्रतीत होता था कि बस अपनी जोर आते हुए किसी दूसरे वाहन अथवा सड़क पार कर रहे किसी पद यात्री को निगल जाएगी । लेकिन यह तो सभी बाधाओं को सुरक्षित भय से पीछे छोड़ते हुए आराम से निकल जाती थी । वृक्ष उनकी जोर भागते हुए प्रतीत होते थे लेकिन जव बस उनके पास पहुँचती थी तो वे वहीं रुक जाते थे और सड़क के एक ओर एक पल के लिए असहाय हुए खडे रहते और फिर दूसरी दिशा में भागने लगते।   

 अचानक ही वल्ली ने (खुशी से) अपने दोनों हाथों से ताली बजा दी । एक छोटी-सी गाय हवा में अपनी पूँछ को उठाकर बहुत तेजी से भाग रही थी , बिल्कुल सड़क के बीच में, ठीक बस के सामने। बस की गति धीमी हो गई और चालक बार-बार हॉर्न बजा रहा था । लेकिन वह जितना ज्यादा हॉर्न बजाता पशु उतना अधिक भयभीत हो जाता तथा और तेजी से भागता हमेशा ठीक बस  के आगे ।

       [PAGE 124] :यह बात वल्ली को बहुत अधिक मनोरंजक लगी। वह तब तक हैंसती रहीँ जब तक कि उसकी आँखों से आंसू नहीं आ गए ।

‘अरे  युवती, क्या तुम बहुत ज्यादा नहीं हैंस ली हो?’परिचालक ने आवाज़ लगाई, ‘बेहतर होगा, कुछ हैंसी कल के लिए बचाकर रख लो ।’

अंततः गाय सड़क से हट गई और शीघ्र ही बस एक रेलवे क्रॉसिंग के पास आ गई । दूर सेरेलगाड़ी एक छोटे से धब्बे के समान दिखाई दे रही थी , जैसे –जैसे वह निकट आ रही थी , बड़ी और बड़ी होती जा रही थी । तब वह बहुत अधिक शोर और खट – खट के साथ क्रॉसिंग गेट को पार कर गई, बस को हिलाते हुए । तब बस चल दी और उसने स्टेशन को पार किया । वहाँ से उसने एक  अच्छी तरह से सजी हुई दुकानों वाले बाज़ार को पार किया और मुड़ने के बाद एक अधिक चौड़े रास्ते पर आ गई । इतनी बड़ी चमकदार दुकानें । वस्त्रों तथा बेचने की अन्य चीजों का कितना चमकदार प्रदर्शन हो रहा था । इतनी ज्यादा भीड़ !

हैरानी के कारण मूक बनी वल्ली हर चीज़ को मुँह खोले देखती रही ।

‘हे युवती,’ परिचालक ने कहा , ‘क्या तुम नीचे उतरने जाने के लिए तैयार नहीं हो ? तुम्हारे तीस पैसे तुम्हें यहीं तक ला सकते थे ।

 ‘नहीं , वल्ली ने कहा , ‘मैं इसी बस पर वापस जा रही हूँ ।’  उसने अपनी जेब से और तीस पैसे निकाले तथा सिक्के परिचालक को सौंप दिए ।

‘क्यों , क्या कुछ बात हो गई है ?’

‘नहीं , कोई बात नहीं है । मैं तो सिर्फ बस की सवारी करना चाहती थी और वह मैंने कर ली । ’

‘क्या तुम कुछ द्रश्यों को नहीं देखना चाहोगी , अब तब तुम यहाँ आ ही गई हो।”

‘बिल्कुल अकेली ? अरे , मुझे बहुत अधिक डर लगेगा ।”

लड़की के बोलने के ढ़ंग से अत्यधिक प्रसन्न होकर परिचालक ने कहा, लेकिन तुम्हें बस में आते समय तो डर नहीं लगा ।‘

‘उसमें डर वाली कोई बात नहीं थी ,’ उसने उत्तर दिया ।

‘ठीक है, तो फिर तुम वहाँ उस दुकान पर जाकर कुछ पीना क्यों नहीं चाहोगी ? उसमें तो डरने की भी कोई बात नहीं है ?’

‘अरे नहीं , मैं ऐसा नहीं कर सकती हूँ ।‘

‘ तो ठीक है , मुझे तुम्हारे लिए एक शीतल पेय लाने दो ।‘

[PAGE 125-126] : ‘नहीं , मेरे पास पर्याप्त पैसे नहीं हैं । बस मुझे तो टिकट दे दो , यही काफी है ।‘

यह मेरी तरफ से दावत रहेगी और इसका तुम्हें कोई खर्च नहीं करना पड़ेगा ।

‘नहीं , नहीं ’उसने दृढ़तापूर्वक कहा ,’कृपया नहीं । ’

परिचालक ने अपने कंधे सिकोड़ लिए तथा वे प्रतीक्षा करते रहे जब तक कि बस की वापसी की यात्रा का समय नहीं हो गया । दोबारा में फिर से अधिक यात्री नहीं थे ।

[PART-IV]

‘क्या तुम्हारी माँ तुम्हें ढूँढ नहीं रही होगी ?’ परिचालक ने पूछा जब उसने उसे टिकट दिया ।

‘नहीं , कोई भी मेरी तलाश नहीं कर रहा होगा ,’ उसने कहा ।

बस चल दी और फिर से वहाँ अदभुत दृश्य थे ।

वल्ली का मन बिल्कुल भी ऊबा  और वह प्रत्येक चीज का उसी उत्साह से स्वागत कर रही थी जैसापहली बार देखने पर किया था । लेकिन अचानक ही उसने एक छोटी गाय को सड़क किनारे मृत पड़े हुए पाया, ठीक उसी स्थान पर जहाँ किसी तेज रफ़्तार वाले वाहन ने उसे टक्कर मारी थी।

‘क्या वह वहीं गाय नहीं है जो शहर आते समय हमारी बस के आगे भाग रही थी ?’उसने परिचालक से पूछा ।परिचालक ने हाँ में सिर हिलाया और उस पर उदासी छा गई । कुछ ही समय पहले जो एक प्यारा, सुन्दर जीव था अब  अचानक अपनी सुन्दरता और जीवन खो चुका था और इतना भयानक और डरावना लग रहा था । जब वह वहाँ पड़ा हुआ था , टाँगें फैली हुई , बेजान आँखों में एक स्थायी टकटकी भरे हुए और सब जगह खून के साथ ।

बस आगे चल दी । मृत गाय की याद उसे परेशान कर रही थी , उसके उत्साह को ठंडा कर रही थी । अब वह खिड़की से बाहर नहीं देखना चाहती थी ।

वह अपनी सीट पर तब तक चिपकी हुई बैठी रही जब तक कि तीन चालीस पर बस उसके गाँव नहीं पहुँच गई। वह उठी और उसने एक अगड़ाई ली । तब वह परिचालक की ओर मुड़ी और कहा ,’अच्छा श्री मान जी , मैं आपसे फिर मिलने की आशा रखूँगी ।‘

[PAGE 125] :‘ठीक है , मैडम,’उसने उसे मुस्कराते हुए उत्तर दिया , जब कभी भी बस की सवारी करने का तुम्हारा मन करे ,तो हमारे साथ आ जाना और अपना किराया लाना मत भूलना ।‘

वह हँसी और उसने बस से छलाँग लगा दी । तब वह सीधी घर की ओर भाग गई ।

जब वह घर में घुसी तो उसने अपनी माँ को जागा हुआ पाया और दक्षिणी गलीमें रहने वाली वल्ली की एक मौसी से बातें करते हुए पाया । वह मौसी वास्तव में एक बातूनी थी , , यदि एक बारबोलना शुरु कर देती थी तो कभी अपना मुँह बंद नहीं करती थी ।

‘और तुम कहाँ थी ?’ उसकी मौसी ने पूछा जब वल्ली अंदर  आई । वह बहुत बेरुखी से बोली ,उसे उत्तर की आशा नहीं थी । इसलिए वल्ली सिर्फ मुस्कराई और उसकी माँ तथा मौसी अपने वार्तालाप को जारी रखती रही ।

‘हाँ ,तुम ठीक हो ,’ उसकी माँ ने कहा , ‘कितनी सारी चीज़े हमारे में और हमारे से बाहर की दुनिया में होती है । हम संभवतः हर चीज़ के बारे मै कैसे जान सकते हैं और यदि हमें किसी बात के बारे में पता भी चल जाता है तो हम उसे पूर्णतया समझ नहीं पाते हैं ,क्या समझ पाते है ?’

ओह , हाँ !’ वल्ली ने सांस लेते हुए कहा ।

‘क्या ? उसकी माँ ने पूछा ,’तुमने क्या कहा ?’

‘ओह.’ वल्ली ने कहा , मैं तो केवल उस बात से सहमति व्यक्त कर रही थी जो आप कह रही थीं हमारी जानकारी के बिना घटित होने वाली बातों के बारे में ।‘

‘एक छोटी –सी लड़की है वह ,’उसकी मौसी ने कहा ।

‘और देखो वह हमारी बातचीत में बिना किसी मतलब के अपनी टाँग अड़ा रही है जैसेकि वह समझदारऔरत हो । ‘

वल्ली स्वयं पर मुस्कराई । वह नहीं चाहती थी कि वे उसकी मुस्कराहट आ अर्थ समझे । लेकिन फिर इसकी कोई ज्यादा सम्भावना भी नहीं थी , क्या थी ? 

Oral Comprehension Check

Question 1: What was Valli’s favourite pastime?

Answer: Valli’s favourite pastime was to stand in the front doorway of her house and watch what was happening in the street outside.

Question 2: What was a source of unending joy for Valli? What was her strongest desire?

Answer: A source of unending joy for Valli was the sight of the bus that travelled between her village and the nearest town, filled with a new set of passengers each time it passed through her street. Her strongest desire was to ride on that bus.

Question 3: What did Valli find out about the bus journey? How did she find out these details?

Answer: Valli found out that the town was six miles from her village. The fare was thirty paise one way. The trip to the town took forty-five minutes. On reaching the town, if she stayed in her seat and paid another thirty paise, she could return home on the same bus. She found out these details by listening carefully to the conversations between her neighbours and the people who regularly used the bus. She also gained information by asking them a few questions.

Question 4: What do you think Valli was planning to do?

Answer: Valli was planning to travel on that bus.

Question 5: How do you usually understand the idea of selfishness’? Do you agree with Kisa Gotami that she was being ‘selfish in her grief’?

Answer: Selfishness’ means being concerned only about one’s own interests and showing complete disregard for others welfare. Yes, it can be said that Kisa Gotami was being ‘selfish in her grief’. In the light of her tragedy, she was unable to see that death is something that strikes all things living. In this sense, she was selfish. However, for every person, his/her tragedy is something personal and it prevents him/her from looking at the tragedy from a universal or general point of view. If we take the usual sense of the word ‘selfish’, then calling Kisa Gotami selfish would be inappropriate, because every person becomes selfish in his/her grief.

Question 1: Why does the conductor call Valli ‘madam’?

Answer: When the conductor stretched out his hand to help her get on the bus, Valli said commandingly that she could get on by herself, and that she did not require his help. She did not act like a child, but as a grown-up girl and therefore, the conductor called her ‘madam’.

Question 2: Why does Valli stand up on the seat? What does she see now?

Answer: Valli stood up on her seat because her view was cut off by a canvas blind that covered the lower part of her window. She stood up to look over the blind. She saw that the road was very narrow, on one side of which there was the canal and beyond it was palm trees, grassland, distant mountains, and the blue sky. On the other side, there was a deep ditch and many acres of green fields.

Question 3: What does Valli tell the elderly man when he calls her a child?

Answer: When the elderly man called her a child, Valli told him that there was nobody on the bus who was a child. She had paid her fare of thirty paise like everyone else.

Question 4: Why didn’t Valli want to make friends with the elderly woman?

Answer: Valli did not want to make friends with the elderly woman because she found her absolutely repulsive. She saw that the woman had big holes in her earlobes and very ugly earrings in them. She could smell the betel nut the woman was chewing and could see the betel juice that was almost about to spill over her lips. That is why she did not want to be sociable with her.

Question 1: How did Valli save up money for her first journey? Was it easy for her?

Answer:  Valli had carefully saved whatever stray coins came her way,  resisting every temptation to buy peppermints, toys, balloons, and the like. Finally, she had saved sixty paise. No, it was not easy for her, especially at the village fair where she was tempted to ride the merry-go-round as she had the money. However, she suppressed her strong desire and saved the money for the bus ride.

Question 2: What did Valli see on her way that made her laugh?

Answer: Valli saw a young cow, whose tail was high in the air, running right in front of the bus in the middle of the road. The bus slowed and the driver sounded his horn loudly. However, the more he honked, the more frightened the cow became and it kept running faster and faster, right in front of the bus. Valli found it so amusing that she had tears in her eyes. At last, the cow moved off the road.

Question 3: Why didn’t she get off the bus at the bus station?

Answer: She did not get off the bus at the bus station because she had to go back on that same bus. She took out another thirty paise from her pocket and handed the coins to the conductor. She just wanted to ride on the bus.

Question 4: Why didn’t Valli want to go to the stall and have a drink? What does this tell you about her?

Answer: Valli did not want to go to the stall and have a drink because she did not have any money for that. Even when the conductor offered her a cold drink free of charge, she refused firmly and said that she only wanted her ticket. This shows that Valli had a lot of self-will and pride. Possibly, she did not want to take anything for free, particularly from a stranger.

Thinking About the Text

Question 1: What was Valli’s deepest desire? Find the words and phrases in the story that tells you this.

Answer: Valli’s strongest desire was to ride on the bus she saw every day. The sentences in the story which depict this are as follows: “Day after day she watched the bus,  and gradually a tiny wish crept into her head and grew there: she wanted to ride on that bus, even if just once. This wish became stronger and stronger until it was an overwhelming desire.”

Question 2: How did Valli plan her bus ride? What did she find out about the bus, and how did she save up the fare?

Answer: Valli planned that she would take the one o’clock afternoon bus, reach the town at one forty-five, and be back home by about two forty-five. She found out that the town was six miles from her village. The fare was thirty paise one way. The trip to the town took forty-five minutes. On reaching the town, if she stayed in her seat and paid another thirty paise, she could return home on the same bus. She had carefully saved whatever stray coins came her way, resisting every temptation to buy peppermints, toys, balloons, and the like, and finally, she had saved sixty paise.

Question 3: What kind of a person is Valli? To answer this question, pick out the following sentences from the text and fill in the blanks. The words you fill in are the clues to your answer.

(i)Stop the bus! Stop the bus!” And a tiny hand was raised.

(ii)“Yes, I           go to town,” said Valli, still standing outside the

(iii)“There’s nobody here            “She said haughtily. ‘I: ve paid my thirty paise like everyone ”

(iv)“Never mind,” she said, “I can         You don’t have to help “I’m not a child, I tell you,” she said,             .

(v)“You needn’t bother about I             ,” Valli said, turning her face toward the window and staring out.

(vi)Then she turned to the conductor and said, “Well, sir, I hope .

Answer:

(i)“Stop the bus! Stop the bus!” And a tiny hand was raised commandingly.

(ii)“Yes, I simply have to go to town,” said Valli, still standing outside the

(iii)“There’s nobody here who’s a child,” she said I’ve paid my thirty paise like everyone else.”

(iv)“Never mind,” she said, “I can get on by myself. You don’t have to help “I’m not a child, I tell you,” she said, irritably.

(v)“You needn’t bother about I can take care of myself,” Valli said, turning her face toward the window and staring out.

(vi)Then she turned to the conductor and said, “Well, sir, I hope to see you ” For Valli, the bus journey probably symbolised the adult world. Like anyone else, she spent her money to buy the ticket. She would have attained a great sense of pride and satisfaction in doing so. Therefore, though a child, Valli wanted to be treated as a grown-up on the bus. She had a great sense of self-respect which prevented her from taking anyone’s help. She felt she was able to take care of herself very well and was easily irritated when anyone treated her as a child.

Question 4: Why does the conductor refer to Valli as ‘madam’?

Answer: When the conductor stretched out his hand to help her get on the bus, Valli said commandingly that she could get on by herself, and that she did not require his help. She did not act like a child, but as a grown-up girl and therefore, the conductor called her ‘madam’. When the elderly man called her a child and asked her to sit down on her seat, she replied that nobody was a child on the bus. She kept stressing on the fact that she had paid her fare like everybody else and therefore, she should not be treated differently.

Question 5: Find the lines in the text which tell you that Valli was enjoying her ride on the bus.

Answer: The following lines in the text show that Valli was enjoying her ride on the bus:

(i)“Valli devoured everything with her ”

(ii)“On the one side there was the canal and, beyond it, palm trees, grassland, distant mountains, and the blue, blue

(iii)n the other side was a deep ditch and then acres and acres of green fields − green, green, green, as far as the eye could see. Oh, it was all so wonderful!”

(iv)“Everyone laughed, and gradually Valli too joined in the Suddenly,  Valli clapped her hands with glee.”

(v)“Somehow this was very funny to She laughed and laughed until there were tears in her eyes.”

(vi)“Valli wasn’t bored to the slightest and greeted everything with the same excitement she’d felt the first ”

Question 6: Why does Valli refuse to look out of the window on her way back?

Answer: Valli refused to look out of the window on her way back because she saw a young cow lying dead by the roadside, just where it had been struck by some fast-moving vehicle. It was the same cow that was running in front of their bus, during their trip to the town. She was overcome with sadness. The memory of the dead cow haunted her and therefore, she refused to look out of the window.

Question 7: What does Valli mean when she says, “I was just agreeing with what you said about things happening without our knowledge.”

Answer: Valli’s mother said that many things happen around us, but we are usually unaware of them. Valli had gone on a bus ride to town, all alone, and had come back without any harm. She did all this without the knowledge of her mother. Hence, she agreed with what her mother said.

Question 8: The author describes the things that Valii sees from an eight-year-old’s point of view. Can you find evidence from the text for this statement?

Answer: The author has described the things that Valli saw from an eight-year-old’s point of view. She was fascinated by a bus. Watching the bus filled with a new set of people each time was a source of unending joy for her. Her strongest desire was to ride the bus. She saved money by cutting on peppermints, toys, and balloons, and even resisting the temptation to ride the merry-go-round at the fair. When the author describes the bus, the points he stresses on are the colour and look of the bus. It was a ‘new bus’, painted a ‘gleaming white’. The overhead bars ‘shone like silver’. The seats were ‘soft and luxurious’.

The descriptions that the author gives when Valli looked outside are also typical for an eight-year-old. The ‘blue, blue sky’ and the ‘acres and acres of green fields − green, green, green’ show the enthusiasm of a kid on looking at different colours. Valli clapped her hands in glee on watching a cow run right in front of the bus. She found it so funny that tears came into her eyes. On the other hand, she was overcome with sadness on her way back when she saw the same cow lying dead. It had been a ‘lovable, beautiful creature’ and later it ‘looked so horrible’. The memory of the dead cow haunted her so much that she refused to look outside the window. These are the typical reactions of a young child.

Activity

1. Look at the words and phrases given below. Then put a tick against the ones you think you will find in the text.

    _____a set of passengers               _____ get on the bus  

    _____ get off the bus                      _____ platform

    _____Tickets ,please                       _____a roar and a rattle

    _____A row of seats                       _____slowing down to a crawl

    _____blowing a whistle

Ans.

  • a set of passengers
  • get on the bus
  • get oft the bus
  • a roar and a rattle

2.You must have travelled by bus more than once. What can you sec from a fast-moving bus? Given below some suggestions. Speak briefly about some of these scenes. or about other such sines that you have seen; or write a sentence or two about them.

rivers                           green fields                              hills

roadside shops         marketplaces                           railway tracks

moving trains           vehicles on the road              trees

a crowd                      clothes in shops                      animals

Ans. Usually, the following scenes can be seen from a fast-moving bus :

  • green fields • roadside shops
  • marketplaces • grazing animals
  • moving trees • a crowd
  • vehicles on the road • crops in fields
  • people walking on the road • factories
  • distant hills • rivers
  • valleys

The above scenes are generally visible when the bus is moving in the plains and passing through cities. When the bus leaves the city, we can see green fields on both sides of the road. In these fields, we can see the grazing animals, standing crops, etc. We also see the trees moving towards us when the bus runs. We also see factories and the people walking on the road. When the bus passes through the cities, we can see marketplaces, crowds of people and roadside shops. But when the bus passes through a hilly area, we can see hills, far off mountains, rivers, valleys, etc. All these things look very charming and beautiful.

Speaking

This story has a lot of people talking in it. The conductor jokes and laughs with Valli, some passengers try to show their concern for her, and her mother and her aunt spend time chatting.

Read the conversations carefully. ‘Then think of similar people or similar situations that you have experienced. Mimic a person or persons who spoke to you, saying what they said, along with your replies.

Ans. I often travel by bus. The memory of one such journey is still fresh in my mind. The conductor of the bus was a very jolly person. He was perhaps a man who could never be sad. He replied to every question in a humorous way. I saw the bus stand. I went near it asked the conductor where the bus would go. He looked at me and said, “How can the bus go? Do you find any legs attached to the bus?” Everyone laughed. I too enjoyed the joke. In the meantime, someone had told me that the bus was going to Delhi. It was the right bus so I boarded it. After some time a person asked the conductor as to what was the last stop of the bus. At this conductor replied. “The last stop of every bus is the junk dealer’s shop.” Again everybody laughed. At the next stop, an old man boarded the bus. He was a stammered while tallying. He said something to the conductor. who replied, “Sir, applying the brakes is the driver’s job. Why do you apply brakes when speaking?” Thus the conductor kept making humorous remarks. As a result, I and the other passengers had a good time.

Writing

Write a page—about three paragraphs—on one of the following topics.

1. Have you ever planned something entirely on your own, without taking grown-ups into your confidence? What did you plan, and how? Did you carry out your plan?

Ans.                                        What  I planned Entirely on  My  Own

I remember that once I planned a visit to the International book fair on my town, without taking any elders into confidence. I am a book lover. When I learnt that an international book fair was being held in Delhi. I could not resist the temptation of visiting it. I told my father that I wanted to visit my uncle who lived in Delhi. After some hesitation, my father agreed. A few days ago I had won a cash prize at a declamation contest held in our school. So I had money in my pocket for the books. My father gave me the bus fare. I was very happy. On reaching Delhi, I boarded a local bus for the Pragati Maidan. After one hour, I reached the book fair site. I was thrilled to see so many book stalls there. I kept money only for the return fare and spent the rest of the money on the books. I purchased some very good books. I shall always remember that visit.

2. Have you made a journey that was unforgettable in some way? What made it memorable?

 

Ans.                                                    My Unforgettable Journey

Once I went to Ludhiana by bus. That journey will always remain fresh in my mind Everything went the wrong for the start to the finish. First of all, I was late for the bus. I hired an auto-rickshaw for the bus stand Hut the auto-rickshaw struck an electric pole and turned over. Luckily I escaped without any injury.

I rushed to the bus stand and found the bus just left. I ran very hard and was able to catch it. But as I entered the bus. I collided against a lady who was standing. She asked me if I was blind, Everyone laughed at me. I was red in the face.

Then the bus broke down on the way. After waiting for one hour for the bus to be repaired., I finally took another bus. I reached Ludhiana at night. Then I forgot the adders of my friend. kept wandering in his colony. However, all is well that ends well. Luckily I found my friend coming in the street. I went to his room and heaved a sigh of relief.

3. Are you concerned about traffic and road safety? What are your concerns? How would vets make road travel safer and more enjoyable?

Ans.                                        My Concern about Traffic and Road Sitlely

 I am concerned about traffic and road safety. In India. the traffic rules are very commonly ignored. As a result, there are many accidents in which numerous people lose their lives.

We must follow the traffic rules for our own and others’ safety. We should keep to the left while driving on the road. We should use the zebra crossing while crossing the mad. When we are driving a vehicle, we must slow it when we approach the zebra crossing.

The most important thing is that the public should be educated about traffic rules and traffic safety, The police must check the traffic violations strictly. Those who violate the traffic rules should be punished severely.

Class-10 Chapter-8 MIJBIL THE OTTER-NCERT Solution

CBSE Class–10 English

NCERT solution

Chapter – 8

Mijbil the Otter

Oral Comprehension Check

Question 1: What ‘experiment’ did Maxwell think Camusfearna would be suitable for?

Answer: Maxwell thought that he would keep an otter instead of a dog. Camusfearna, ringed by water a very short distance from its door, would be an eminently suitable spot for the experiment.

Question 2: Why does he go to Basra? How long does he wait there, and why?

Answer: He went to Basra, to the Consultant-General, to collect and answer his mail from Europe. There, he found that his friend’s mail had arrived, but his had not. He sent a message to England. When nothing happened even after three days, he tried placing a call to England. On the first day, the line was out of order; on the second day, the exchange was closed for a religious holiday. On the third day, there was another breakdown. He arranged to meet his friend, who had left, in a week’s time. His mail finally arrived five days later.

Question 3: How does he get the otter? Does he like it? Pick out the words that tell you this.

Answer: When he received his mail, he carried it to his bedroom to read. There, he saw two Arabs and beside them was a sack that twisted from time to time. They handed him a note from his friend saying that he had sent him an otter. Yes, he liked it. We know this because he uses the term ‘otter fixation’ to refer to his feeling towards the otter. He felt that this otter fixation or this strong attachment towards otters was something that was shared by most other people who had ever owned one.

Question 4: Why was the otter named ‘Maxwell’s otter’?

Answer: The otter was of a race previously unknown to science and was at length named by zoologists Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli or Maxwell’s otter.

Question 5: Tick the right answer. In the beginning, the otter was aloof and indifferent friendly hostile.

Answer: In the beginning, the otter was aloof and indifferent.

Question 6: What happened when Maxwell took Mijbil to the bathroom? What did it do two days after that?

Answer: When Maxwell took Mijbil to the bathroom, it went wild with joy in the water for half an hour. It was plunging and rolling in it, shooting up and down the length of the bathtub underwater, and making enough slosh and splash for a hippo. Two days after that, it escaped from his bedroom to the bathroom. By the time he got there, Mijbil was up on the end of the bathtub and fumbling at the chromium taps with its paws. In less than a minute, it had turned the tap far enough to produce some water and after a moment, achieved the full flow.

Question 1: How was Mij to be transported to England?

Answer: Maxwell booked a flight to Paris and from there he would go on to London. The airline insisted that Mij should be packed in a box (not more than eighteen inches square) that was to be placed on the floor, near his feet.

Question 2: What did Mij do to the box?

Answer: Maxwell had put Mij in the box and left for a meal. When he came back, he saw a horrific spectacle. There was complete silence from the box. However, from its airholes and chinks around the lid, blood had trickled and dried. He took off the lock and tore open the lid. Mij, exhausted and covered with blood, whimpered and caught his leg. It had torn the lining of the box to shreds. He removed the last of it so that there were no cutting edges left.

Question 3: Why did Maxwell put the otter back in the box? How do you think he felt when he did this?

Answer: By the time Maxwell had removed the last of the lining of the box so that there were no cutting edges left, it was just ten minutes for the flight to take off. He had to rush to the airport, which was five miles away, and that is why he put the miserable otter back into the box. Like the otter, Maxwell would also have felt miserable for putting it back in the box, particularly so, after seeing that the otter disliked being in the box.

Question 4: Why does Maxwell say the air hostess was “the very queen of her kind”?

Answer: Maxwell said that the air hostess was “the very queen of her kind” because she was extremely friendly and helpful. He took her into his confidence about the incident with the box. She suggested that he might prefer to have his pet on his knee. Hearing this, he developed a profound admiration for her, for she understood the pain of both the otter and its owner.

Question 5: What happened when the box was opened?

Answer: When the box was opened, Mij leapt out of it immediately. It disappeared very quickly down the aircraft. Several passengers shrieked. A woman stood up on her seat screaming that there was a rat. He saw Mij’s tail disappearing beneath the legs of an Indian passenger. He dived for it but missed. The air hostess suggested him to be seated and that she would find the otter. After a while, Mij had returned to him. It climbed on his knee and began to rub its nose on his face and neck.

Thinking About the Text

Question 1: What things does Mij do which tell you that he is an intelligent, friendly and fun- loving animal who needs love?

Answer: Mij was an intelligent animal. It invented its own game out of the ping-pong balls. It screwed the tap till water began to flow and then it would play and splash in the water. Though it was aloof and indifferent in the beginning, it soon became very friendly. It formed a special attachment with Maxwell. It responded when Maxwell called out his name. It grew desperate when Maxwell left it in a box and it got hurt while trying to come out of it. After Maxwell took it out, it clung to his feet. It was a fun-loving animal. It enjoyed playing all kinds of games. It would play with a selection of toys, ping- pong balls, marbles, rubber fruit, and a terrapin shell. It required to love and affection from Maxwell and it got that readily.

Question 2: What are some of the things we come to know about otters from this text?

Answer: Otters belong to a comparatively small group of animals called Mustellines, shared by the badger, mongoose, weasel, stoat, mink and others. Maxwell’s otter was of a race previously unknown to science and was at length named by zoologists Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli or Maxwell’s otter. They are found in large numbers in marshes. They are often tamed by the Arabs. It is characteristic of otters that every drop of water must be extended and spread about the place; a bowl must at once be overturned, or, if it would not be overturned, be sat in and splashed in until it overflowed. For them, water must be kept on the move. Otters love playing various games, especially with a ball.

Question 3: Why is Mij’s species now known to the world as Maxwell’s otter?

Answer: Maxwell’s otter was of a race previously unknown to science and was at length named by zoologists Lutrogale perspicillata maxwelli or Maxwell’s otter.

Question 4: Maxwell in the story speaks for the otter, Mij. He tells us what the otter feels and thinks on different occasions. Given below are some things the otter does. Complete the column on the right to say what Maxwell says about what Mij feels and thinks.

Question 1: What game had Mij invented?

Answer: Mij invented a game with a ping-pong ball, which kept him engrossed for up to half an hour at a time. Maxwell had a suitcase that had become damaged, such that the lid, when closed, remained at a slope from one end to the other. Mij discovered that if the ball was placed on the high end, it would run down the length of the suitcase. It would dash around to the other end to surprise the ball. Then, it would grab it and trot off with it to the high end once more.

Question 2: What are ‘compulsive habits’? What does Maxwell say are the compulsive habits of

(i)school children

(ii)Mij?

Answer: Compulsive habits are habits that are impossible to control. According to Maxwell, children on their way to and from school must place their feet squarely on the centre of each paving block; they must touch every seventh upright of the iron railings, or pass to the outside of every second lamp post. Such was the compulsive habits of children. Opposite to Maxwell’s flat, there was a single-storied primary school. Along its frontage ran a low wall some two feet high. On its way home, Mij would tug Maxwell to this wall, jump onto it, and gallop the full length of its thirty yards, distracting both the pupils and the staff. Such was the compulsive habit of Mij.

Question 3: What group of animals do otters belong to?

Answer: Otters belong to a comparatively small group of animals called Mustellines, shared by the badger, mongoose, weasel, stoat, mink and others.

Question 4: What guesses did the Londoners make about what Mij was?

Answer: According to Maxwell, the average Londoner does not recognize an otter. The Londoners who saw Mij made different guesses about who Mij was. They guessed, among other things, that it was a baby seal, a squirrel, a walrus, a hippo, a beaver, a bear cub, a leopard and a brontosaur.

Question 5: Read the story and find the sentences where Maxwell describes his pet otter. Then choose and arrange your sentences to illustrate those statements below that you think are true.

Maxwell’s description

(i)makes Mij seem almost human, like a small

(ii)shows that he is often irritated with what Mij

(iii)shows that he is often surprised by what Mij

(iv)of Mij’s antics is

(v)shows that he observes the antics of Mij very

(vi)shows that he thinks Mij is a very ordinary

(vii)shows that he thinks the otter is very

Answer:

(i)He spent most of his time in play.

(iii)I watched, amazed; in less than a minute he had turned the tap far enough to produce a trickle of water, and after a moment or two achieved the full flow.

(v)A suitcase that I had taken to Iraq had become damaged on the journey home, so that the lid, when closed, remained at a slope from one end to the other. Mij discovered that if he placed the ball on the high end it would run down the length of the suitcase. He would dash around to the other end to ambush its arrival, hide from it, crouching, to spring up and take it by surprise, grab it and trot off with it to the high end once more.

(vii)It is not, I suppose, in any way strange that the average Londoner should not recognize an otter, but the variety of guesses as to what kind of animal this might come as a surprise to me. Mij was anything but an otter.

Thinking About Language

Question 1: From the table below, make as many correct sentences as you can using would and/or use to, as appropriate. (Hint: First decide whether the words in italics show action, or a state or situation, in the past.) Then add two or three sentences of your own to it.

Answer:

1. Emperor Akbar used to be fond of musical

2. Every evening we used to take long walks on the

3. Fifty years ago, very few people used to own

4. Till the 1980s, Shanghai used to have very dirty

5. My uncle would spend his holidays by the

6. My uncle used to take long walks on the

7. My uncle used to be fond of musical

Question 2: II. Noun Modifiers

1.Look at these examples from the text, and say whether the modifiers (in italics) are nouns, proper nouns, or adjective plus

(i)An otter fixation (iv) The London streets

(ii)The iron railings (v) soft velvet fur

(iii)The Tigris marshes (vi) A four-footed soccer player

2. Given below are some nouns, and a set of modifiers (in the box). Combine the nouns and modifiers to make as many appropriate phrases as you (Hint: The nouns and modifiers are all from the texts in this book.) temple three girls triangle dresses person thoughts boys roar gifts scream farewell expression time subject landscape handkerchief crossing flight chatterbox profession physique coffee view celebration

Answer: 1.

(i)Noun

(ii)Noun

(iii)Proper noun

(iv)Proper noun

(v)Adjective plus noun

(vi)Adjective plus noun

Temple − white temple, stone temple, first temple Person − incorrigible person, ridiculous person Gifts − hundred gifts, ordinary gifts, birthday gifts Time − college time, rough time, first time Crossing − railroad crossing, first crossing Physique − plump physique, ordinary physique

Three girls − first three girls, incorrigible three girls,

Thoughts − incorrigible thoughts, uncomfortable thoughts, ridiculous thoughts, heartbreaking thoughts, first thoughts, ordinary thoughts, Scream − tremendous scream, loud scream Subject − college subject, ordinary subject Flight − rough flight, first flight

Coffee − invigorating coffee, ordinary coffee Triangle − love triangle

Boys − college boys, incorrigible boys, rough boys, hundred boys Farewell − college farewell, heartbreaking farewell

Landscape − bare landscape, rough landscape, white landscape Chatterbox − incorrigible chatterbox

View − tremendous view, panoramic view, ordinary view

Dresses − hundred dresses, ordinary dresses, birthday dresses, marriage dresses Roar

— tremendous roar, a loud roar

Expression − bare expression, slang expression, slack expression Handkerchief − white handkerchief, ordinary handkerchief Profession − family profession, first profession, ordinary profession

Celebration − tremendous celebration, family celebration, birthday celebration

Question 3: 1. Match the words on the left with a word on the right. Some words on the left can go with more than one word on the right.

(i)a portion of – blood

(ii)a pool of – cotton

(iii)flakes of – stones

(iv)a huge heap of – gold

(v)a gust of – fried fish

(vi)little drops of – snow

(vii)a piece of – water

(viii)a pot of – wind

2. Use a bit of/a piece of/a bunch of/a cloud of/a lump of with the italicised nouns in the following sentences. The first has been done for you as an example.

(i)My teacher gave me some My teacher gave me a bit of advice.

(ii)Can you give me some clay,

(iii)The information you gave was very

(iv)Because of these factories, smoke hangs over the city.

(v)Two stones rubbed together can produce sparks of

(vi)He gave me some flowers on my

Answer: 1.(i) a portion of – fried fish

(ii)a pool of – blood

(iii)flakes of – snow

(iv)a huge heap of – stones

(v)a gust of – wind

(vi)little drops of – water

(vii)a piece of – cotton

(viii)a pot of – gold

2. (i) My teacher gave me some My teacher gave me a bit of advice.

(ii)Can you give me some clay, Can you give me a lump of clay, please.

(iii)The information you gave was very

The piece of information you gave was very useful.

(iv)Because of these factories, smoke hangs over the Because of these factories, a cloud of smoke hangs over the city.

(v)Two stones rubbed together can produce sparks of

Two pieces of stones rubbed together can produce sparks of fire.

(vi)He gave me some flowers on my He gave me a bunch of flowers on my birthday.

Speaking

You have seen how Maxwell describes Mij the otter’s feelings and thoughts by watching him. Play the game of dumb charades. Take turns to express a feeling or thought silently, through gestures. Let the class speak out their guesses about the feelings or thoughts you are trying to express.

 Ans. Meant for playing at the class level.

Writing

 Write a description of a person or an animal (such as a pet) that you know very well and love veil much. Questions (4) and (5) in `Thinking about the Text’ will have given you some idea about how to do this. Mention some things the person or animal does, what you think the person or animal feels, etc.

 Ans.                                        My Pet Dog Jackie

 I have a pet dog. His name is Jackie. He is of Dachshund. He is white in colour. He is a small dog. He has a long body, long ears and very short legs.

 He is very athletic and smart. He understands the verbal commands given to him. He even guesses mY facial expressions. When I have a frown on my face he bows down. Then he doesn’t look into my eyes. Bet when I call him joyfully to go for a walk, he jumps with joy and follows me. When I throw a ball, he rushee out to catch that. He guards our house. It is because of him monkeys dare not come to our house.

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