Daily Archives: February 7, 2019

Chapter-8 The Tale of Melon City NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1. Narrate ‘The Tale of Melon City’ in your own words.

 Ans. Once in a city there ruled a just and peace-loving king. He generously got an arch gate built over the highway. He thought foolishly that the gate would improve the general quality of life. One day, the king’s crown was lost when it touched the low-built arch. He took it as a disgrace. He ordered the chief of builders to be hanged. The builder blamed the workers who held the masons guilty. The architect, in his turn, blamed the king for making a change in the building plan. A wise man suggested that the arch itself be hanged. Since the crowd demanded the execution of the culprit, a noose was set up. The king alone was found tall enough to fit the noose, so he was hanged.

The new ruler was crowned on the advice of an idiot. A melon was set on the throne. The ministers and the common people were equally happy because the melon king did not rule at all. He was just a melon after all.

2. What impression would you form of a state where the king was ‘just and placid’?

Ans. A state ruled by a foolish king is doomed to lawlessness. The king said to be cool-headed and calm was actually short-tempered and mindless. He changed his orders several times. He had to pay a heavy price for his wavering mind an absurd decision. He carried his notion of justice a little too far. He lost his head when he lost his crown. He wanted the culprit to be hanged. But he took a strange decision to please the people. He got the noose set up. But the noose was a little too high. He himself was found fit for that noose. This was a kingdom of fools. The ministers accepted the new ruler named by an idiot. They crowned a melon and the people accepted him tamely.

3. How according to you can peace and liberty be maintained in a state?

Ans. Peace and liberty can be maintained in a state where the law is supreme and the common people are not harassed without reason. Laws are made by the parliament but they are interpreted and enforced by the courts. So an ideal state must have an independent judiciary.

4. Suggest a few instances in the poem which highlight humour and irony.

 Ans. The Tale of Melon City narrates a humorous story about the nonsensical ruler of the state. It was, in fact, a kingdom of fools. The king got a gate built presumably to enlighten the common people. He agreed to execute the arch on an old man’s suggestion. He agreed to hang somebody because the people demanded it. These are the instances of humour and comical relief. The irony was that the king was executed on the basis of a royal decree signed by himself.

5. ‘The Tale of Melon City’ has been narrated in a verse form. This is a unique style which lends extra charm to an ancient tale. Find similar examples in your language and share them in the class.

 Ans. Attempt it yourself, and find out a tale of this nature in your own mother tongue.

Chapter-7 Birth NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1.”I have done something, oh, Cod! I’ve done something real at last.” Why does Andrew say this? What does it mean?

  Ans.   Andrew was fresh from the medical school. He was still working as an assistant to Dr Edward Page in Blaenelly. He had yet to prove his merit. He got a chance soon to test all his learning. He knew that a doctor’s job was to save a life. He got a golden opportunity unexpectedly one evening. He was called upon to supervise the delivery case of Susan Morgan. He waited all night. But he was horrified to find the newborn baby almost lifeless. The mother was also collapsing. He first saved the mother’s life by giving an injection. Then he turned to the stillborn baby. He applied treatment he had once seen at school. He dipped the baby first in warm water and then in icy cold water. His effort was crowned with success. The child began to gasp and then cry. Andrew had supreme satisfaction because he had saved two lives.

2. There is a great difference between textbook medicine and the world of a practising physician. Discuss. 

 Ans. Bookish knowledge and practical experience are equally important for success in any profession. A textbook discusses the symptoms of a disease and its cure. But not all cases are so simple. The physician himself learns a lot while dealing with patients. Andrew rightly guessed that the newborn baby was not all lifeless. There was warmth in the baby but it was a case of lack of oxygen in the blood. He gave an innovative treatment to the baby. He remembered a similar case he had seen earlier. Using hot and cold water and with the gentle pressure of his hands, he revived the child. It was a clear victory of his past practical experience over textbook medicines.

3. Do you know of any incident when someone has been brought back to life from the brink of death through medical help? Discuss medical procedures such as organ transplant and organ regeneration that are used to save human life.

  Ans.   Let all the students discuss it in classroom and recall incidents when timely medical aid brought a dying person back to life.

Chapter-6 The Ghat of the Only World NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1. What impressions of Shahid do you gather from the piece?

 Ans. Shahid was a Kashmiri by birth but settled in America. He was an academician, a learned and popular teacher of English literature. He himself was a creative writer, a poet. His voice was at once lyrical and disciplined. His students almost worshipped him. Though a Muslim, he had a secular outlook. He believed in separation of politics and religious beliefs. In his childhood, he had set up a small temple of Hindu gods in his own room. He never used his pen for political propaganda. He was very lively and open-hearted. He was a great fan of Begum Akhtar and old Hindi films. He loved parties and Kashmiri dishes like rogan josh. The life of such a promising poet was cut short by a cancerous tumour in his brain.

2. How do Shahid and the writer react to the knowledge that Shahid is going to die?

 Ans. Shahid had his first sudden blackout in February 2000. Tests revealed that he had a brain tumour. He underwent several operations and therapy treatment of cancer, but he could not get well. Shahid spoke to the writer about his approaching death in 2001. He had occasional lapses of memory, but he was still on his feet. He said that he wasn’t dying. But when it happened, he (the writer) must write something about him. Shahid never felt depressed and he died in America while he was asleep. His death shocked the writer deeply. His friendship with Shahid was brief, but his death left a big void in his life.

3. Find out the meaning of diaspora. What do you understand of the Indian diaspora from the piece?

Ans. The word ‘diaspora’ means dispersion or migration of people or communities from one country to another. Shahid was a Kashmiri diaspora in the sense he had moved off to America and settled down there. He was an expatriate from Kashmir.

Chapter-5 Mother’s Day NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1. This play, written in the 1950s, is a humorous and satirical depiction of the status of the mother in the family.

(a)    What are the issues it raises?

Ans.   The play ‘Mother’s Day’ is a humorous but realistic presentation of the status of the mother in the family. She plays the dual role of a wife and a mother. She has to serve every member of the family and care for them. The play raises that vital issues of how to better a lot of women in the family. Mrs Fitzgerald is a liberated and strong woman who lives life on her own terms. But Mrs Pearson only sulks silently. She is neglected and treated as a maid. Mrs Fitzgerald suggests a solution and even sets Mrs Pearson’s family right.

  (b) Do you think it caricatures these issues or do you think that the problem it raises is genuine? How does the play resolve the issues? Do you agree with the resolution?

 Ans. The problem of the pitiable status of women in most of the families is genuine. For ages, a woman has been enslaved, exploited and tortured. She gets no change and no recognition for her tireless services. Mrs Pearson represents the entire class of such unhappy women. She reveals her problem to her neighbour. Mrs Fitzgerald offers her services to set the spoilt family right by interchanging their personalities. Now Mrs Pearson has become a confident and strong woman like Mrs Fitzgerald and vice-versa. The new Mrs Pearson is very stern with her son, daughter and husband. She makes them realise that evening as to how mean and selfish they all are towards her. She smokes, drinks stout and declares her intention to do no housework on weekends. She humiliates, ridicules and even proceeds to slap George. She makes Doris cry. But in totality, she creates a wholesome effect. She declares herself as the boss, the mistress of her house. Rights have to be snatched. Too much of humility hurts. Her plan to set things right is a little bit harsh but was badly needed here. The true realisation of one’s hurt feelings can bring about any reform.

2. If you were to write about these issues today what are some of the incidents, examples and problems that you would think of as relevant?

 Ans. The problems are aplenty in every age and every country. For all his life man struggles against odds and woman suffers endlessly. But apart from domestic problems. there are major problems of corruption, cruelty, war and violence. Terrorists are active in almost every country. At home front, bride burning by dowry seekers is a common practice in India. Children go astray and young men take to crimes for good life and easy money. The condition of today’s working woman is not better. She is still a slave of the wheel. She is being denied her due on one pretext or the other.

3. Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.

 Ans. Literature imitates life. Drama is a slice of life itself. It presents episodes from real life with a touch of imagination. And next to films, the stage attracts large crowds. It is proof of the popularity of plays. Every drama deals with social, political or religious problems. It also conveys a message directly or indirectly. It highlights the evils and suggests a solution. It is a different matter, however, that people rarely learn a lesson from the stories of the horrors of war, superstitions and physical torture. Drama through visible action puts forward the pros and cons of a problem. It brings us face to face with the problems and the suggested solutions. It leaves a lasting effect on us. Drama is certainly a good medium for conveying a social message.

4. Read the play out in parts. Enact the play on a suitable occasion.

 Ans. A classroom activity.

5. Discuss in groups plays or films with a strong message of social reform.

 Ans. A classroom activity.

Chapter-4 Albert Einstein at School NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1. What do you understand of Einstein’s nature from his conversations with his History teacher, his Maths teacher and the head teacher?

Ans. Albert Einstein from his boyhood showed the signs of his future greatness. He was far ahead of the classroom teaching. He was extraordinary, unlike the boys of his age and class. He was forthright and thoughtful. He had his own views on education. Being a free thinker, he thought differently from his History teacher. Mr Braun asked him to tell the date when the Prussians had defeated the French. Albert said frankly that he saw no point in learning dates by heart. Real education, he said, should give ideas rather than facts.

But Albert’s Maths teacher, Mr Koch, had a high opinion about the boy. He readily gave him a testimonial that Albert was fit for studying higher Maths in a college or


 The headmaster thought that Albert was a nuisance who made it impossible for the teacher to teach and other pupils to learn.

2. The school system often curbs individual talents. Discuss.

 Ans. The school system is defective. It fails to do its job properly. For example, the objective of education is to discover and develop the aptitude and hidden talents in every child. Not all children have similar likes and dislike, or equal intelligence and interest in the subjects taught. But our schools insist on teaching the same things to the entire class. This kills pupils’ creative quality and their original thinking. Einstein was interested in

Maths and Geology and music. Naturally, he came in a clash with his History teacher. He rightly felt miserable in Munich school. He proved his brilliance after leaving Munich.

3. How do you distinguish between information gathering and insight formation?

  Ans.   History is a bundle of dates and details of battles and political wrestling. The pupils are compelled to learn about kings and wars, about particular dates and places. This is just information gathering. It leaves no scope for questioning the motives behind every battle. Real education should enable a child to think and draw conclusions from whatever he learns. It should prepare him to take initiative and think about ideas. It must develop intellect and should not make pupils behave like parrots.

Chapter-3 Ranga’s Marriage NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1.Comment on the influence of English—the language and the way of life—on Indian life as reflected in the story. What is the narrator’s attitude to English?

Ans. English is no more the language of the English people. It is common property. It is understood and spoken by almost 40 per cent of people in the world. India adopted English in a big way in the 20th century. But its popularity began much earlier. The story Rastga’s Marriage gives us a glimpse of the widening influence of English on Indian life and thinking. Ranga’s education in an English school in Bangalore changed his views about marriage. He wanted to marry an educated, mature girl whom he knew and admired. This was a revolt against child marriage and arranged marriage. The narrator belongs to the old generation. He makes fun of the use of English words and the mark of modernism.

2. Astrologers’ perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than that they learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story.

Ans.   Astrology is the study of the supposed influence of the planets on human life. It is an ancient science. Our forefathers had and even the elders to this day believe in auspicious dates for marriage or business deals. Even national leaders consult astrologers. The question of whether it is an exact science or just make-believe is still unanswered. The roadside astrologers befool the simple-hearted villagers and common people. The fear of the unknown, the evil influence of the position of stars is at the root of our belief in the perceptions made by pundits. In this story, Shyama tutors the astrologer how to befool Ranga. The astrologer follows the advice of the narrator and tells Ranga that he was destined to marry a girl named Ratna. And Ranga readily believes him.

3. Indian society has moved a long way from the way the marriage is arranged in the story. Discuss.

Ans. Marriage in India is not a contract but a sacred ceremony. It is a life-long alliance of a boy and a girl. Child marriage was a common practice in our country till we got independence. The parents alone used to arrange the marriage. The boy or girl had no say in it. But it is not so common today, particularly in big towns and cities. The youth often choose their life-partners themselves. The law also allows an 18-year-old girl to marry a 2I-year-old boy. They can go in for court marriage. They sideline the parents boldly. But India is still far behind the West in this field. Only the economically independent youngsters take such a bold step. The parents still negotiate the terms and conditions of marriage in 80 per cent cases.

4. What kind of a person do you think the narrator is?

Ans.  The narrator of the story Ranga’s Marriage is certainly not a social worker nor a marriage broker. It is not his vocation to find a match for an eligible bachelor. He is guided just by his whims to get Ranga married. But the way he goes about it shows his shrewdness. his foolproof planning. He tells lies to entrap Ranga. He calls Ratna and Ranga to his house. He keenly observes Ranga’s face and feelings on seeing Ratna. He conspires with the village pundit/Shastri to convince Ranga that Ratna is destined to be his wife.

The narrator is certainly not well educated. He certainly does not like people to speak in English. That’s why he was pleased with Ranga because he did not show any airs even after coming back from Bangalore. When Ranga expresses his views on marriage he takes it as a challenge to get him married. He is easily pleased when Ranga brings him a couple of oranges and behaves respectfully. He has no faith in astrological predictions or perceptions.

Chapter-2 The Address NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1.’Have you come back? said the woman. ‘I thought that no one had come back.’ Does this statement give some clue about the story? If yes, what is it?

 Ans. Mrs Dorling’s query gives us a clue that she is seeing the narrator after a long time and also that she had not expected to see her alive again. She is rather unpleasantly surprised to see the narrator at her doorstep. This statement also gives us a hint that she is talking about some kind of war, where many people had died.

2. The story is divided into pre-war and post-war times. What hardships do you think the girl underwent during these times?

 Ans. The story is distinctly divided into two parts—before the war and after the war. The narrator, as can be drawn from the story, belonged to a rich Jewish family living in Holland. She lived in a large beautiful house with her mother and they possessed beautiful artefacts, silver articles and paintings. Theirs was a cultured family. The World War II erupted and the Nazi army started targetting all the Jews living in Europe. They were made to leave their homes and belongings and all family members were taken to unknown destinations by the army. The narrator, being, Jewish, was also forced to leave her house. Both the mother and daughter must have been taken to labour camps. Her mother had died during these difficult times, but the narrator survived. After the end of the war, she came back to live in her old city. Now she had no family, not even her old house and belongings. She had lost everything, but she resolved to make a new life for herself.

3. Why did the narrator of the story want to forget the address?

 Ans. The narrator at the end of the war returned to her house. She still remembered the address of Mrs Dorling who had taken away all the valuables to her own house. She wished to see and touch them, though she did not want to possess them. The old familiar objects and places evoked the memories of former times and pained her. Still, she went to Marconi Street Number 46. But she got a very cold response. She came back home disappointed. Her second visit enabled her to see all her valuables set badly in a strange place. She felt very pained to see ilk beautiful artefacts and antique of her mother, kept in a small, dirty room. Mrs Dorling had kept those things in her house in a tasteless manner and they did not even realise the value of those beautiful things. The narrator suddenly develops an aversion to all her things and comes back. She resolved never to go to that address again.

4. ‘The Address’ is a story of human predicament that follows the war. Comment.

Ans. War is a nasty thing. It causes enormous loss of life and destruction of property. In addition to that, it affects our thinking and relationships. It kills all values and soft sentiments. It turns friendly neighbours into sworn enemies. It spreads greed, violence and hatred. The narrator of the story faces the after-effects of war. She has lost her home, all her valuables and even her mother. She loses interest in all old familiar things. She starts a new life of destitution packed with painful memories.

Chapter-1 The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse NCERT Solution

Textbook Questions

1. You will probably agree that this story does not have a breathless adventure and exciting action. Then what is your opinion makes it interesting?

 Ans. Of course, there are no exciting actions and adventures in this story ‘The Summer of the Beautiful White Horse’. Still, it makes delightful reading. The narrator relates an incident which took place when he was a little boy. The world was full of dreams and mysteries. He was fond of horse riding but acute poverty stood in his way. His narration of the incident is from a child’s point of view. He tells himself that taking somebody’s horse just for a joy-ride did not mean stealing. After all, the cousins had no plan to sell the horse. The story moves at a leisurely pace. Mourad was just a lively and adventure-loving boy. He had got his craziness from uncle Khosrove. The uncle’s standard reaction to every situation was—pay no attention to it’. The descriptions, the pranks of two boys, the craziness of the uncle make the story interesting.

2. Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?

Ans. Mourad and Aram belonged to a poor Armenian tribe known for its honesty. So, Aram was surprised to see Mourad riding a beautiful white horse. He at once remarked that it was a stolen horse. The very thought of stealing was disgusting to Aram. But he reasoned with himself that taking a horse for a ride was not stealing at all. But Mourad was lively, adventure-loving and crazy. He was unlike the little Aram. He was daring, self-confident and tactful Nevertheless their encounter with John Byro pricked their conscience and even frightened them. Perhaps their family reputation was at stake. So they took the horse to its owner’s barn.

3. “One day back that in the good old days when I was nine and the world was full of every imaginable kind of magnificence, and life was still a delightful and mysterious dream ” The story begins in a mood of nostalgia. Can you narrate some incident from your childhood that might make an interesting story? 

Ans. For self-attempt.

4. The story revolves around characters who belong to a tribe in Armenia. Mourad and Aram are the members of the Garoghlanian family. Now locate Armenia and Assyria on the atlas and prepare a write-up on the Garoghlanian tribes. You may write about people, their names, traits, geographical and economic features as suggested in the story.

 Ans. Consult an encyclopedia or some geography book to locate the country and get details about the people, their lives and beliefs. Your teacher and the librarian can help in your search.

Chapter-8 The Tale of Melon City- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 8 English Language and Literature

       The Tale of Melon City

                                                                                                       By- Vikram Seth

Introduction of the lesson- The Tale of Melon City


The Tale of Melon City is a story in verse. The tale is humorous even though it is unrealistic and unbelievable. It ridicules the king, his ministers, the wise men and the common people. All of them behave foolishly. Not one of them applies his brain. The tone of the poem is satirical. The just and placid king behaved rashly like a fool. He got an arch gate constructed above the highway for the enlightenment of the onlookers. He hit his crown against the arch. He ordered hanging for the guilty. But he changed his orders quite soon until he ordered his own execution.

 The new ruler was chosen foolishly by an idiot. He was asked to name the new king. He loved melons. So he pronounced melon at once—and the melon was crowned king. The people had no interest in who ruled over them provided they were not harassed.

 Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- The Tale of Melon City

Word-Meanings  And Reference

Page 71

just- justice-loving, fair and impartial,न्याप्रिय placid-calm, gentle, शांतिप्रिय proclaimed-made a public announcement, उदघोषड़ा करवा दी arch-curved gateway, मेहराबदार दरबाजा triumphantly-successfully, victoriously, सफल ढंग से span-cover, stretch from one side to another, सड़क के ऊपर दोनों और उठा thoroughfare-public road, meant for common use, राजमार्ग edify-improve morally , नैतिक  रूप से उत्थान करना spectators-viewers, onlookers, दर्शक

 Pages 72-73

 he-the King, राजा frown-displeasure,त्योरि चढ़ गयी disgrace-insult, dishonour, अपमान gallows-structure or platform on which the criminal was hanged,  फाशी का तख्ता या टिक्ति fault-error, mistake, दोष गलती called a halt-stopped, रोक दिया proceedings-work, legal or royal action, क़ानूनी कार्यवाही summon-sent for, call, बुलाओ masons-those who build with bricks or stone, राजगीर quivering-trembling with fear, भए से कांपते हुए architect-one who makes the plan of the building, बस्तुकार ordain-order, आदेश देना amendments-changes, improvements, शंशोधन lost his head- was confused, चकरा गया tricky-Intricate, जटिल पेचीदा counsel-advice, consultation, सलाह मसवरा nay-no, नहीं

Page 74

quavering-trembling, काँपती हुई culprit-wrongdoer, गलती करने बाला banged-hit, struck, टक्कर मारी scaffold-platform for execution, फाशी का तख्ता mused-thought, विचार किया from uttering-mumbling, फुशफुश कर रहा था perceived-noticed, भांप लिया trembled-shook with fear, काँप गया consideration-discussion on, विचार विमर्श guilt-fault, दोष immediately-without delay, तुरंत noose-sliding knot tied for hanging someone, फंदा decree-order.

Page 75

 unruly-restless, agitated, उद्दण्ड pondered-considered, विचार किया dilemma-a difficult situation, दुबिधा herald-announcer, उदघोषक proclaim-announce, लोगो को बताये enforced-carried out, acted upon, पालन किया जायेगा due ceremony-proper grand way, with rituals, शोभा के साथ idiot-brainless, मुर्ख melon-a fruit, तरबूज reverently-respectfully. सादर

Page 76

 customary-usual, according to custom, रीती के अनुसार rejoice-feel happy. खुश होना OK-all right, ठीक है   Laissez-faire-policy of giving freely without government control.

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (The Tale of Melon City)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (The Tale of Melon City)

Complete Summary

Once there was a justice-loving and cool-headed king. He decided to get an arch built over the main highway. His motive was to benefit and improve the onlookers, both mentally and morally.

 The workers built the gate. They dared not disobey the king. The king rode down the highway to show himself to the people. It so happened that his crown hit against the low-built arch, and was lost. The king was very angry. He took it as an insult. He decided to hang the chief of builders. All arrangements were made for the execution. The chief of builders was taken past the king. He told the king that he was innocent. He put the blame on the workmen.

 The king put off the hanging for a while. Being just and serious, he forgave the builder and ordered the hanging of all the workmen. The workers passed on the blame to the brickmakers who had made the bricks of the wrong size. The king then sent for the masons who stood to tremble with fear. They blamed the architect for the low arch. And now it was the turn of the architect to suffer hanging. The architect too had a point in his defence. He reminded the king of the change he himself had made to the plans. The king heard this and turned pale. He was in a dilemma. So, he declared that the case was complicated and he needed some consultations. He sent for the wisest man in the country. A very old and experienced man was presented before the king. He suggested that the king should punish the culprit and, in this case, the arch itself was that guilty thing. The arch was taken towards the gallows. But suddenly, a courtier or minister spoke in favour of the march saying that they could not hang the arch because it had touched the sacred head of the king.

The king agreed with his minister. But by now, the crowd was in a rebellious mood. They wanted some action, a hanging. So, to please the public, the king said that somebody should be hanged whether he was guilty or not. So, a noose was set up. But it was somewhat high. Many people were measured but only the king was found tall enough to fit the noose. And he was, therefore, hanged.

Summary in Hindi/ The Tale of Melon City

Complete Summary

एक समय एक न्याप्रिय तथा ठंडे दिमाक बाला राजा राज्य कर रहा था उसने प्रमुख राजमार्ग के ऊपर एक टोररड दयारा बनबाने का निष्चय किया उसका उद्देस्य था की दर्शको का मानशिक तथा नैतिक उठान हो जाए

मजदूरों ने दोयार बनबा दिया उनका साहस न था कि राजा की अवहेलना करे राजा सोयम राजमार्ग पर लोगो को अपना दर्शन देने के लिए निकल पढ़ा हुआ ये कि दयार कि उचाई कम होने से राजा का मुकुट टकराकर गिर गया राजा आग- बबूला हो गया उसने इसे अपमान समझा उसने आदेश दिया कि इस दोयार को बनाने बाले को फाशी दे दी जाए इस मृत्यु दंड के तैयारी कर ली गयी बिल्डरों का प्रमुख जब राजा के सामने से गुजरा तो उसने कहा मई तो निर्दोष हूँ सारा दोष मजदूरों का था

राजा ने मृत्यु दंड को कुछ समय के लिए टाल दिया न्याप्रिय और गभींर सोभाव होने के कारण उसने निर्माता को माफ़ कर दिया तथा सभी मजदूरों को फाशी देने का आदेश दे दिया मजदूरों ने सारा दोष ईट

बनाने बाले के सिर पर मढ़ दिया जिन्होने गलत आकर की ईट बनाई थी राजा ने फिर राजगीरों को बुला भेजा; बे भय से काँपते सामने खड़े थे उन्होने बाश्तुकार को इतना नीचा दोयार बनाने के लिए दोषी बताया अब बास्तुकार की बारी आ गयी कि उसे फाशी दी जाए बास्तुकार के पास भी अपने बचाव के लिए एक बहाना था उसने राजा को याद दिलाया कि दोयार के नक्शे में फेरबदल तो सोयम राजा ने ही की थी राजा ये सुनकर पीला पढ़ गया इसलिए उसने कहा कि मामला जटिल है और उसे सलाह लेनी पड़ेगी उसने देश के शर्बाधिक बुद्धिमान व्यक्ति को पेश किये जाने का आदेश दिया  एक अति बृद्ध पर अनुभवी व्यक्ति को राजा के सामने उपश्तिथ किया गया उसने सुझाव दिया कि राजा का काम है अपराधी को दंड देना तथा इस मामले में अपराधी तो दोयार था इसलिए इस मेहराबदार दोयार को फाशी की टिकटी की ओर ले जाया गया पर अचानक एक मंत्री दोयार के बचाव में बोल पढ़ा की दोयार को फाशी नहीं दी जा सकती क्योकि उसने  तो राजा का मस्तक ही सादर छुआ था

राजा बात  मान  गया पर अब जनता विदद्रोहों करने लगी बे तो किसी को दण्डित किये जाने की मांग कर रहे थे इसलिए राजा ने किसी को लटकाने के लिए एक फंदा बनबाया पर बह भी उचाई पर था अनेक लोगो की लम्बाई का माप लिया गया पर केवल राजा ही उस फंदे पर लटकने के लिए उपयुक्त पाया गया और उसे फाशी दे दी गयी

मंत्री गढ़ों को बहुत राहत मिल गयी लोग अब शांत हो चुके थे अगला काम था दूसरे शाशक की खोज करना घोसड़ा राज्य की रीती के अनुशार की गयी एक मुर्ख नगर दोयार से गुजरा रच्छको ने उसे रोक लिया तथा   कहा कि नए राजा का चयन करो मुर्ख को तरबूज ही पसंद थे इसलिए बह सभी प्रश्नो का एक ही उत्तर देता रहा -तरबूज या खरबूजा

मंत्रियो ने उस मुर्ख को ही न्य साशक चुन लिया उन्होंने सिंघाशन पर एक तरबूज की इस्थापना कर दी

ये घटना बहुत पुराने समय की है पर यदि आज भी आप लोगो से पूछे कि आपका शाशक तरबूज जैसा क्यों दिखता है तो बे कहते है कि इसका कारण तो देश में राजा  के चयन की प्रिक्रिया की रीती है उनकी अपनी राय का कोई महत्य नहीं है और उन्हें इसी रीती से तब तक कोई शिकायत भी नहीं है जब तक उन्हें शांति और आज़ादी से रहने दिया जाता है 

Following is the complete question bank for The Tale of Melon City

The Tale of Melon City Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions 

1. Why does the king order an arch to be constructed over the public road?

 Ans. The cool-headed king got an arch gate constructed over the public road. He hoped to enlighten and uplift the onlookers morally.

2. What annoyed the king as he rode down that thoroughfare?

Ans. As he rode down the road, his crown struck against the low-built arch. It was thrown off and lost. This enraged the king.

3. ‘This is a disgrace’, said the king. How did he react?

Ans. The low-built arch hit against the king’s crown which fell to the ground and was lost. The king took it as an insult. He ordered the chief of builders to be hanged.

4. The king, in this poem, is just and placid. Why does he then lose his temper? Does he carry his notion of justice too far?

 Ans. The king was known to be calm and cool-headed. But that was a blatant lie. He lost his temper soon. Being just, he ordered the guilty person or thing to be hanged. But he was an utter fool. He carried his notion of justice too far. In doing so he had invited his own hanging.

5. How did the chief of builders, the workmen and the masons save their lives?

Ans. The chief of builders passed on the blame to the workmen. The workers in order to save their lives blamed the brick makers and the masons. The masons put the blame on the architect for the low arch.

6. How did the architect turn the tables on the king himself?

Ans. The architect was presented before the king to face conviction. But he reminded the king of the changes made by the king himself in the building plan. The king became nervous. He said he would consult the wisest man in the state on the issue.

7. Who on the old wise man’s advice was led to the gallows? Why had the proceeding to be halted?

Ans. The old man was considered wise on the basis of his age. He advised the king to hang the arch itself which had thrown the crown off the king’s head.

8. How did the king save his own skin when the architect turned the accusing finger at him?

Ans. The architect blamed the king himself for making faulty changes in the original building plan. The king found himself cornered. So he declared that he would seek the advice of the wisest man in the state on that tricky issue.

9. How did circumstances lead to the execution of the king himself?

Ans. On the wise man’s advice, the king ordered the arch to be executed. But a councillor defended the arch. The people, however, were restless. They demanded action and hanging. So a noose was set up to hang somebody. The king alone was tall enough to fit the noose. Hence, the king himself had to be hanged.

10. What opinion do you form about the king from the story?

Ans. This story highlights the foolishness of a so-called calm and just ruler. The king carried his notion of justice too far. He not only lost his own life but also gave the chance to another fool, a melon, to occupy the throne.

11.  What custom was enforced to get a new ruler?

 Ans. The state custom to find a new ruler was very funny. The first person to pass the city gates was to choose the ruler of the state. The idiot who passed by liked melons. Soon his suggestion, a melon was put on the throne.

12. Comment on the calibre of the king, his ministers, the people and the customs of the state.

 Ans. All the characters in the story are block-headed. The king was crazy and brainless. The ministers followed the old custom blindly and set a melon on the throne. The custom to choose the ruler was just silly. The people, at large, were no good. They demanded a hanging even if it was their own king. They did not mind who the king was, as long as they could live peacefully.

13. Why have the king’s ministers been described as practical-minded men? What is ironical about the description?

Ans. The ministers were in a hurry to find a new ruler. They lacked practical wisdom when they followed the old custom. They detained a fool and asked him to name the new ruler. What an irony!

14. How was the new king of the state finally selected and crowned?

Ans. The old custom was followed while selecting a new ruler. The first person to pass by the city gate was asked to name the king. That idiot, being fond of melons, named melon for the royal seat. And a Melon was crowned and set up on the throne.

15. Why do the common people accept the melon-king without any protest?

 Ans. The common people valued their peaceful living and freedom more than the quality of the king. It mattered little for them whether the king was wise or foolish, so long as he did not harass the people.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions 

1. Narrate ‘The Tale of Melon City’ in about 100 words. What message does it convey?

Ans. The king of that nameless state was known to be just and cool-headed. But truly speaking, he was foolish, crazy and brainless. Once he got constructed an arch above the public road for the mental and moral improvement of the onlookers. One day as he rode down that highway, the low-built arch hit the king’s crown. The angry king decided to hang the culprit. He summoned the builders, the workers, the masons, the architect to undergo punishment. They all passed on the blame to each other. On the old wise man’s advice, the arch itself was to be hanged. But a councillor saved it. But somebody had to be hanged. The king alone was tall enough to fit the noose which was set very high. He was hanged. As per the custom, whosoever passed the city gates first, had the honour of naming the next king. That day a fool was the first person to pass by the gates and he was asked to choose the king. He spoke only one-word “Melon” to all the questions and the Melon was crowned. The common people had no say in the selection. They only wanted to live in peace and liberty.

2. The king was just and placid. How did he carry his notion of justice a bit too far?

 Ans. The king was known to be cool-headed, fair and just. But he was, in fact, a fool with a wavering mind. He foolishly thought that the victory gate would improve the people morally and mentally. He lost his temper when his crown fell off his head under the arch of low height. He at once ordered hanging for the builder, the workers, the masons and the architect. He carried his sense of justice a little too far. He agreed to hang the arch itself. He finally ordered his own hanging. The story is humorous and ironical.

3. How does a melon become the ruler of the state? Why are the people happy with him?

Ans. The king who never applied his own brain went by what others said. When the people demanded somebody to be hanged, the king had to pay a heavy price for his foolishness. He himself was taken to the gallows. According to the state custom, the new ruler was to be chosen by the first person who passed by the city gates. That day an idiot happened to pass by the gates who said “Melon” to any question which people asked him. And the ministers followed the custom mindlessly. They brought a melon and crowned it as their new ruler. The people raised no objection. They only wanted to live in peace and liberty. They accepted the melon king who followed the policy of non-interference in whatever the people did.

Chapter-7 Birth- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 7 English Language and Literature

Lesson Name-Birth

                                                                                                       By- A. J. Cronin

 Introduction of the lesson- Birth


The story ‘Birth’ highlights the importance of practical experience in the medical field. It proves sometimes more effective in saving lives or in curing deadly diseases. Dr Andrew applied hot and cold water technique to restore life in a newborn baby. The baby appeared to be stillborn, lifeless, boneless and lax. The nurse put it beneath the patient’s bed as a lost case while the young doctor was making feverish efforts to save the mother who was sinking. Then he turned to the midwife and asked for the child. He pulled it out from under the bed and dipped it alternately in hot and icy cold water. Then he pressed the little chest gently and released it. He too had nearly accepted defeat. But his last effort did the miracle. The baby started breathing and getting oxygen. Its white skin turned pink and it gave out a cry. Everybody thanked God for the miracle. Overworked Andrew also had the greatest satisfaction of his medical career. He had done something real.

Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- (Birth)

Word-meanings and References

Pages 65-66

excerptextract, उदधरण,अंश; surgeryhospital, clinic,औषधालय; burlybulky, heavy,भारी भरकम; drillerminer,खनिक ; reliefcomfort,राहत; missuswife,Mrs,पत्नी; abruptlysuddenly,सहसा; contemplationdeep thinking,गहन विचार; usuallyas a rule,आमतौर से ; perceptivewatchful,बोधक;  listlessunattentive,बेखबर; premonitionforeknowledge,पूर्व ज्ञान; drew upstopped,ठहर गया;  strainstress, tiredness,थकान ; stoutstrong. healthy,स्थूल शरीर की ; faintlymildly,हल्के से; fretirritate, vex,परेशान होना; overwroughtexhausted, tired,थका हुआ ; snatchget, ले सकेगा; queerstrange,अजीब;lethargydrowsiness, laziness,शिथिलता; rustlelow sound,खड़खड़ की आवाज़ ;cinderpartly burnt coal,अधजले कोयले  ; gratefireplace,अँगीठी; probingsearching, curious,खोजी,उत्सुक ;   muddledconfused,भ्रमित; episodeevent,घटना ; obsessedhaunted, struck,परेशान किए थी; morbidlygloomily,उदास कर रही थी ; sordidlymeanly,dishonestly,नीचतापूर्वक; bound tomarried to, linked with,जुड़ा हुआ ; shrewishsharp-tongued, ill-natured,कर्कश स्वभाव वाली; apart fromseparately,अलग; dismalsorrowful, sad,निराशापूर्ण; conclusionfeeling,निष्कर्ष; wincestart back with sudden pain; idyllic statepleasant situation,सुखद स्थिति ; levelbalanced,सुस्थिर,संतुलित; imagepicture,चित्र; resentfulangry,रुष्ट; stretched outspread forward,आगे फैलाया; broodinglythoughtfully,ध्यानमग्न; pursuedfollowed, taken,ले लिया था ; meditationstate of deep thinking, गहन चिन्तन I

Pages 67-68

awful set uponkeen to have,केन्द्रित; anaestheticthe fume or liquid that makes one insensitive to pain,बेहोशी लाने या सुन्न करने की दवा; perceivednoticed, realised,महसूस किया; elapsedpassed, बीत गया ; harshtough,कठिन कठोर; streakssigns,चिहन; dawndaybreak,  भोर; edges-sides,किनारे; still formdead newborn baby,मृत नवजात शिशु; shiver of horrorfear,भय ; exertionshard work,परिश्रम; chilledwent cold and white,ठण्डा पड़ गया; resuscitateto bring to life again,जीवन डालना; obligationduty,दायित्व; desperatecritical, hopeless, sinking,नाजुक; dilemmadifficult situation,दुविधा; instinctivelyguided by natural impulse,स्वभावतः ; ethera liquid used to make patients unconscious before operation,आपरेशन से पूर्व सुन्न कर देने वाली दवा; franticmad, wild,उन्मत्त; ebbingflowing away, diminishing,घटती हुई; smashbreak open,तोड़ना; ampulea small phial or container,इन्जेक्शन की दवा वाली शीश ी; flung downthrew away,नीचे गिरा दी; unsparinglyfeverishly,वेग से; restorebring back to life,पुनर्जीवित करना; flaccid-soft not firm,कोमल  ; swingturned,मुड़ा ; Stickingclinging,चिपके हुए ; frightenedterrified,भयभीत; gestureindication, movement of hand,हाव-भाव,संकेत; in a flashat once,तुरन्त; soddensoaked,गीले; limpnot stiff,लुंज-पुंज ; tallowfat of animal,पशु की चर्बी; cordthe tube that passes from the foetus to the placenta. umbilical cord,नार,नाल; slashedcut,काटी गई; hastilyquickly,शीघ्रता से; steinthe lower part of a tree,तना; texturetissue, web, structure, जाल, बनावट,रचना; lolledhung out or put lazily,सुस्ती से पड़ा हुआ  ;

Page 68

 haggardtired, worried,थका हुआ,चिंतित; frownanger,नाराज़गी; asphyxia, pallidasuffocation or unconsciousness caused by lack of oxygen,रक्त में ऑक्सीजन की कमी; basinstubs,तसले; pallidpale,पीले ; respirationgiving oxygen through artificial breathing,श्वास क्रिया को सही करना ; ewera water jug,लोटा,बनावट,रचना; franticallymadly, swiftly,वेग से ; splashedpoured,उड़ेला crazywhimsical,सनकी ; plungingdipping, putting,रखना ; pantinglygasping for breath,हाँफते हुए ; laxlimp, not stiff,ढीला-ढाला; desperatehopeless,निराश; ragingviolent,उग्र,तीव्र ; starkstrong,तीखा ; consternationalarm, anger,दशहत; dashedfailed,broken,चकनाचूर हो गए; futilewasted, in vain,व्यर्थ; draggledmade wet and dirty,मैला,कीचड़ भरा; stumblingtripping,ठोकर खाना ; soppingwet,तरबतर,भीगा हुआ; despairingfeeling sad and disappointed,हताश; crushingpressing down,दबातें हुए ; releasingfreeing it to rise again,छोड़ते हुए I

Page 69

miraclesupernatural event, a wonder,चमत्कार; pigmyvery small,बहुत छोटा ; convulsivecontraction of muscles,प्रकंपनकारी; giddydizzy, inconstant,चक्कर आने लगा ; unavailing strivingwasted efforts,निष्फल चेष्टा ; exquisitelovely, pleasant,सुखद; mucusslippered liquid, cough,कफ ; iridescentshiny-bright changing colours,रंग बदलने वाला ; bubbleair-filled cavity in water,बुलबुला ; spinelesslimp or lax, lifeless,ढीला; blanchedpale,हल्का पीला; litterbroken, disorderly condition, चीज़ें बिखरी हुई ; hystericallyattack of hysteria,भावविभोर ; ewerwater jug,लोटा; puddlesmall muddy pool,छोटा-सा तालाब; huddledin a haphazard state,अस्त-व्यस्त; wrung outsqueezed out water,पानी निचोड़ दिया ; scullerya room for washing dishes,प्लेटें आदि धोने का कक्ष; spenttired,थका-माँदा; obliviousunmindful, forgetful,भुलाए हुए  I

 Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (Birth)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Birth)

Complete Summary

Andrew Manson, newly out of medical school, has just begun his medical practice. He is an assistant to Dr Edward Page in the small mining town of Blaenelly. He loves a girl named Christine. But he has had a disappointing date with her. Sadly, he reaches Bryngower. It is nearly midnight. The hospital is closed.

Andrew finds Joe Morgan waiting for him anxiously. He is there to take the doctor to his house to attend on his wife. He has been married for twenty years. His wife was in labour for the first time. Naturally, he is keen to become a father.

Andrew and Joe set out for the latter’s house Number 12, Blaina Terrace. Andrew is feeling dull. Joe doesn’t go in. Mrs Joe is there in a small bedroom upstairs. Here her mother of nearly seventy, and a strong elderly midwife are waiting beside the patient. The old woman is wise in experience. She realises that the delivery will take some time, and the doctor may not wait. But Andrew assures her that he is not going to run away. He goes downstairs to drink tea in the kitchen. He is tired and sleepy. But he decided to stay until everything is over. He is much confused. The thought of Bramwell is haunting him. He has been foolishly devoted to a woman who deceived him. Another colleague Denny was living unhappily alone, separated from his wife. All these marriages are dismal failures. But Andrew has a rosy dream about his marriage with Christine.

 Susan says to her mother not to give her the chloroform if it would harm the baby. She is so much set upon having this child. But Andrew sees no harm in administering the anaesthetic. An hour passes. It is past 4 a.m.. And then the long struggle comes to an end. The child is born, but it is stillborn. Andrew now is in a dilemma—whether to save the mother or the child. Instinctively, he gives the baby to the nurse and gives his attention to Susan who is almost collapsing. He gives her an injection, and her heart is strengthened.

Andrew now turns round to handle the baby. But the midwife has already placed it under the bed. In a flash, Andrew kneels down and pulls out the child. It is perfectly formed. But its warm body is white and seems boneless. It is because of the lack of oxygen. He is suddenly reminded of a case he had once seen at the medical school. He asks the nurse to bring hot water and cold water. He puts the child on a blanket. He puts cold water in one tub and lukewarm water in another. He dips the child in the icy water and in the lukewarm water by turn.

The midwife watches crazy Andrew with astonishment. She remarks that the child is born dead. But Andrew goes on with his treatment. He puts pressure on the little chest, trying to get some oxygen in it. And then as if by a miracle, the baby’s chest begins to rise and fall. Some mucus comes from one of his nostrils. The white skin slowly turns pink. And then comes the child’s cry. The nurse begins to sob. She exclaims with joy and surprise that the child has come alive. He hands over the child to the nurse. Feeling weak and confused, he pulls on his jacket and goes downstairs. He takes a long drink of water. He finds Joe standing outside with a tense face. Andrew assures him that both the mother and the baby are all right. It is nearly 5 o’clock in the morning. He is elated with his achievement. He thanks God for having done something real at last. It influences his whole future in Blaenelly.

Summary in Hindi

Andrew Manson हाल में ही डॉक्टरी पढ़ाई पूरी करके आया था, तथा उसने अपनी मेडिकल प्रैक्टिस Dr.Edward Page के सहायक के रूप में शुरू की थी I वह Blaenelly नामक छोटे से खनिकों के कस्बे में रह रहा है उसे एक लड़की Christine से प्यार है I पर वह शाम उसकी अपनी प्रेयसी के साथ बहुत बुरी गुजरी है I वह उदास Bryngower पहुँचता है I लगभग आधी रात हो चुकी है I अस्पताल बंद हो चुका है I

Andrew, Joe Morgan को बेसब्री से प्रतीक्षा करते पाता है I वह डॉक्टर को अपने घर ले जाने आया है I उसके विवाह को 20 वर्ष हो चुके हैं I उसकी पत्नी अब पहली बार बच्चे को जन्म देने वाली है I स्वाभाविक रूप से वह पिता बनने के लिए आतुर है I

Andrew और Joe ,Blaina Terrace नं.12 मकान के लिए साथ- साथ चल दिए I डॉक्टर बहुत उदास है I Joe घर के अंदर नहीं जाता I अंदर Mrs.Joe सीढ़ियों से ऊपर बने छोटे से शयनकक्ष में पड़ी है I यहाँ उसकी माँ जो 70 वर्षीय है, तथा एक मजबूत अधेड़ आयु की नर्स जच्चा के बेड के पास बैठी है I वृद्ध महिला को लंबे अनुभव का लाभ है I उसे लगता है कि प्रसव में कुछ समय लगेगा और कहीं डॉक्टर वापस न लौट जाए I पर डॉक्टर उसे आश्वासन देते हैं कि वह भागने वाले नहीं हैं I वह नीचे रसोईघर में जाकर चाय पीते हैं I वे थके है और नींद से त्रस्त हैं I वे निश्चय मनुष्य कर लेते हैं कि जब तक सारा काम संपन्न नहीं हो जाता I वे यही ठहरी रहेंगे I वे उलझन में हैं I Bramwell  की घटना उन्हें सता रही है I Bramwell एक महिला से बहुत प्यार करता था पर महिला ने उसे धोखा दे दिया I दूसरा सहकर्मी Denny अपनी पत्नी से अलग अकेला रह रहा था I ये सभी विवाह असफल थे I पर डॉक्टर के मन में तो अपनी Christine से विवाह के बारे में अच्छे सपने हैं I

Susan माँ को बोलती है मुझे क्लोरोफार्म मत सूँघाना कहीं वह बच्चे को नुकसान न पहुँचा दे I उसे बच्चा पाने की बहुत चाहत है I पर डॉक्टर कहता है कि बेहोशी की दवा से कोई नुकसान नहीं होगा I एक घंटा बीत जाता है I अब प्रातः के चार  बज रहे हैं और तभी यह लम्बा संघर्ष खत्म हो जाता है I बच्चा जन्म ले लेता है पर वह तो निर्जीव दिखाई देता है I डॉक्टर दुविधा में पड़ जाता है कि जच्चा को बचाये या बच्चा को I वह अनायास ही  बच्चे को तो नर्स के हवाले कर देता है तथा स्वयं Susan पर ध्यान देने लगता है जो मरणासन्न हो रही है I वह उसे एक इंजेक्शन देता है जिससे महिला के दिल को मजबूती मिल जाती है I

अब Andrew बच्चों को संभालने के लिए मुड़ता है I पर नर्स ने तो बच्चे को पलंग के नीचे रख दिया है I क्षण मात्र के लिए डॉक्टर झुकता है तथा बच्चे को बाहर निकाल लेता है I बच्चे की शारीरिक बनावट पूरी है I पर उसका उसका शरीर सफेद है और लुंज-पुंज है I कारण है ऑक्सीजन की कमी I  उसे सहसा एक केस की याद आ जाती है जो उसने मेडिकल स्कूल में देखा था I वह नर्स को बोलता है कि शीघ्र ही गुनगुना और गर्म पानी ले आओ I वह बच्चे को कम्बल पर लिटा देता है I ठण्डा पानी वह एक टब में डालता है और हल्का गर्म पानी दूसरे में I वह बच्चे को बर्फीले पानी में तथा गुनगुने पानी में बारी-बारी से डुबोता है I

नर्स डॉक्टर की हरकत को देखकर चिढ़ती है I वह कहती है कि बच्चा तो बेजान है I पर डॉक्टर अपना इलाज चालू रखता है I वह बच्चे की छाती को दबाता है तथा उसमें ऑक्सीजन देने का प्रयास करता है I और तभी चमत्कार हो जाता है; बच्चे की छाती में धड़कन होने लग जाती है I उसके एक नथुने से कुछ कफ बाहर आ जाता है I उसकी सफेद पड़ी त्वचा गुलाबी होने लगती है और फिर बच्चा चीख मारने लगता है I नर्स सिसकियाँ भरने लगती है I वह खुशी और विस्मय से कह उठती है बच्चे में तो जान आ गई है I डॉक्टर बच्चे को नर्स के हवाले कर देता है I कमजोरी महसूस करता हुआ वह अपनी जैकेट पहनता है तथा नीचे चला जाता है I वह छककर पानी पीता है I वह Joe को बाहर सड़क पर तनावग्रस्त चेहरा लिए टहलता पाता है I डॉक्टर उसे आश्वासन देता है कि माँ और बच्चा दोनों ही ठीक हैं I प्रातः के 5 बज रहे हैं I उसे बहुत संतोष महसूस हो रहा है I वह परमात्मा को धन्यवाद देता है कि वह अंततः एक सचमुच महान काम कर पाया है I यह कहानी उसके Blaenelly  प्रवास काल को अप्रत्याशित रूप से अत्यधिक प्रभावित कर देती है I

Following is the complete question bank for Birth

Birth Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Questions 

1.Why was Andrew so serious and overwrought that particular evening?

Ans. That evening Andrew was tense and serious. He had a disappointing evening with his girlfriend Christine. Moreover, he had seen some painful incidents of husbands’ suffering at the hands of their wives. He was short of sleep as well.

2. Who was Joe Morgan? Why was he so tense, and waiting anxiously for Dr Andrew that night?

Ans. Joe Morgan was in dire need of Dr Andrew’s help. His wife Susan was in labour. She was going to deliver their first child after 20 years of marriage. Joe and Susan were keen to have the child delivered safely. So he stood waiting anxiously for the doctor.

3. That night proved unusual and it influenced Dr Andrew’s whole future in Blaenelly. What miraculous thing happened that night?

Ans.   Dr Andrew had first begun his medical practice in the mining town of Blaenelly. The successful handling of Mrs Joe’s ease proved a turning point in his life. It was no less than a miracle that he had restored lilt in a stillborn child by dipping it in cold and warm water alternately. Besides satisfaction, he earned name and fame.

4. Why were Susan and her Old mother so tense that night?

Ans. Susan was about to deliver a baby after 20 years of marriage. It was natural for her and her husband Joe to be tense. Susan’s old mother also stood beside her tense and hopeful.

5. Susan’s mother was wise in experience. What hints did she give of her wisdom?

Ans. Susan’s mother was a tall, grey-haired woman of nearly seventy. From her personal experience, she knew that the childbirth would take some time. She was wise enough to fear that Dr Andrew might not wait for long. So she tried to make him stay on by offering him tea and sitting beside him.

6. Name the five central characters in the story Birth who played the key role?

Ans.             The five central characters in the story ‘Birth’ are Joe Morgan, his wife Susan, his old mother-in-law, a stout midwife and of course, Dr Andrew. The doctor played the key role in saving two lives—that of Susan and her seemingly stillborn baby.

7. Why and when did a shiver of horror pass over Dr Andrew?

Ans.  Dr Andrew was shocked and horrified as he looked at the lifeless newly born baby. He also noticed that Susan was sinking. He was in a dilemma, whom to save first.

8. Dr Andrew faced the biggest dilemma of his life that night. How did he act and save two lives?

Ans. Dr Andrew was called to supervise the first and crucial delivery of Susan Morgan. He was tense and short of sleep. Still, he decided to wait. He gave a promise to Joe and his wife that all would be well. But he became nervous to find both the mother and her baby in trouble. He first gave an injection to Susan to stabilise her. Next, he lifted the stillborn baby. put him in hot and cold water alternately and pressed the child’s chest. Luckily, he saved both of them.

9. Comment on the behaviour and role of the midwife attending on Susan Morgan.

Ans.  The midwife attending on Susan showed lack of experience and professional attitude. She declared at once that the baby was stillborn. She pushed it under the bed. Even when Andrew was trying to bring back life into the baby, she showed disbelief and even discouraged Andrew from making such feverish efforts. The cry of the baby made her exclaim with joy.

10. What did the stillborn child look like when Andrew turned his attention to it?

Ans.   The baby’s body was fully formed and warm but it was lifeless. The nurse had placed it beneath the bed. But Andrew pulled out the child. Its limp warm body was white and soft as animal fat. The skin was smooth but the limbs seemed boneless. It was short of oxygen.

11. What did Andrew do to restore life in the stillborn child?

Ans. Andrew recalled a similar case in the past. He gave the same treatment to the stillborn baby. He asked for hot and icy cold water. He placed the baby into cold and warm water alternately. He rubbed the child with a rough towel and pressed and released the little chest with his hands. The miracle happened. Its skin turned pink and it cried.

12. How did Andrew turn his sense of defeat and hopelessness into one of joy and victory? Describe the last effort he made.

Ans. When Susan seemed to be out of danger, Andrew picked up the lax little lifeless baby. He applied to water treatment on it. But even after half an hour of feverish effort, there was no ray of hope. He finally made the last effort. He pressed and released the little chest with both hands. This treatment worked and the little heart began to beat.

13. Describe the moments when the stillborn child gave a short heave and slowly revived.

Ans. Andrew for a while felt beaten and disappointed. But he made one last effort. He pressed the baby’s chest gently and then released. The technique was successful. He felt the little heart beating. A bubble of mucus came from one nostril. The child was gasping and then gave a cry. The nurse cried hysterically and Dr Andrew felt relieved and dazed.

14. What was Andrew’s greatest achievement and satisfaction as he walked out of House Number 12 Blame Terrace?

Ans.   Dr Andrew was called to handle a critical case of delivery. He was tired. He felt defeated. He was in a dilemma because of the sinking condition of Susan and the lifeless form of her baby. But he saved both the lives. He called it his greatest reward and success.

15. Comment on the title of the story Birth. Why did it become so significant?

Ans. The title of the story Birth is apt and significant. The entire story revolves around the case of Susan’s first delivery and her stillborn child. It is a very tense drama of defeat, feverish effort, longing, hope and finally success. The handling of the case gave Dr Andrew a feeling that he had done something real at last.

 Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions 

1. Give a brief life-sketch and achievement of Dr Andrew Manson.

  Ans.   Dr Andrew Manson was fresh from medical school. He was working as an assistant to Dr Edward Page in a small mining town. He loved a girl Christine, but he had spent a disappointing evening with her when he met Joe. He was tired and tense. It was past midnight. But true to his calling, he accompanied Joe to attend on Susan Morgan, who was in labour. He did not mind waiting. He did not settle his fees. He waited till daybreak without a wink of sleep. He proved his worth when he faced a dilemma. The mother was sinking, and the baby had no heartbeat. He made feverish efforts to save both. Going by instinct he saved the mother first by administering a life-saving injection to her. When he took the lifeless yet warm baby in his arms he suddenly remembered a similar case in his medical college. He gave the same treatment to the baby and saved him. He brought them both back to life.

2. Why was Andrew feeling so dull and listless that evening? How did that evening influence his whole life and career?

   Ans. Andrew returned to his house after midnight. His experience with Christine that evening was not a happy one. Moreover, several episodes of unhappily married couples also saddened him. Outside his house was Joe Morgan waiting anxiously for the doctor. He led Andrew to his house where his wife Susan was in labour. Both were set upon having this child. Andrew decided to wait and give medical aid. He had no idea that the incident of that night would give him not only supreme satisfaction but also name and fame. He worked hard and very intelligently to save the life of the mother as well as her stillborn child.

3. What was Andrew’S dilemma after the delivery? How did he solve the problem so successfully?

Ans.     The child was born at daybreak. Dr Andrew was filled with horror as he looked at the lifeless baby. He had now two patients on his hand. Susan was fast losing her pulse. The baby was white, lax and lifeless. Andrew was in a dilemma as to whom to give his attention first. Going by instinct, he gave an injection to Susan and pulled her out of danger. Then he pulled out the child, with a warm body but no breathing. He gave it an unusual treatment using cold and hot water and the pressure of his hands. And there was a miracle. He thanked God when the child gave out a cry.

4. Narrate the story Birth in about 100 words of your own. What message does it convey?

  Ans.   The ‘Birth’ is a story of gripping interest. It narrates an incident in which a young doctor saves two lives. Both the mother and her newborn baby were in a critical condition. It highlights the miracle that a physician can perform.

Andrew was a young doctor. He was called upon to supervise a case of childbirth. Joe and his wife Susan had been married for nearly twenty years. They were expecting their first child. Two women were already at Susan’s bedside—Susan’s old mother and a midwife. Andrew decided to wait until the work was completed. When Susan gave birth to the baby, her own condition became critical. The baby was stillborn, limp and boneless. Andrew first attended to the mother and gave her a life-saving injection. Then he picked up the child. He dipped it into hot and ice cold water alternately. He applied mild pressure on the little chest. He continued this treatment for nearly thirty minutes until the baby started breathing and gave a cry.

 Value Based Questions and Answers of Birth

Value-Based Question

1. Bookish knowledge is theoretical. It is practice and observation which makes a man with theoretical knowledge a man perfect in his field. Discuss.

Ans.   Bookish knowledge is very important as it imparts theoretical knowledge. It teaches a man intricacies of a problem and its probable solutions. If a man having theoretical knowledge has no practical experience he may fail in his job. On the other hand, a man with practical knowledge and experience has more chance of achieving the desired results. In our day to day life, we meet compounders surpassing the doctors and the physicians. A physician who has read the process of administering an injection but has not done it with his own hands will fail in his attempt to administer the injection. On the contrary, a compounder can surpass the physician because he has practical experience. Similarly, if you have minutely observed a man doing his job to perfection you can apply that very practical experience based on your keen observation and achieve success Dr Andrew could save the child because he had observed somebody saving an almost lifeless child. He applied that practical experience and knowledge and did his job efficiently. So for success especially in the medical field especially, both bookish knowledge and practical experience are indispensable. So bookish knowledge or oral knowledge, if not seasoned with practical experience, may prove futile and worthless.


Chapter-6 The Ghat of the Only World- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 6 English Language and Literature

The Ghat of the Only World

                                                                                                       By- Amitav Ghosh

 Introduction of the lesson- The Ghat of the Only World


The write-up by Amitav Ghosh is a glowing tribute to his Kashmiri friend Shahid who died of cancer in America. Shahid was a poet. He also taught at various colleges and universities in the US. His brother and two sisters were also settled there. He was adored by his students, loved and admired by his friends. He himself had a broad and secular outlook. He condemned fanaticism and violence in Kashmir. But he did not allow politics to overshadow his literary skill. It was in February 2000 that he had a sudden but short blackout and loss of eyesight. The tests revealed that he had a brain tumour. He struggled against this disease for some 14 months and died in his sleep on 8 December. Before his death, he had requested Amitav to write something about him. The writer highlights Shahid’s love of old film music, of Kashmiri dishes, of the lively company of his friends, of his sharp sense of repartee and appreciation of art.

Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- The Ghat of the Only World

Word-meanings and References

page 54-55

expatriatea person sent back to his own homeland,स्वदेशी भेजे जाने व्यक्ति; approachingnot far, drawing near, निकट आती; routinelyusual or commonplace,दैनिक कार्यानुसार; apartmentflat, house,घर; lucidclear headed,सुबुद्ध; lapsesdecline, पतन; pausesilence, gap in speech, interval,ठहराव; respondreply,उत्तर देना;  at odds withcontrary to,विपरीत; lightnot serious; jocularityjoking, merriment; mumbledmuttered,बुड़बुड़ की ; innocuousharmless,हानिरहित; quizzicalcomical,विनोदी; blackoutunconsciousness,बेसुधी; revealedshowed,दर्शाया; malignantharmful to life,घातक; tumourgrowth, swelling,गाँठ ; ignoreddid not pay heed to,ध्यान नहीं दिया;   reassurancesconsolation,आश्वासन; entrusting oneassigning,सौंपा जाना; specificparticular, definite,स्पष्ट ;

Page 56-57

chargeresponsibility, दायित्व; recitativespassages in an opera, narrative,कथन; inbuiltstrong, inner,मजबूत; resistanceopposition, विरोध; bereavementloss by death,मृत्युलोक; instinctsimpulses,मूल प्रवृत्तिया ँ; routesexcuses, tries to avoid,बहाने; imperativeessential, command,आदेशात्मक; acknowledgebe accepted,स्वीकृत किया जाना ; pledgepromise,वचन ; impressioneffect,छाप; fiercelygreatly,अत्यधिक;  contemporaryof the same period,समकालीन ; bardic registerpoetic style ,काव्यात्मक भाषा ; conceivethink,विचार करना; overlappedspent together,साथ साथ बिताया  गया ; acquaintancespersons known to each other,जान पहचान वाले व्यक्ति; occasionalfrequent,अक्सर ; Impedeobstruct बाधा डालना ; rosterlist,सूची ; mutual indifferencecommon dislike, lack of interest,दोनों की उदासीनता; attachmentliking,love,लगाव, ;  trivialof little worth,मामूली ; poignancepain, quality of deeply moving,पीड़ा की तीव्रता; instanceexample,उदाहरण ; hatchedmade,बनाई agendawork list,कार्यसूची ; convivialitymerry making,मौज मस्ती ; enthusiasticfull of zeal, उत्साह पूर्ण ; crewgroup of people come for a special purpose,   टोल ी; put outdepressed, downcast,उदास ; sorceriesmagician,जादूगर; transmutechange,रुपांतरित करना ; mundaneworldly. ordinary,सांसारिक; fetchbring,लाना; intendedaimed at, for the purpose of, के उद्देश्य स े; relievecure, reduce, make free from,राहत पहुँचाना; tumourclot, गाँठ ; scalphead,खोपड़ी,कपाल;  edgesborder,बाहरी रेखा ;  suturesthread,धागे जो टाँके या लगाए गए थे ; escorthelper, orderly,मददगार , groggierunsteady,डगमग पैरों वाला; buckledbent,मुड़ गए; corridorcovered verandah or gallery,गलियारा; raptureecstasy, joy,परमानन्द; descendedaffected, come to,आ गया; gleefullyjoyously,प्रसन्नतापूर्वक; gregariousnesssociability,मिलनसारी ; festivityrejoicing,उत्सव ; depressedin Iow spirits, sad,उदास; spaciousbig enough,extensive, आकार में बड़ा; renovatedgiven a new look, renewed, नई साज सज्जा वाली ; caverrnouslike a cave, गुफा समान ; terracebalcony, flat roof of a house ,छज्जा छत ; foyerthe entrance hall way,प्रवेश कक्ष ; voyagelong sea journey,कठिन सफर; fragrancePleasant smell,सुगन्ध; doursulle , grim, obstinate,खिन्न,हठी; elevatorlift,लिफ्ट ; flingingthrowing with a hard push,जोर से खेलते हुए ;  frostycold, ठण्डा

 Page 58 

Invariably without fail; consumeddestroyed, eaten up,नष्ट हो रहा थ ा; perpetualconstant, unbroken,निरन्तर; carnivalriotous festival, आनन्दोत्सव; distractedforgetful, lost in talks, भुलक्कड़; sniffbreath in. blow of air through nostrils, सूँघना; legendarywell known,विख्यात;  prowessskill,कौशल; radicallyessentially, fundamentally, greatly,तत्व रूप से ;   alterchange,बदल देना; encounterchance meeting,भेंट,मुलाकात ; explicitlyclearly, frankly,साफ शब्दों में ; prefiguredimagined beforehand, पूर्व कल्पना; authenticitygenuineness,यथार्थता ; exactitudecorrectness,सही तरीका ; deviationchange,भटकना;  recipesformula,बनाने का तरीका ;  regionterritory,क्षेत्र;  variantchanged style, new dish,नई पाक कला ;  recurrentreturning again and again,बार-बार आने वाला ; vanishedgone away. left,चले गए;  extinctno more in existence, लुप्त; nightmarebad dream,दु:स्वप्न; hauntedtroubled,तंग करना ;

Page 59-60

cuisinescookery, style of cooking, पकाने की विधि ; in his teenssomewhere from 13 to 19, किशोर; reparteewitty and quick smart reply,मजेदार उत्तर;  exasperatedmade angry,क्षुब्ध wildeanof the English novelist, Oscar Wilde,ऑस्कर वाइल्ड ,जो मजेदार उत्तर देने में प्रवीण था से संबंधित; evidentclear,स्पष्ट ; adoredworshipped, liked and respected,पूजा करते थे ; dedicatedgifted, समर्पित किय ा; subduedmade weak, defeated,दब जाना ; sparklingbrilliant,प्रतिभाशाली ; divaa great female singer,महान महिला गायक;  incarnatein human form,अवतार; brimmingfilled to the top,लबालब भरा हुआ ; subcontinental(here) Indian,उपमहाद्वीप भारतवासी;  claspingholding,पकड़े हुए ; feignedpretended, falsely showed,झूठा दिखावा किया ;  swoonfainting,मूर्च्छ ा; stirscreates, produces,उत्पन्न करना; tidestrong wave,लहर; beholdsee,देखना; unmitigatedimmense, downright, not reduced,अत्यधिक पक्का ;  fell injoined,से जुड़ गया ; vibrantlively,जोशीला;  creativeoriginal and literary,सृजनात्मक ; doing a brief stintshort stay, doing a temporary job; blackoutstate of losing consciousness,मुर्च्छित हो जाना ; intermittentoccurring in intervals, not regular,समय-समय पर आने वाला ; mountinggrowing rising,बढ़ती; seized the regionthat spread in the area, क्षेत्र में फैल गए ; steadyslow but notstop,धीमे-धीमे ; deteriorationdecline, worsening,गिरावट;

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ironyopposite in meaning,विडम्बना; inclinationnature or willingness,प्रकृति,स्वभाव; anguishedpained,पीड़ित होना,दुखी; destinyfuture, fate,भाग्य,भविष्य; resolutelyfirmly, दृढ़तापूर्वक; embracetake on, adopt,धारण कर लेना ; fixturepermanent central,स्थायी केन्द्रीय; callingmission, profession,पेशा,धंधा ; visionsight,द्रष्टि,कल्पना; inclusivethat includes all, uniting members of all religions,समष्टि वाली ; ecumenicalinvolving members of different religions, universal,सार्वभौमिक   

; initially in the beginning,प्रारंभ में ; respondedfulfilled his desire, answered,पूर्ति कर दी; accoutrementsother necessary things needed,साज –सज्ज ा; assiduoushard working,परिश्रम ी; fanaticismtoo much zeal,हठधर्मिता,कट्टरत ा; closestnearest, most fit for the honour,सर्वधा उपयुक्त; keepercare taker,रखवाला; vanisheddisappeared, falling,जर्जर होती;

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archivea place where public records are stored,पुराने ग्रंथों को सुरक्षित रखा जाने वाला स्थान; imagesimages,चित्र; inextricablyfirmly, that cannot be untied,जटिलतापूर्वक; censoredcriticised ,निंदित; saffron(here) of Kashmir where saffron is grown,केसर; scanmedical examination,परीक्षण ; chemotherapytreatment of cancer with the help of radiations or chemicals,रासायनिक मिश्रण या किरणों द्वारा केंसर का   इलाज ; alternative therapiesother courses of treatment,वैकल्पिक उपचार पद्धतियाँ ; scheduledfixed,निशिचत किया गया था ;  responsereply,उत्तर; preamblespreliminary statement,भूमिकाएँ; radiationdiffusion of rays of light to burn the affected part,विकिरण; dazedconfused, stunned,स्तब्ध; messin disorderly manner,गड़बड़ वाला ; siblingsभाई-बहन; logisticalpertaining to reasoning,तार्किक; vicinityneighbourhood,पड़ोस; sacredmade holy,पावन 

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Imagery fiction, काल्पनिक; conversetalk,बातें करना; anguishpain,पीड़ ा; supremegreatest, सर्वोच्च; voidशून्य,खालीपन

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (The Ghat of the Only World)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (The Ghat of the Only World)

Complete Summary

Agha Shahid Ali was a Kashmiri, settled in the US. He was a cancer patient. He had been under treatment for 14 months. But he was still on his feet and cheerful. Only sometimes he became unconscious, lost his memory and his eyesight for a short while. On 25 April 2001, he spoke to the writer about his approaching death. The writer tried to console him, but he was cut short. Shahid, however, made a request. He wanted the writer to write something about him after his death.

Shahid and the author had studied together at Delhi University. But they had never met. In 1998 and 1999 they had several conversations on the phone and also met a couple of times. But the acquaintance could not grow until both moved to Brooklyn, US. They were in the same neighbourhood. Shahid lived in a building some eight blocks away. He had his sudden blackout in February 2000. He had a malignant brain tumour. So from Manhattan, he moved to Brooklyn, where his youngest sister Sameetah lived. When Shahid spoke about his approaching death, he laughed but he was dead serious. He entrusted a great responsibility to the author. ‘You must write about me,’ he said. And the author promised to grant his wish. Since that day he started noting down all his conversations with Shahid. And that record helped him keep his word.

Shahid was a poet who wrote in English. The author had read his 1997 collection The Country without a Post Office. He was greatly impressed also. Once they became neighbours at Brooklyn, they began to meet very often for meals. Shahid’s condition was serious but that illness did not depress him. The author and Shahid had many common friends. They also had a shared love of rogan josh and liking for Kishor Kumar’s songs. Both disliked cricket and loved old Mumbai films. They began to meet regularly.

One day the author went along with Shahid’s brother and sister—lqbal and Hena – to fetch him home from the hospital. It was on 21 May. Shahid had already been through several operations that failed. A hospital orderly arrived with a wheelchair. But Shahid sent him back. He thought he was strong enough to walk out of the hospital on his own. But his knees buckled after only a few steps. The hospital orderly was summoned again with the wheelchair.

Shahid loved company, partying and shared meals. He didn’t have time to be depressed. His apartment was on the seventh floor. But it was worth going all the way up. There was the fragrance of rogan josh and songs to welcome the visitor. Shahid would open the door and clap his hands joyously. There were poets, students, writers and relatives in the house. Even though his health was failing, he loved to talk, laugh, eat and, of course, enjoy poetry. His deep interest in kitchen matched with his skill as a poet. James Merrill had great influence on his poetry. He dreamt that he was at the ghat of the only world.

Shahid was not a fanatic. He regretted that Pandits had left Kashmir, and he expressed that feeling in his poetry. He loved Bengali food also. He loved the poetry of Begum Akhtar. His repartees were equally sharp. Once at Barcelona airport, the security guard, a woman, asked him what he did. His answer was he was a poet and his vocation was to write poetry. Finally, that woman asked if he was carrying anything that could be dangerous to the other passengers, Shahid cried ‘only my heart.’

He was very popular as a teacher. He taught at several colleges and universities. He was appointed a professor in 1999, and he had his first blackout in Feb. 2000. After 1975, Shahid lived mainly in America where he joined his brother and two sisters. His parents continued to live in Srinagar. The political violence in Kashmir had a great effect on him. But he was not a political poet. He was true to his art form of language. His vision was all-embracing. He had a secular outlook. In his childhood, he once created a small Hindu temple in his room in Srinagar. His parents never stood in his way.

On 4th May, he had gone to the hospital for a test to discover whether the course of chemotherapy had the desired effect or not. The next day he told the author that the doctors were going to stop all his medicines and there was not much hope. He wanted to go back to Kashmir to die, to be with his father. But for certain reasons, he changed his mind. He died in the US and he was laid to rest in Northampton. He died peacefully in his sleep at 2 p.m. on 8th December.

Summary in Hindi

आग़ा शाहिद अली कश्मीरी था, पर अमेरिका में जाकर बस गया था I वह कैंसर पीड़ित था I उसका उपचार 14 माह से हो रहा था I पर वह अभी भी चल फिर लेता था तथा खुश रहने की कोशिश करता था I केवल यदा कदा वह होश खो देता था, उसकी याददाशत शून्य हो जाती थी तथा उसकी दृष्टि भी कुछ समय के लिए मंद पड़ जाती थीI  25 अप्रैल 2001 को उसकी लेखक के साथ वार्ता हुई थी जिसमें उसने अपनी आसन्न मृत्यु का जिक्र किया था I लेखक ने उसे ढाढ़स बंधाना चाहा पर शाहिद ने बोलने नहीं दिया I पर उसने निवेदन अवश्य किया I उसने इच्छा व्यक्त की कि मेरी मृत्यु के पश्चात मेरे बारे में एक लेख अवश्य लिखना I

शाहिद तथा लेखक दोनों ने ही दिल्ली में शिक्षा पाई थी पर उनकी भेंट कभी नहीं हो पाई थी I 1998-99 में कई बार दोनों ने फोन पर बातें की तथा एक दो बार मिले भी I पर यह जान-पहचान बढ़ नहीं पाई जब तक दोनों अमेरिका में ब्रुकलिन नहीं पहुँच गए I वे पड़ोस के घरों में ही रहते थे I शाहिद कोई आठ भवनसमूह(blocks) परे रहता था I 2000 में अचानक उसकी स्मृति धोखा दे गई I उसके मस्तिष्क में एक संघातिक गिल्टी या गाँठ बन गई थी I इसलिए वह मैनहाटल से ब्रुकलिन आ गया था जहाँ उसकी सबसे छोटी बहन समीथा रह रही थी I जब शाहिद ने अपनी निकट आती मृत्यु के बारे में कहा तो वह साथ ही हँस दिया पर था वह नितान्त गंभीर I उसने लेखक को एक महान दायित्व सौंप दिया I ‘तुम मेरे बारे में अवश्य लिखना’ वह बोला I और लेखक ने उसकी इच्छा शिरोधार्य कर ली I उस दिन से शाहिद के साथ हुई बातचीत का हर शब्द लिखना शुरू कर दिया और उसी रिकार्ड ने उसे शाहिद के बारे में यह लेख लिखने में मदद की I
शाहिद एक कवि था जो अंग्रेजी में लिखता था I लेखक ने उसका एक काव्य संग्रह ”The Country without a Post Office” 1997 में पढ़ा था I उससे बहुत प्रभावित भी हुआ था I एक बार जब वे ब्रुकलिन में पड़ोसी बन गए तो अक्सर ही खाने पर मिलने लगे I शाहिद की दशा नाजुक थी पर उसकी बीमारी उसे उदास नहीं कर पाई I दोनों के साझे मित्र थे I दोनों को रोगनजोश प्रिय था, किशोर कुमार के गीत पसंद थे I दोनों को क्रिकेट में अरुचि थी तथा पुरानी मुंबईया फिल्मों से प्रेम था I वे नियमित रूप से मिलने लगे I
एक दिन लेखक शाहिद के भाई बहन‑‑ इकबाल तथा हिना के साथ उसे अस्पताल से लाने आया I 21 मई का दिन था I शाहिद के कई असफल ऑपरेशन हो चुके थे I अस्पताल का एक कर्मी पहिया गाड़ी लेकर आ गया I पर शाहिद ने उसे वापस लौटा दिया I उसने सोचा कि अभी उसमें पैदल चलने की शक्ति शेष है I पर उसके घुटनों ने कुछ कदम पश्चात ही जवाब दे दिया I अस्पताल कर्मी को पुनः व्हीलचेयर लेकर बुलाया गया I   

शाहिद को सभी साथी तथा पार्टियों में खाना पसंद था I उसके पास उदासी के लिए समय ही नहीं था I उसका घर सातवीं मंजिल पर था I पर वहाँ ऊपर तक जाने में हमें कोई तकलीफ नहीं होती थी I ऊपर पहुँचते ही रोगन-जोश की सुगंध तथा गायन स्वागत करते थे I शाहिद दरवाजा खोलता तथा खुशी से ताली बजा देता था I वहाँ कवि, छात्र, लेखक तथा संबंधी बैठे होते I यद्यपि उसका स्वास्थ्य गिरता जा रहा था, उसे बातें करना, हँसना और खाना-पीना पसंद था और साथ ही काव्य पाठ भी I रसोईघर में उसकी उतनी ही गहरी रुचि थी जितनी कि उसकी काव्य कुशलता थी I उसे सपना आया कि वह इस मात्र संसार के घाट पर आ पहुँचा है I

शाहिद कोई धर्मान्ध नहीं था I उसे अफ़सोस था पंडित कश्मीर से पलायन कर गए थे तथा वह इस भाव को अपनी कविताओं में व्यक्त भी करता था I उसे बंगाली भोजन भी पसंद था I बेगम अख्तर की आवाज पसंद थी I वह तीखे नुकीले उत्तर देने में निपुण था I एक बार बर्सिलोना हवाई अड्डे पर सुरक्षा कर्मी महिला ने उससे पूछा आप क्या काम करते हैं I उसने उत्तर दिया मैं कवि हूँ और कविता लिखना ही मेरा धंधा है I अंत में महिला ने पूछा क्या आपके पास कोई ऐसी वस्तु है जो यात्रियों के लिए खतरा बन जाए I शाहिद बोला ‘केवल मेरा दिल है I’
वह शिक्षक के रूप में भी लोकप्रिय था I उसने अनेक कॉलिजों तथा विश्वविद्यालयों में शिक्षण कार्य किया I  1999 में उसे प्रोफेसर नियुक्त किया गया और 3 फरवरी 2000 में ही उसके मस्तिष्क में अंधेरा छा गया था I 1975 के पश्चात शाहिद मुख्य रूप से अमेरिका में ही रहा जहाँ उसका भाई था तथा दो बहनें थी I उसके माता-पिता श्रीनगर में ही बने रहे I कश्मीर में चल रही हिंसा ने उसे बहुत व्यथित किया I पर वह राजनीति का कवि नहीं बना I वह तो भाषा की कला का पुजारी बना रहा I उसका दृष्टिकोण व्यापक था, धर्मनिरपेक्ष था I बचपन में उसने अपने कमरे में श्रीनगर में एक हिंदू मंदिर बना रखा था I उसके माता-पिता ने कोई एतराज नहीं किया I
4 मई को वह अस्पताल में एक टेस्ट के लिए गया ताकि पता चले कि केमोथेरेपी का कुछ लाभ भी हो रहा है अथवा नहीं I अगले ही दिन उसने लेखक को बताया कि डॉक्टर ने सभी प्रकार की दवाइयाँ बंद कर दी है और बता दिया था कि बचने की कोई उम्मीद नहीं है I मैं कश्मीर में घर पर मरना चाहता था ताकि पिता के साथ रह ले I पर किन्हीं कारणों से उसने विचार बदल दिया I उसकी मृत्यु अमेरिका में हो गई तथा उसे नार्थम्पटन में ही दफना दिया गया I वह नींद में रात दो बजे 8 दिसंबर को भगवान को प्यारा हो गया I

Following is the complete question bank for The Ghat of the Only World

The Ghat of the Only World Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Questions 

1.What information do you gather about Shahid from this lesson?

Ans. Shahid was a Kashmiri by birth. He had migrated to the US. He was a man of letters, a poet and professor. But he contracted cancer there. He was under treatment for 14 months. He was operated upon thrice for a brain tumour. But no treatment could save him from his untimely death.

2. How did the author come to know of Shahid’s approaching death?

 Ans. Once while scanning and thumbing through his engagement book Shahid spoke that he could not see a thing. He added that he hoped he did not mean that he was dying. This telephonic talk between Shahid and the author gave the author a feeling of Shahid’s approaching death.

3. When and where did Amitav and Shahid become friends? How did their friendship grow?

Ans. Shahid and Amitav became friends in Brooklyn, US. They lived a few blocks apart. But they began to meet for occasional meals. By that time Shahid’s condition was already serious. But that did not stand in the progress of their friendship.

4. What responsibility did Shahid entrust to the writer? How did Amitav keep his promise?

Ans. The first time Agha Shahid Ali spoke to the writer about his approaching death was on 25 April 2001. He had been under cancer treatment for some 14 months. He had already suffered a few lapses of memory. He requested Amitav to write something about him after his death. And Amitav kept his promise.

5. What was Shahid’s profession? How much success did he become in his field?

Ans. Shahid was a poet and a teacher. His first collection of poems was The Country without a Post Office. No one had a greater influence on his poetry than James Merill. He taught at Baruch college in 2000, the University at Amherst, and finally the University of Utah. He was very popular among the students who almost adored him. He was all success.

6. In what spirit did Shahid receive his approaching end?

Ans. Shahid had his first blackout in February 2000. By 21 May, he had already undergone several unsuccessful operations. He had a malignant brain tumour. But he had no time to be depressed. He remained lively, sociable and a food lover till the end. He spoke about his approaching death to Amitav on 25 April 2001.

7. What do you know about Shahid’s likes and dislikes? Which things were most dear to him?

Ans. Shahid was a wonderful friend and brilliant poet. He was fond of Kashmiri food, of partying at his house, of music and of Mumbai films. He loved the camera, the rogan josh and the songs of Kishore Kumar as well as Begum Akhtar. He had no interest in cricket.

8. How can you say that Shahid was gregarious and sociable?

 Ans. Shahid’s gregariousness or love of company had no limit. Almost every evening his friends used to gather in his living room. They sang songs and shared food. He enjoyed their company and was always ready to serve. This showed his spirit of festivity.

9. Shahid’s vision was secular and all-inclusive. Give an instance from his childhood to support the statement.

 Ans. Shahid had his roots in Kashmir. He kept a constant watch on his native state. He was deeply pained to see violence there. But he was never a political poet. He did not believe in mixing politics with religion. In childhood, the had set up a small Hindu temple also in his room. He condemned fanatic people.

10. Describe the incident of the wheelchair at the hospital.

 Ans. On 21 May, the writer went to fetch Shahid from the hospital. Award boy arrived with a wheelchair. Shahid sent him back. He declared that he was strong enough to walk out of the hospital on his own. But his knees failed after a few steps. The hospital orderly had to be called again with the wheelchair.

11. Where did Shahid want to die? Was his last wish fulfilled?

 Ans. Shahid loved his homeland although he, along with his brother and two sisters, had spent many years in the US. He wanted to go back to Kashmir to die. But for some reasons. he changed his mind. He died in America and was laid to rest in Northampton,

12. What do you know about Shahid’s love for cookery?

 Ans. Shahid was an expert in cookery. He used to spend days over the planning and preparation of a dinner party. He stuck to traditional methods and recipes. He had a special passion for Kashmiri dishes. He could tell from the smell alone which stage the rogan josh had reached. He did not like shortcuts while cooking a dish.

13. Which English poet influenced Shahid’s poetry most?

 Ans. Shahid’s poetry was at once lyrical and disciplined. While in Arizona, he met James Merill. This American poet changed the direction of his poetry. No one had a greater influence on Shahid’s poetry than Merill. After his encounter with him, Shahid started experimenting with metrical patterns and verse forms.

14. Shahid was no mean practitioner of repartee. Recall the occasion at Barcelona Airport.

  Ans. Shahid had so many stories to tell about Begum Akhtar’s sharpness in repartee. He himself was no less witty. He was good at the art of giving sharp and clever answers. At Barcelona airport, the woman guard asked him what he did and if he was carrying anything which could be dangerous to other passengers. He said that he was a poet and was carrying only his heart with him.

15. How did the development in Kashmir affect Shahid in the USA?

 Ans. The political situation in Kashmir was full of violence. It affected him greatly. But he was not a political poet. He respected his art of writing more than what he was writing about. He respected religion but believed firmly in its separation from politics. Development in Kashmir pained him a lot.

16. Describe the last moments of Shahid’s life. What was his supreme consolation?

   Ans. Shahid struggled with cancer for over 14 months. Even during the last days of his life, Shahid was the centre of a perpetual carnival, always surrounded by his friends, food, laughter and of course poetry. He wished to return to Kashmir to die. But he couldn’t make it to his homeland. He died in America and was buried in Northampton. He had made his peace with the approaching death. His greatest consolation was that he would meet his mother in the afterlife.

17. How did the writer feel after Shahid’s death?

  Ans.   Amitav felt the loss of his friend Shahid deeply. His friendship with Shahid was brief, yet Shahid’s death created a vast void in his life. He missed his great friend and his memories haunted him time and again.

18. Comment on the title of the lesson The Ghat of the only World.

  Ans.   The title of this article has been taken from a poem of Shahid. It sounded as his farewell to the world. He knew for certain that his death was near. So he regarded himself like a loner standing on the bank of the only world. He wrote—”I dream I Am At The Ghat of the Only World.”

 Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions 

1. Who was Shahid? Trace the story of his painful struggle through life.

  Ans.   Shahid was a young Kashmiri who had migrated to America. He studied in Arizona and later taught at various universities across the U.S. But he was deeply attached to his parents in Kashmir. He used to visit his homeland off and on. He was a poet who wrote in English. His poetry was greatly influenced by James Merrill. His brother and two sisters were also settled in America. His destiny played a cruel joke on him. He had a blackout in 2000. Tests revealed that he had a malignant tumour in his brain. Several operations were performed but to no avail. His friendship with Amitav in Brooklyn consoled him a little. He knew his end was approaching. He made his peace with it. He requested Amitav to write something about him after his death.

2. Give a brief character sketch of Shahid. What were the things he was most fond of?

  Ans.   Shahid was born in Kashmir but settled in America. He had his education in Delhi. He was a brilliant poet. He taught literature at several colleges and universities. But his life was cut short because of a brain tumour. He suffered from cancer for about 14 months. But all operations and therapies failed to do any good. In spite of his approaching death, he remained lively and cheerful. He was by nature fond of Kashmiri dishes and a fan of Begum Akhtar. He was broad-minded and secular. In childhood, he had set up a Hindu temple in his room. He loved Kashmir but hated violence. He had made peace with his approaching death and died in sleep on 8th December.

3. How did Amitav, the writer, come in contact with Shahid? How did he fulfil his friend’s last wish?

Ans. Amitav first came to know about Shahid through his collection of poems “The Country without a Post Office”. The two had studied in Delhi but had never met. They had a few common friends and they talked on the phone. Then in February 2000, Shahid moved to Brooklyn where Amitav also lived. His condition was serious. He had a sudden blackout. He lived some eight blocks away. Their casual acquaintance changed into friendship. Amitav and Shahid had common likes and dislikes. They met at Shahid’s house regularly. Other friends also joined them. In 2001, Shahid requested the writer to write something about him after his death. And he promised to oblige Shahid.

4. Give a few instances of Shahid’s liveliness, gregariousness and sharpness in repartee.

Ans. Shahid never accepted defeat even after knowing that his death was approaching. He tried to be cheerful, lively, witty and sociable. His gregariousness had no limit. He loved company. His house was the meeting place of his friends. Even during the last days of his life, Shahid surrounded himself with friends and laughter. There was always food, tea and poetry being discussed in his living room. He also had a sharp wit. Once at Barcelona airport, he was stopped by a woman guard for questioning. She asked about his vocation. His answer was that he was a poet who wrote poetry. The woman finally asked him if he was carrying anything that could be dangerous to other passengers. He declared that he was carrying only his heart. This was an instance of his repartee.


Chapter-5 Mother’s Day- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 5 English Language and Literature

  Mother’s Day

                                                                                                       By- J.B. Priestley

 Introduction of the lesson- Mother’s Day


Mother’s Day deals with an issue that concerns all women the world over. The position of a woman in We family is pitiable both as a wife and as a mother. She is neglected and ordered about by the entire family. Her duties are unlimited, with no weekend break for recreation or change. Priestley discusses this issue in a humorous and satirical manner. Here are the two faces of woman—the liberated defiant and assertive Mrs Fitzgerald gives a practical demonstration of how the docile Mrs Pearson can become the mistress of her house. She suggests rough treatment as the only effective method. She shocks the family with her smoking, drinking and lighting mood. She is able to do so by using a spell and putting her own spirit into the body of her neighbour. They all feel miserable and agree to do what Mrs Pearson demands. The solution to the problem is a bit harsh, crude and not very practical.

 Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- Mother’s Day

Word- meanings and References

Pages 32-33

humorousinteresting, laughter-provoking,हास्यप्रद; portrayaldepiction, description,चित्रांकन ; suburboutlying localities,उपनगर; semi-detachednot totally cut off,थोड़ा-सा अलग बना; villahouse, घर; assumedsupposed,मान लिया गया; setteea long seat with a back,दोहरी आराम कुर्सी; fortunefuture, destiny,किस्मत, sinisterevil,दुष्ट प्रवृत्ति; contrastingdifferent,भिन्न,विपरीत ; flurriednervous, agitated,बदहवास; cockneythe language of the working class in London, लन्दनिया भाषा; obligedthankful,कृतज्ञ; fortune tellerastrologer,भविष्य द्रष्टा,ज्योतिषी  I

Pages 34-35

make up your minddecide firmly,दृढ़ निश्चय कर लेना; put your foot downbe firm,दृढ़ रहो; apologeticallyhumbly, विनम्रतापूर्वक; dubiouslynot very sure, doubtfully, अविश्वासपूर्वक ; have it outsettle once for all,झगड़ा खत्म करना ; in a hurryready,जल्दी में ; embarrassedupset, a little ashamed,शर्मिन्दा; flusteredconfused,घबराहट में; resentdislike,नापसन्द करना; bewilderedconfused, amazed,बौखलाई हुई; gimmegive me, let me hold it,हाथ पकड़ने दो I

Pages 36-37

assume- behave for a while,मान लेना; spellmantra,मंत्र; graspingholding,पकड़े हुए; go laxloose, शिथिल पड़ जाती हैं ; mannerismsmanner peculiar to a person,विशिष्ट आचरण; dominatinglording over,प्रभाव जमाने वाली ; puffingsmoking,धूम्रपान करती है ; contentedlypeacefully, with satisfaction,संतोष भाव से; scream of frighta cry in fear,भय से चीख मारना; complacentlyin a self-satisfied manner; grimlyin a serious manner,गंभीर मुद्रा में ; alarmedafraid,घबराई हुई; steadycool down, be patient,धीरज रखो; pop backreturn,वापस आ जाओ; chucklinglaughing, in the throat; spoilgone astray,बिगड़ जाना ; astoundedtaken aback,स्तब्ध रह जाती है ; flutteringagitated, unsteady,लड़खड़ाती हुई ; incisivevery sharp,तीखी  I

Pages 38-39

sillyfoolish, ; indignantlyangrily,क्रोधावेश में ; sulkilywith ill-humour,उदासीपूर्वक; severelyharshly, कठोरतापूर्वक; buckteethprojected upper teeth,ऊपर के दाँत  बाहर निकले हुए; half-wittedstupid, मंद बुद्धि ; masculine counterpartmale copy,पुरुष; brisklyquickly, sharply,तीव्रता ; annoyedangry, irritated,नाराज ; feeling off colourunwell, in low spirit,अस्वस्थ ; aggressivelyin a fighting mood, लड़ने के मूड में; snap out of itget out of nonsense,यह बकवास बंद करो; get crackingget going, start working,काम शुरू करो; mendingrepair needed,मरम्मत की जरुरत; barstop,रोकना; staggeredstartled,चौंक जाता है; get thisunderstand all,समझ पाना; laconicconcise, short,संक्षेप मे ं; sinisterevil,दुष्ट प्रकृति I

 Pages 40-41

curiouseager to know, जानने को आतुर ; stouthard drink, strong beer,बीयर; clotidiot,मूर्ख; instantlyat once,तुरन्त; in a huddletalk softly together,बातें करने लगते है ; barmygone mad, foolish,पागल,सनकी; concussionviolent shock,झटका या चोट लगी; far-fetchedunbelievable,अविश्वसनीय ; gigglelaugh like a silly person,मूर्खों जैसी हँसी; guffawlaugh boisterously,ठहाका लगाना ; regardslooks at,देखती हैं; contempthatred,घ्रणा ; yawningfeeling sleepy or bored,उबासी लेना; promptlyquickly, fast,तुरन्त; sipa little quantity,चुस्की; made fuss ofto be made to feel important,उपद्रव या कोलाहल करना ; aghastterrified,भयातुर; stuckforced to be at home,चिपके रहना; awfulterrible, horrible,डरावनी बात; passionatelyloudly, excitedly,तीव्रता से; blubberingweeping noisily,आवाज़ के साथ रोना ; fundamentallybasically, by nature,मूलरूप से; solemnsober,गंभीर; pompousshowy,आडम्बरी; bulgeswell out in surprise,उमड़ आना,फूल जाना; fanciedliked to have,पीना चाहा ; aggrievedunhappy,दुखी; annoyeddispleased,नाराज; indignantlyangrily,क्रोधित होकर; beaten meI fail to  understand,समझ में नहीं आता; staggeredupset,व्यथित; gloomilysadly,उदासीपूर्वक; severelyharshly,कठोरता से; sulkilymorose,उदिवग्न ,उदास; silly old bagfoolish and ugly old woman,मूर्ख कुरूप स्त्री; smackingdrinking with a loud noise,चपचप शब्द करना; gloweringlooking angrily,क्रोधपूर्वक देखते हुए; stalks offgoes away,चली जाती है ; eating out of your handobeying you,आज्ञा मानना; glumlyangrily, sullenly,अप्रसन्न; tiddleyslightly drunk,नशे में ; savagelywildly, angrily; intimidatedterrified,त्रस्त होकर; wrapshawl,शॉल; in despairdisappointed,निराशा; called it offcancelled,इरादा बदल दिया; flash of temperin a rage,क्रोध से; grimlyharshly,कठोरतापूर्वक I

Pages 50-52

beckonsmotions, calls,संकेत से बुलाती है; stretchesextends,आगे बढ़ाती है ; laxloose,शिथिल होना ; apologisingfeeling sorry, regretting,क्षमा याचना करना; done forruined,बर्बाद हो जाना; apprehensivelydoubtfully,आशंकित; relievedat ease,राहतपूर्ण; exitsgoes out,बाहर चले जाना I clustergather, जमा होना I

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (Mother’s Day)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Mother’s Day)

Complete Summary

The play has five major characters in all. Mrs Annie Pearson, her husband George. their son Cyril, their daughter Doris and her neighbour Mrs Fitzgerald. The action takes place in the living room of the Pearson’s house in a London suburb. It is afternoon.

Mrs Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald are neighbours. Mrs Pearson is a pleasant but worried looking woman in her forties. She is docile and submissive. She is very fond of her children although they treat her like a domestic slave. Mrs Fitzgerald is older, heavier and a strong woman. She is a fortune teller. She had learnt that art in an Asian country. Where she had spent twelve years. She smokes, drinks and also plays cards.

The two ladies are seen together as the curtain goes up. It is Mrs Pearson’s house. She tells her problem to her neighbour. The children Doris and Cyril are grown-ups but both are selfish and thoughtless. They work in some office. But soon after coming back home, they are in a hurry to go out to enjoy themselves. They demand tea and other services like the ironing of their clothes. The weak doting mother feels hurt but dares not have her say. Even her husband George doesn’t think of her considerately.

Mrs Fitzgerald is a domineering woman who knows how to live life on her own terms. She advises Mrs Pearson also to be strong and become the boss of her family. She must not run after them or take orders from them. Such a service will only ruin them. Husbands, sons. daughters should be taking notice of their wives and mothers, and not treating them like dirt. But Mrs Pearson hates unpleasantness. She is too weak to take a decisive strong step. She agrees with her neighbour but she can’t promise to have it out with her family.

Mrs Fitzgerald offers to set the entire family right and put them in their places. She has a plan to change places ‘or personalities with Mrs Pearson. She takes her hands and mutters a spell-“Arshtatta dum – arslitatta lum”. Both go lax for a while. Then they come to life with the changed personalities. Now Mrs Pearson is bold and dominating, and Mrs Fitzgerald is nervous. She notices that her body has changed and she gives a scream. Mrs Pearson with her neighbour’s personality is ready to deal with her family. The real Mrs Pearson, however, is assured that they should change hack easily.

Mrs Pearson, in her new incarnation, smokes a cigarette and lays out the cards for a game on the table.

Doris, a pretty girl in her twenties, bursts into the room. She is a spoilt child: she demands two things from her mother—the ironing of her yellow silk and a cup of tea. She is taken aback to see her mother smoking. She is further shocked to know that there is no tea ready. She is in a hurry to go out with her boyfriend—Charlie Spence. The mother refuses to do any ironing. She downgrades Charlie Spence. She condemns the yellow silken dress. She calls Charlie a man with buck teeth and half-witted! Doris is in tears, and she runs out.

After a moment, there comes Cyril. He also demands tea from his mother. He is annoyed to hear a ‘No’ from her. He also learns to his dismay that his clothes have neither been laid out nor mended. He wonders if she is unwell. He also wonders why she should refuse to serve him and talk to him harshly. His mother explains that she too needs a weekly change from her routine.

Doris enters the room. She is now wearing a wrap. The mother tells her that she looks terrible. Doris blames her for making her cry. The mother then expresses her desire to drink stout. The brother and the sister start talking in whispers. Doris tells Cyril that mother had been smoking and playing cards. She is altogether changed. Perhaps she has hit her head and become barmy. Both wait for their father eagerly. The mother chides them for their silly and loud laughing. The children are tearful again. They wish to know why the mother is so very harsh with them. She replies that she too won’t work for more than eight hours a day. She is rendering a thankless service. She has decided to go to Clarendon for a meal. She, too, needs a change. And she thinks she is old enough to look after herself. She is offended when Doris enquires if she had hit herself with something. She warns them to behave properly.

George Pearson returns home. He is about fifty, heavy and pompous. He notices tears in Doris’ eyes. He first wants to know why Doris is sobbing. Then his eyes bulge to see his wife sipping stout. He disapproves of drinking at that hour of the day. He declares that he wouldn’t want any tea because he is going to the club to watch a snooker match and have supper. But he wonders why there isn’t any tea ready. Annie hits back hard. She challenges him to dictate terms at the club where they laugh at him. They also call him Pompy-company Pearson for being slow and pompous. She charges him with neglecting her. Cyril confirms that the club members call his father Pompey-company Pearson. George is so shocked that he leaves the room.

Cyril points out to his mother that she shouldn’t have hurt father’s feeling. But she argues that it does people good to have their feelings hurt sometimes. She suggests that George should not go to the club so often where he is made fun of.

 There is a sharp knocking on the door. Cyril opens the door and reports that their silly old neighbour has come. Mrs Pearson rebukes him for calling Mrs Fitzgerald names. Mrs Pearson welcomes her neighbour warmly. The neighbour who has undergone a personality change. Is, In fact, Mrs Pearson herself. She is curious to know how things are going on in her house.

When Cyril complains and shouts, the mother warns him sternly to keep quiet. She also tells her neighbour to let her manage her family in her own way. She reports that she is just putting George and two children in their places. The rough treatment will do all of them a lot of good.

George enters the room. He is surprised to see the visitor. The neighbour addresses him by his first name, George. He takes offence. But Annie sees nothing objectionable in it. He complains that there is no tea for him, that he is told how the club members ridicule him that Doris is crying upstairs and finally, Mrs Fitzgerald is addressing him as George. He asks his neighbour to let them be. His wife takes him to task for his bad manners. She tells him to go to his club. He shouts and calls her barmy. But Mrs Pearson threatens to slap his big, fat. silly face.

George looks at the two ladies in bewilderment. He wonders why the neighbour is addressing his wife as Mrs Fitzgerald. He remarks that his wife is a little drunk. He is put out and speechless.

Doris enters the room slowly. The neighbour asks her about her plan to go out with Charlie that night. She is offended; she asks angrily why Mrs. Fitzgerald is taking interest in her personal life. Anyway, she has cancelled the outing because her mother has made her feel miserable. Mrs Fitzgerald tells George as well as the children to leave the room and let her have a private little talk with Mrs Pearson. She assures that the outcome of the talks would please them all.

The neighbour (Mrs. Fitzgerald with the personality of Mrs Pearson) now insists on changing back—she decides that the members of her family should not be treated so harshly anymore. Mrs Pearson agrees to that. She mutters the same old spell, and both become their proper personalities. Mrs Fitzgerald advises her neighbour not to go soft on them again, otherwise, all her labour would go waste. Secondly, she must not give any explanation or feel sorry for the drama. A tone of being tough would work. She asks what Mrs Pearson really wants her husband and children to do.

Mrs Pearson gives a list of her demands. They should stop at home for once, help her prepare and serve dinner and play a game of rummy sometimes. She agrees to act on Mrs Fitzgerald advice and deal with her family with a firm hand.

George, Doris and Cyril enter the room and look anxiously at Mrs Pearson. She smiles and they smile back. She now unfolds her plan. She asks for a nice family game of rummy. The children will get the supper ready while she will have a talk with their father. All agree with her. She finally thanks her neighbour and bids her goodbye. As she walks out of the room, the family gathers around the mother.

Summary in Hindi/ Mother’s Day

Summary in Hindi

इस एकांकी नाटक में कुल चार प्रमुख पात्र हैं – Mrs.Annie Pearson उसके पति George, उनका बेटा Cyril,उनकी बेटी Doris तथा उनकी पड़ोसिन Mrs.Fitzgerald. यह घटना Mrs.Pearson की बैठक में होती है; घर लंदन के उपनगर में बना है I दोपहर के बाद का समय है I

Mrs.Pearson तथा Mrs. Fitzgerald पड़ोसिन हैं I Mrs. Pearson एक अच्छे स्वभाव वाली पर कुछ चिन्ताग्रस्त 40 वर्ष से अधिक आयु की महिला हैं I वह दब्बू स्वभाव की हैं I उसे अपने बच्चों से बहुत प्यार है यद्यपि वे उसे एक घरेलू नौकरानी ही मानते हैं I Mrs. Fitzgerald कुछ अधिक आयु की, भारी बदन तथा पुष्ट महिला है I वह भविष्यवक्ता भी है I उसने यह ज्योतिष विद्या किसी एशियाई देश में सीखी थी I उसने 12 वर्ष वहाँ बिताए थे I वह धूम्रपान करती है, मदिरा पीती है तथा ताश खेलती है I   

दोनों महिलाएँ साथ बैठी दिखाई देती है जैसे पर्दा ऊपर उठता है I यह घर है Mrs.Pearson का I वह अपनी पड़ोसन को अपनी राम कहानी सुनाती है I बच्चे Doris तथा Cyril व्यस्क हो गए हैं पर दोनों ही आत्म केंद्रित तथा विचारहीन हैं I वे किसी दफ्तर में काम करते हैं पर घर लौटते ही उन्हें बाहर जाकर मौज मस्ती करने की हड़बड़ी रहती है I वे चाय माँगते हैं तथा अन्य सेवाओं की भी माँग करते हैं जैसे वस्त्रों पर प्रेस करना I कमजोर स्नेहात्मक माँ के मन को चोट लगती है पर उसके अन्दर अपनी बात कहने का साहस नहीं है I उसके पति भी उसके प्रति संवेदनशील नहीं है I 
Mrs. Fitzgerald रोबदार औरत है जो जीवन अपने तरीके से जीना चाहती है I वह Mrs.Pearson को भी सलाह देती है कि बलवान बनो तथा परिवार की बॉस बनो I वह कहती है तुम्हें अपने बच्चों तथा पति के पीछे भागने और उनका आदेश पालन करने की जरूरत नहीं I ऐसी सेवा उन पर बुरा असर डालेगी I पति, बेटे तथा बेटियों को चाहिए कि वे अपनी पत्नियों तथा माँ की ओर ध्यान दें; उन्हें कूड़ा करकट न समझें I पर Mrs.Pearson घर में कटुता का वातावरण नहीं पसंद करती I वह कोई भी निर्णायक कदम नहीं ले सकती I वह  अपनी पड़ोसन से सहमत हैं, पर वह अपने परिवार को सुधारने का वायदा नहीं कर सकती I

Mrs.Fitzgerald सुझाव देती है कि मैं पूरे परिवार को सबक सिखा दूँगी तथा उन्हें उनकी औकात बता दूँगी I उसके पास एक योजना थी कि वह Mrs.Pearson से व्यक्तित्व को अदल-बदल ले I वह Mrs.Pearson के हाथों को अपने हाथ में लेकर कुछ शब्दों का मंत्रोंच्चारण करती है—अस्तत्तादम-अर्सतत्ता लम I वह दोनों शिथिल  पड़ जाती है पर शीघ्र ही उनमें जान आ जाती है और उनका व्यक्तित्व बदल जाता है I अब mrs. Pearson साहसिक तथा रोबदार बन जाती हैं तथा Mrs.Fitzgerald घबरा जाती हैं I वह देखती हैं कि उसका शरीर बदल गया है और वह चीख मारती है I Mrs.Pearson जिसके अंदर Mrs.Fitzgerald का व्यक्तित्व समा गया है, अपने परिवार को दुरुस्त करने के लिए तैयार हो जाती है I  पर असली Mrs.Pearson को आश्वस्त कर दिया जाता है कि दोनों का व्यक्तित्व बदलाव भी आसानी से हो जाएगा I अब नई Mrs.Fitzgerald को कहा जाता है कि वह अभी घर लौट जाए और कुछ समय पश्चात आए I

Mrs. Pearson अपने नए अवतार या रूप में, सिगरेट पीती है तथा मेज पर ताश का खेल खेलने हेतु पत्ते बिछा देती है I

Doris जो बीस वर्ष से ऊपर की सुन्दर युवती है, कमरे में तेजी से प्रवेश करती है I वह बिगड़ी हुई बच्ची है I वह माँ से दो चीजें माँगती है–अपनी पीली पोशाक पर प्रेस तथा एक कप चाय I उसे माँ को धूम्रपान करते देख कर हैरानी हो जाती है उसे यह सुनकर दूसरी ठेस लगती है कि चाय तैयार नहीं की गई है I वह अपने लड़के मित्र Charlie Spence के साथ घूमने जाने की हड़बड़ी में है I माँ उसकी पोशाक पर प्रेस करने से इन्कार कर देती है I वह तो Charlie Spence की भी आलोचना करती है I वह पीली पोशाक की भी भर्त्सना करती है I वह कहती है कि Charlie तो बड़े बाहर निकले दाँत वाला और मंदबुद्धि व्यक्ति है I Doris रो देती है और बाहर निकल जाती है I

एक क्षण पश्चात Cyril प्रवेश करता है I वह भी चाय माँगता है I वह नाराज हो जाता है जब माँ इन्कार कर देती है I वह यह सुनकर हताश हो जाता है कि उसकी वस्त्रों को न तो बाहर निकाला गया है, न ही उनकी मरम्मत की गई है I  वह सोचता है कि शायद माँ की तबीयत ठीक नहीं है I वह हैरान है कि मैं अब कोई भी काम क्यों नहीं करना चाहती तथा कठोरतापूर्वक उत्तर देती है I माँ बताती है कि उसे भी अपनी दिनचर्या से सप्ताह में एक दिन छुट्टी मिलनी चाहिए I

Doris कमरे में प्रवेश करती है I उसने अब एक शॉल लपेटा हुआ है I माँ कहती है कि तुम बहुत बुरी दिख रही हो I Doris माँ को दोष देती है कि तुम्हीं ने मुझे रूला दिया है I फिर माँ मदिरा पीने की इच्छा व्यक्त करती है I भाई-बहन फुसफुसाहट के साथ बातें करने लगते हैं I  Doris बताती है कि माँ सिगरेट पी रही थी और ताश खेल रही थी I वह बिल्कुल बदल गई है शायद उसका सिर कहीं टकरा गया है I अथवा वह झक्की हो गई है I दोनों  ही उत्साहपूर्वक डैड के आने की प्रतीक्षा करते हैं I मां उन्हें मूर्खतापूर्ण तथा ठहाके लगाकर हँसने पर फटकारती है I बच्चों की आंखों में पुनः आँसू आ जाते हैं I  वे माँ से पूछते हैं आखिर हमारे प्रति आप इतनी कठोर क्यों हो गई हो I माँ उत्तर देती है कि मैं भी रोज आठ घंटे से अधिक काम करती हूँ I मेरी इस सेवा के प्रति कोई आभार प्रदर्शन भी नहीं करता I मैं अब शाम का भोजन करने के लिए Clarendon जाऊँगी I मुझे भी परिवर्तन चाहिए I और मैं इतनी बड़ी हो चुकी हूँ कि मैं अपनी देखरेख स्वयं कर सकती हूँ I वह नाराज हो जाती है जब Doris प्रश्न करती है कि क्या आप कहीं गिर गई थी अथवा किसी चीज से टकरा गई थी I  माँ उन्हें चेतावनी देती है कि बकवास मत करो I

George Pearson घर लौटते हैं I वह कोई पचास वर्ष के भारी बदन तथा आडम्बरी व्यक्ति हैं I  वे Doris की आँखों में आँसू देखते हैं I वे जानना चाहते हैं कि Doris रो क्यों रही है I तभी उनकी आँखें फटी रह जाती है जब वे पत्नी को मदिरापान करते दिखते हैं I  उन्हें बेसमय मदिरापान ठीक नहीं लगता I वे कहते हैं कि आज मैं चाय नहीं पिऊँगा क्योंकि मुझे क्लब में स्नूकर मैच देखने जाना है और वहीँ रात्रि भोज भी कर लूँगा I पर उन्हें हैरानी होती है कि घर में चाय तैयार क्यों नहीं है I Annie करारा जबाब देती है I  चुनौती देती है कि आप अपनी बातें जरा क्लब में तो मनवाने की कोशिश करें I जहाँ लोग आपका मजाक उड़ाते हैं I वे आपको पाँपी-आँपी Pearson कहते हैं क्योंकि आप मंद गति से चलने वाले आडम्बर पसंद व्यक्ति हैं I पत्नी उन पर आरोप लगाती है कि आप मेरी उपेक्षा करते हैं I Cyril इस बात की पुष्टि कर देता है कि क्लब के सदस्य डैड को पाँपी-आँपी उनकी पीठ पीछे कहते हैं I George को ऐसी ठेस लगती है कि वे बाहर चले जाते हैं I

Cyril माँ को कहता है कि आपको डैड की भावनाओं को चोट नहीं पहुँचानी चाहिए थी I पर माँ तर्क देती है कि लोगों की भावनाओं को कभी-कभी चोट लगने से उन्हें लाभ मिलता है I वह सुझाव देती है कि George को इतना अधिक क्लब नहीं जाना चाहिए जहाँ उनकी खिल्ली उड़ाई जाती है I

दरवाजे पर खटखट होती है I Cyril दरवाजा खोलता है तथा बताता है कि उनकी बूढ़ी मूर्ख पड़ोसन आई है I Mrs.Pearson उसे डाटती है कि Mrs.Fitzgerald के प्रति अपशब्दों का प्रयोग क्यों करते हो Mrs.Pearson अपनी पड़ोसन का गर्म-जोशी से स्वागत करती है I पड़ोसन जिसका व्यक्तित्व बदला हुआ है वास्तव में Mrs.Pearson है I  वह जानने को आतुर है कि उसके घर में क्या हो रहा है I Cyril शिकायत करता है तथा चीखकर बोलता है I माँ उसे कठोरता पूर्वक डाटती है कि चुप रहो I  वह अपनी पड़ोसन को यह भी बताती है कि मुझे अपने परिवार को अपने तरीके से सुधारने दो I वह बताती है कि George को तथा दोनों बच्चों को उनकी औकात दिखा रही हूँ I ऐसा कठोर व्यवहार उन्हें नेक बना देगा I

George कमरे में प्रवेश करते हैं I उन्हें आगन्तुक महिला को देखकर आश्चर्य होता है I पड़ोसन उन्हें उनके नाम से पहले शब्द ‘George’ कहकर संबोधित करती है I George  रुष्ट हो जाते हैं पर Annie को इसमें कोई आपत्तिजनक बात नहीं दिखाई देती I George शिकायत करते हैं कि घर में चाय भी नहीं बनी; Doris ऊपर रो रही है तथा Mrs.Fitzgerald उन्हें उनके नाम से संबोधित कर रही है I वे पड़ोसिन को कहते हैं कि हमें अकेला छोड़ दीजिए पर उनकी पत्नी उन्हें आड़े हाथों लेती है कि तुम्हें सलीका नहीं आता I वह उनसे कहती है कि आप क्लब क्यों नहीं चले जाते I George गरजते हैं कि तुम तो झक्की या सनकी हो गई हो I Mrs.Pearson उनके बड़े, स्थूल तथा मूर्खतापूर्ण चेहरे पर थप्पड़ मारने की धमकी देती है I

George इन दोनों महिलाओं को हक्का-बक्का होकर देखता है उसे समझ में नहीं आता कि पड़ोसन उसकी पत्नी को Mrs.Fitzgerald क्यों कह रही है I वह टिप्पणी करता है कि मेरी पत्नी को थोड़ा सा नशा हो गया है I वह उदास और अवाक् हो जाता है I

Doris कमरे में धीरे से प्रवेश करती है I पड़ोसिन उससे पूछती है कि आज तो तुम्हें Chalie के साथ बाहर जाना था I Doris नाराज हो जाती है I वह रोषपूर्वक पूछती है कि आपको मेरे व्यक्तिगत जीवन में इतनी दिलचस्पी क्यों है फिर बताती है कि बाहर जाने की योजना खत्म कर दी है क्योंकि मेरी माँ ने मुझे दुखी कर दिया है, माँ George तथा बच्चों को कहती है कि थोड़े समय के लिए बाहर चले जाओ तथा दोनों सहेलियों को कुछ निजी बातें करने दो I वह उन्हें आश्वस्त करती है कि बातचीत का परिणाम उन सभी के लिए सुखद होगा I

पड़ोसिन (Mrs.Fitzgerald जिसके अंदर Mrs.Pearson का व्यक्तित्व प्रवेश कर गया है) वह हठ करती है कि पुनः अदला-बदली कर लो I उससे सहन नहीं होता कि परिवार के सदस्यों के साथ ऐसा कठोर व्यवहार और अधिक किया जाए I  Mrs.Fitzerald तैयार हो जाती है वह उन्हीं मंत्रों वाले शब्दों को दोहराती है तथा दोनों अपने -अपने रूप में आ जाती हैं I Mrs.Fitzgerald अपनी पड़ोसन को कहती है कि अब अपने परिवार वालों के साथ नर्मी मत दिखाना अन्यथा उनका सारा परिश्रम व्यर्थ चला जाएगा I दूसरी बात, तुम इस छोटे से नाटक की कोई सफाई अथवा खेद व्यक्त करना I सख्ती का स्वर ही काम बना देगा I वह Mrs.Pearson से पूछती है कि तुम अपने पति एवं बच्चों से क्या अपेक्षा करती हो ?

Mrs. Pearson अपनी माँगों की सूची देती है I ये लोग कभी-कभी घर पर रुक जाएँ,उसे भोजन पकाने तथा परोसने में मदद करें तथा रमी की एक बाजी खेल लें I वह Mrs.Fitzgerald की सलाह पर अमल तथा अपने परिवार के साथ सख्ती बरतने का वचन देती है I

George,Doris तथा Cyril कमरे में प्रवेश करते हैं तथा Mrs.Pearson की ओर से चिन्तातुर होकर देखते हैं I माँ मुस्कुरा देती है तथा वे तीनों भी मुस्कुरा देते हैं I अब माँ अपनी योजना बताती है I वह चाहती है कि आज एक गेम रमी का हो जाए I बच्चे भोजन पकाएंगे जबकि वह स्वयं George से कुछ बातें करेगी I सभी उसकी बातें मान लेते है I वह अंत में पड़ोसन का आभार व्यक्त करती है तथा उसे अलविदा कहती है I जैसे ही Mrs.Fitzgerald घर से बाहर निकलती है, सारा परिवार Mrs.Pearson को घेर कर बैठ जाता है I

Following is the complete question bank for Mother’s Day

Mother’s Day Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Questions 

1.What do you think is Mrs Pearson’s grouse or complaint against her husband and children?

 Ans. Mrs Pearson’s complaint against her husband and children is that they are so thoughtless and selfish. That they treat her almost like a domestic servant. They come home in the evening and leave soon for their club or outing and enjoy themselves. She takes their orders and runs after them. She has no break, no holiday, no recreation.

2. How do Mrs Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald come together?

 Ans. Mrs Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald are neighbours. Mrs Fitzgerald is a fortune-teller. She is a bold and domineering woman. The two women often meet. Mrs Pearson shares her problems with her neighbour. Mrs Fitzgerald suggests some radical ways to deal with the family.

3. Bring out the distinctive traits of the two ladies in “Mother’s Day”.

 Ans. The two ladies in the play are Mrs Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald. They are neighbours. They are totally different in their outlook, temperament and habits. Mrs Fitzgerald drinks, smokes and plays cards. She lives life on her own terms. Mrs Pearson is a submissive wife and mother. Although she suffers, she does not have the guts to check or correct her family members. So, she does all the household chores for her family without a word of appreciation from them.

4. How had Mrs Fitzgerald mastered some basics of magic spell?

  Ans. Mrs Fitzgerald was a bold, talented and strong woman. She learnt some basics of magic in Asia where her husband was posted for twelve years. She takes Mrs Pearson’s hands and utters some words. The personalities of the two women change bodies.

5. How do Mrs Fitzgerald and Mrs Pearson exchange personalities and what for?

  Ans.   Mrs Fitzgerald holds Mrs Pearson’s hand. They look at each other. She mutters the spell—arshtatt dum arshtatta lum. Then both the women go lax. They come to life soon but with the personality of the other. They do so in order to teach a lesson to Mrs Pearson’s family.

6. What impression does George leave on you? Does Mrs Fitzgerald’s treatment meted out to him serve the purpose?

  Ans.   George Pearson is about fifty. He is selfish and pompous. He also neglects his wife. Mrs Fitzgerald cuts him to size. She tells him how the club members call him Pompy-company Pearson at his back. He feels small and cowed down. The treatment does serve the purpose.

7. What sane advice does Mrs Fitzgerald give to her neighbour in the art of managing her family?

 Ans.    Mrs Fitzgerald’s approach is harsh and unforgiving. She tells Mrs Pearson to stop running after her family all the time and taking their orders. Her family should learn to care for her and value her. She should show them their places and refuse to serve them.

8. It’s more than hints your family needs, Mrs Pearson. Why can’t Mrs Pearson heed and act upon Mrs Fitzgerald’s advice?

 Ans.    Mrs Pearson does not dare to displease her husband or children. She can’t take a hard step and also does not know how to begin. She agrees with Mrs Fitzgerald’s views but she doesn’t want to annoy them. Her motherly heart does not allow her to be harsh towards her husband and children.

9. Describe the little but a very effective episode of change of the places or personalities at Mrs Pearson’s house.

  Ans.   Mrs Fitzgerald is a strong and aggressive woman. She has mastered the art of casting a magic spell. She learnt that art in an Asian country. She mutters the spell—three words in all, holds Mrs Pearson’s hands and they change personalities.

10. How does Mrs Fitzgerald remove Mrs Pearson’s apprehensions about the reaction of her family and the issue of changing back?

 Ans. Mrs Fitzgerald is sure that her spell will work. But the change of personalities/places would not last long. She offers to deal with the self-centered members of the family with a heavy hand. She assures that changing back is quite easy for her, any time.

11. Describe how Mrs Pearson, with the personality of Mrs Fitzgerald, deal with Doris.

 Ans.    Doris is the first target of her changed mother. After returning from office, she demands tea and asks her mother whether she has ironed her yellow dress. But the mother refuses point blank to serve her any more. She even makes fun of Doris’s boyfriend, Charlie. Thus, the mother makes her cry. She makes her realise that she is not her servant.

12. How does the changed Mrs Pearson give a rude shock to George?

  Ans.   George questions his wife why she is drinking stout at that odd hour. He disapproves of it but sets a curt reply from her. She points out how he is the laughing stock at the club, where they called him names behind his back. She even threatens to slap his big, fat, silly face, when he insults Mrs Fitzgerald. He accepts defeat and becomes normal.

13. Describe how the new Mrs Pearson deals with Cyril.

 Ans.    Cyril is another person whom the changed mother sets right. She tells him to help himself in the kitchen and prepare tea. She declares she would take a holiday on weekends. She points out how he has been wasting much money and time at dog races and ice shows. She calls him a silly, spoilt, young brat.

14. What do Doris and Cyril presume about the changed behaviour of the mother?

 Ans.    Both Doris and Cyril are taken aback at the sudden change in their mother’s tone and behaviour. They think that she must have hit her head against something, which has made her light-headed. They are shocked to hear that she would enjoy free-of-work weekends for a change.

15.   How does Mrs Pearson (acting as Mrs Fitzgerald) silence her neighbour as she comes back to see the little drama?

 Ans.    Real Mrs Pearson returns to her house to see that everything is all right. But she is shocked to see the painful drama of tears and scolding. When she tries to intervene, Mrs Fitzgerald tells her severely to let her manage her family in her own way. She says she is putting them all in their places and cutting them to size.

16. Why does George react when the neighbour calls him George? What does he complain of?

 Ans.    George objects strongly when the neighbour addresses him as George. But the new Mrs Pearson sees no reason to feel offended. She tells him that he is not Duke of Edinburgh. Ile further complains that no tea has been served to him, that poor Doris is crying upstairs because her mother has hurt her feelings.

17. When and why does Mrs Fitzgerald (in Mrs Pearson’s body) threaten to slap George?

 Ans.    George feels offended and insulted. At that moment the next door neighbour Mrs Fitzgerald comes to visit them and addresses him as George. He objects to her presence in the house and insults her. He asks angrily it she (his wife) has gone eccentric. At this, his wife jumps up and threatens to slap his big, in the silly face.

18. What does Mrs Pearson finally ask her family to do?

 Ans.   When Mrs Fitzgerald has gone. the real Mrs Pearson asks her family to do as she wants them to do. She wants them all to stay at home that evening and perhaps play a game of rummy with her. She asks her son and daughter to get the supper ready. In the meantime, she will have a talk with her husband George. No one dares to challenge her demand.

19. What is Mrs Fitzgerald’s parting advice to Mrs Pearson?

  Ans.   Mrs Fitzgerald is a liberated woman, bold and empowered woman in the real sense. She warns Mrs Pearson to he tough and demanding for a couple of hours with her family. She forbids her to feel sorry for the drama, and offer no explanation or apology. If she stays firm, they will all change for the better very soon.

20. How is the tense little drama at Mrs Pearson’s house filially resolved?

  Ans.   The little drama is staged chiefly by Mrs Fitzgerald by interchanging her personality with Mrs Pearson. She takes all the spoilt and self-centred members of the Pearson family to task. After she succeeds in making all the family members realise how mean and selfish they have been towards Mrs Pearson, she changes back their personalities. When they see their mother behaving normally but firmly, they agree at once to play a game of rummy at home and to work in the kitchen. George also is pleased to have a talk with her. The members of the family are to respect Pearson’s sentiments. The play ends on a happy note.

 Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions 

1. Narrate the story of the play Mother’s Day in about 100 words.

Ans.     The play ‘Mother’s Day’ depicts the status of the woman in a family. She is treated as a domestic slave, taking orders from her husband as well as children. Mrs Pearson and Mrs Fitzgerald are neighbours. They stand in sharp contrast to each other.

            Mrs Pearson is a submissive wife and mother. She is unhappy with the treatment she gets from her family. She discusses her problem with her neighbour. Mrs Fitzgerald is bold, liberated and an aggressive woman. She knows the art of casting magic spells as well. She changes her personality with that of Mrs Pearson. Then she stays on in Mrs Pearson’s house to deal with George. Doris and Cyril. She sets them right and makes them see reason. She cuts them to size. They agree to do as Mrs Pearson desires. The two women again become their old normal selves. The play ends on a happy note.

2. Write a note on the theme of the play Mother’s Day. Do you approve of the method adopted by Mrs Fitzgerald? Elucidate.

 Ans.   The theme of Mother’s Day is the low status of a woman in her family, and how she deserves to be the boss of the house. This issue is common in every country. She is the weaker sex. She is neglected. Her services are neither acknowledged nor paid for. Mrs Fitzgerald, the liberated and strong neighbour of Mrs Pearson, shows the way. She enters her spirit into Mrs Pearson’s body and spends a couple of hours in the neighbour’s house. She deals very harshly with all the family members. George. Cyril and Doris—all of them are shocked and surprised at the changed behaviour of Mrs Pearson. They give in at last to her wishes. Mrs Fitzgerald’s method proves very successful in solving the problem.

3. Give your brief comments on the five main characters in the play Mother’s Day.

 Ans.   Mother’s Day is a humorous and satirical presentation of a grim little family drama. It discusses the issue of the status of a mother and wife in the family. The play has five characters in all. Mrs Fitzgerald is a strong woman, aggressive and demanding. Her neighbour Mrs Pearson is just her opposite. She is given to serving her husband and children. She makes no demands: she does not dare to displease anybody, but she resents their behaviour inwardly. Her husband George is pompous, selfish and the centre of jokes at the club. Her son Cyril is a young man and her daughter is Doris. Both are working in offices. They come home in the evening, demand tea and ironed clothes so that they can go out again. All the three are self-centred. They neglect Mrs Pearson who is all docile, motherly and submissive.

4. How does Mrs Fitzgerald passing for Mrs Pearson put Mr George, Doris and Cyril in their places?

  Ans.   Mrs Fitzgerald comes to the rescue of Mrs Pearson. She transfers her spirit into Mrs Pearson’s body and gets ready to show all the three members their places. Her first target is Doris. She comes home demands tea and orders the mother to iron her yellow silk. But she is astonished when her mother goes on smoking and is planning to eat out at a restaurant. She gets such a rough treatment that she is all in tears. The next target is Cyril. He also finds his mother cold and defiant. Both suspect that she has hit her head against something. Mother chides them for whispering and laughing. George, as he enters the room, finds his wife smoking, drinking stout and playing cards. He objects to all that but is told curtly to shut up. He is told how the club members make fun of him behind his back. Thus, they all are made to realise how mean and selfish they have been towards Mrs Pearson.

5. Compare and contrast the characters of Mrs Fitzgerald and Mrs Pearson. Who do you admire and why?

  Ans.   Mrs Fitzgerald and Mrs Pearson make an interesting study in contrast. Mrs Fitzgerald is strong, aggressive, liberated and domineering. She lives life on her own terms. She smokes, plays cards and drinks stout. She can challenge anybody. She even jumps up to slap George. She runs down Doris’ fiance. She takes Cyril to task for wasting time and money on dog races and ice shows. Mrs Pearson, on the other hand, is weakminded and docile. She does not dare to displease any member of her family. She agrees with the way suggested by Mrs Fitzgerald but she is afraid of hurting the feelings of the members of her family. Mrs Fitzgerald has a domineering personality while Mrs Pearson has pleasing looks and nature and she is rather nervous. We certainly need more women like Mrs Fitzgerald, who can stand up for their rights.

6. How do you look at Mrs Pearson’s genuine problems and Mrs Fitzgerald’s suggestion? Is it practicable, imaginative and realistic?

  Ans.   The resentment of Mrs Pearson is genuine and realistic. Hers is a miserable life. That is the experience of most of the women. She is sensitive and servile. That is why she is neglected by her family members. The solution suggested by Mrs Fitzgerald is quite effective. But it is not practical as everyone does not have magic skills. Mrs Fitzgerald commands a drastic action. Any woman, who is in Mrs Pearson’s place, would have to deal with the situation in a tactful manner. The matter would have to be resolved by discussing things with each other rather than the dramatic way shown by Mrs Fitzgerald.

 Value Based Questions and Answers of Mother’s Day

Value-Based Question

1. We talk of women’s liberation movement but it is a grim and sad reality that our women, except some, are slaves of the wheel as they were in the past. What place do women have in Indian society? Discuss.

  Ans.   India has been and is still a male-dominated society. Boys are definitely preferred to girls. In reality, the man still governs unquestioned. It will not be wrong to say that employed women in general work at home like drudges. In our society a wife depends upon her husband; a daughter remains under her parents; a mother depends on her husband and son. The condition of a widow is worse. A woman finds it difficult to move freely. All social taboos are meant for her.

Some women today are free to choose their career, but the majority of them are still oppressed. Strangely enough women in ancient India enjoyed honour and respect and were true better halves of men. They enjoyed equal rights to men. They were at liberty to get an education and choose their life partners.

Nowadays, due to education, the condition of women is improving. All important services are thrown open to them. We see women occupying high posts. They have excelled men in many fields. In the social, economic and political sphere, they have earned name and fame. Due to education, views and old thinking of the Indian society is changing. Today women have earned a place for themselves in every field and the future of Indian women is brighter still.

Chapter-4 Albert Einstein at School- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 4  English Language and Literature

Albert Einstein at School

                                                                                                       By- Patrick Pringle

 Introduction of the lesson- Albert Einstein at School


The biographer of the greatest physicist since Newton gives us a revealing account of Einstein’s school days. He had the seeds of genius in him from the primary school stage in Munich. He was honest and plain-speaking. He had his own theory of education. He hated to learn the facts and figures of history by heart. He valued ideas more than the dates of battles. He knew more about Maths than his teacher. His History teacher misunderstood him and called him a disgrace. He felt as miserable at his lodging as at school. He found his landlady beating her children while her drunken husband thrashed her on weekends. So with the help of his friend Yuri and Dr Ernst Well, he managed to leave Munich to study in Milan. Albert had two hobbies—to study Science subject and to play upon the violin. The same unwanted boy made his mark as a great scientist at last.

 Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- Albert Einstein at School

Word-meanings and References

 Pages 25-26

physicista scientist or scholar of physics,भौतिकी वेत्ता;  expulsionturning out, निष्कासन; Prussiaa state in Europe, now a part of Germany,जर्मनी का एक भाग; usualnormal, common,सामान्य ,स्वाभाविक ; amazesurprise,हैरान,विस्मित करना ; sarcasmthe use of irony,कटाक्ष,व्यंग; flushedturned red with shame,शर्म से लाल हो गया; disgraceshameful, useless person,निकृष्ट व्यक्ति  ; ungratefulthankless,कृतघ्न ; miserablevery unhappy, दुखी; lodgingsroom, house,निवास स्थान ; squalordirt, dust गंदगी ; duelquarrel between two persons,द्वन्द्व ; scarmark,चोट का निशान; badgea distinctive mark,चिह्न,लक्षण; ughshowing disgust or horror,तिरस्कार सूचक आवाज़ l

Pages 27-29

glumly-sadly, उदासी भाव से ; stupiddull-headed, blockheads, मंद्बुद्धि ; by heartby rote like a parrot, रट लेना ; apart fromin addition to,के अलावा,के साथ-साथ; wailingsound of weeping, crying, रोने की आवाज़; gets on my nervesirritates, troubles,कष्ट देना; kids howlingchildren shouting, बच्चों की चीख पुकार; temptedlured, felt like, प्रलोभन होन ा; howlshout,शोर करना; absurdnonsensical, meaningless, funny, मूर्खतापूर्ण; gleamedshone,चमक ी; imaginebelieve, think,कल्पना करन ा; plentyso many,अनेक ; reluctantlyhalf-heartedly, unwillingly,अनिच्छापूर्वक; nervous breakdownperiod of mental illness,स्नायुतंत्र में गड़बड़ी ; merrilyjoyfully, smiling,ख़ुशी से ; standhear, tolerate,सहन करना ; lit uplooked cheerful,खुशी से चमक गया ; pull the wool over his eyesdeceive or misguide , उदास हो गया ; pretendto profess falsely,दिखावा करना ; face fellwas downcast or sad,उदास हो गया; come offprove a successful plan, be possible,संभव हो पाना ;to spareto pay as fees,फीस देने के लिए पैसा l

 Pages 30-31

probablyperhaps.शायद ; puzzledconfused, surprised, dazed,उलझन में पड़ गया ; summonedcalled, बुलाया गया; vaguelyroughly, not clearly, अस्पष्ट रूप से ; dazedunable to think clearly, स्तब्ध,सन्न रह गया ; expelledturned out, निष्कासित किया गया ; mincing wordsspeaking plainly,स्पष्ट भाषी हो रहा था ; of your own accordwillingly,स्वेच्छापूर्वक; constantalways,निरन्तर ; rebellionrevolt,विद्रोह; stalked outwalked out proudly,अकड़कर बाहर निकला; ignoreddisregarded,अनसुना कर दिया l  

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (Albert Einstein at School)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Albert Einstein at School)

Complete Summary

Einstein was studying at a German school in Munich. His History teacher Mr Braun asked him in which year Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo by the Prussians. The boy confessed bluntly that he didn’t know the year, and he must have forgotten. The teacher wanted to know if Einstein ever tried to learn. Einstein again said with usual honesty that he did not see any point in learning dates. He argued that one can always look up the dates in a book. There was no sense in learning facts which were not the aim of education. The teacher then asked the boy to tell the class his theory of education.

Albert Einstein told the class that in his opinion it was more important to know the ideas than to learn dates or facts. He would rather like to know why the soldiers tried to kill one another. The teacher shouted that Einstein was a disgrace to the school, and he had better ask his father to take him away.

Albert felt very miserable. It was a had day. He didn’t feel like going back to that hateful school the following morning. But his father was not likely to lake him away until he (Einstein) had taken his diploma. Being poor, he was putting up in a room m the poorest part of Munich. He hated that place also because of a slum atmosphere. His landlady beat her children regularly. and on weekends she herself was thrashed by her drunk husband.

Albert was lucky to have a very sincere friend — Yuri. Ile discussed his problem of schooling as well as lodging with him. He doubted if he would ever pass the exams for the school diploma. He discussed his problem with his cousin, Elsa, when she came to Munich. She advised him to take the bean and just repeat what he learnt in the examination. But his problem was that he was not good at learning things by heart. She enquired which book he was carrying under his arm. It was a book on Geology and not a textbook at all. He studied it because he liked the subject. His second interest was music, He played upon his violin regularly until his landlady asked him to stop that noise. She had already enough of howling by the kids.

Albert told Yuri after six months that he must get away from there. It was absurd that he should waste his father’s money. He wished to go to Milan, Italy. He requested Yuri to get him a doctor’s certificate that he had a nervous breakdown and he must leave the city. Yuri contacted his friend, Dr. Ernst Weil, though not a specialist in nervous disorders. He asked Albert to be honest about his intention of meeting the doctor. The doctor agreed to certify that Albert had a nervous breakdown, and he must stay away from school for six months. The doctor didn’t charge any fee for his service. Six months was a pretty long period. Albert won’t be leaving the school, and need be, he could come back to do his diploma.

Albert planned to take that medical certificate to the head teacher the next day. But Yuri advised him to get a reference in writing from his Maths teacher, Mr Koch, first. Mr Koch agreed with Albert that the latter was wasting his time in that class in Munich because he knew much more than even his teacher. He gave a certificate that Albert was ready to join some college for the study of higher Maths.

The head teacher sent for Albert and told him that he wanted the boy to leave the school at once. It was a sort of expulsion. The other way was that Albert should go of his own accord. The head teacher’s point was that Albert refused to learn, and he was in constant rebellion. Albert declared that he was going to leave even otherwise. He walked out of the office and the school where he had spent five miserable years. Yuri saw him off with good wishes and good luck. He hoped that Albert would he happier in Milan.

Summary in Hindi/ Albert Einstein at School

Summary in Hindi

आइंस्टीन एक जर्मन स्कूल में पढ़ रहा था जो म्यूनिख में स्थित था I इसके इतिहास शिक्षक मि.ब्रान ने पूछा नेपोलियन ने किस सन में वाटरलू में प्रशिया द्वारा पराजय का मुँह देखा था I बालक ने दो टूक शब्दों में स्वीकार कर लिया कि वह सन नहीं बता सकता, वह शायद भूल गया था शिक्षक ने जानना चाहा कि क्या तुमने कभी कोई तथ्य याद रखने का प्रयास किया है ? आइंस्टीन ने पुनः ईमानदारी से मान लिया कि उसे एक तारीखें या सन याद करने में रुचि नहीं हैं I उसने तर्क दिया कि ये तत्व तो किसी भी पुस्तक में मिल जाते हैं I उन्हें रटने में कोई बुद्धिमत्ता नहीं है और शिक्षा का यह उद्देश्य भी नहीं है I  शिक्षक ने अलबर्ट को कहा कि अच्छा तुम्हीं शिक्षा के लक्ष्य के बारे में बताओ I

अलबर्ट ने कक्षा को बताया मेरी राय में तथ्यों तथा तारीखों को याद करने से अधिक महत्वपूर्ण है विचारों का अध्ययन I मैं तो यह जानना चाहूँगा कि सैनिक क्यों एक दूसरे से जान के दुश्मन बन गए I शिक्षक ने चीख कर कहा कि तुम तो स्कूल के लिए कलंक या अपमान हो I तुम तो अपने पिता से कहो कि तुम्हें इस स्कूल से निकाल ले जाएँ I

अल्बर्ट बहुत दुखी हुआ I सारा दिन बुरा गुजरा I उसकी इच्छा नहीं हुई कि वह अगले दिन उसे स्कूल में जाए I पर उसके पिता तो उसे यहाँ से तब तक नहीं निकालेंगे जब तक वह डिप्लोमा हासिल नहीं कर लेता I निर्धन होने के कारण वह म्यूनिख के एक पिछड़े निर्धनों की बस्ती में एक कमरा किराए पर लेकर रह रहा था I उसे इस बस्ती से भी नफरत थी क्योंकि यहाँ का वातावरण गंदी बस्तियों वाला था I उसकी मकान मालकिन अपने बच्चों की रोज ही पिटाई किया करती थी,तथा सप्ताहांत में उसकी अपनी पिटाई नशे में धुत पति द्वारा होती थी I

अलबर्ट को सौभाग्य से एक अच्छा मित्र यूरी मिल गया था I उसने यूरी से अपने स्कूल की तथा निवास स्थान की समस्या की चर्चा की I उसने बताया कि मैं स्कूल डिप्लोमा के लिए होने वाली परीक्षा पास नहीं कर पाऊँगा I उसने इस समस्या का जिक्र अपनी चचेरी बहन ऐल्सा से भी किया जब वह म्यूनिख आई I बहन ने समझाया कि हिम्मत मत हारो तथा परीक्षा में जो कुछ तुम्हें आता हो वही लिख देना I पर अलबर्ट की समस्या तो यह थी कि वह कुछ भी तथ्य रट नहीं सकता था I बहन ने पूछा कि तुम्हारे बगल में दबी पुस्तक कौन-सी है I वह तो भू-विज्ञान विषय की थी जो उसके पाठ्यक्रम में शामिल नहीं था I अल्बर्ट का दूसरा शौक था – संगीत I वह नियमित रूप से वायलिन बजाया रहता था जब तक कि मकान मालकिन उसे शोर बन्द करने का आदेश नहीं देती थी I वह तो स्वयं ही बच्चों के शोर शराबे से तंग रहती थी I

अलबर्ट ने छह माह पश्चात यूरी को बोला कि वह म्यूनिख छोड़ देना चाहता है I अपने पिता का पैसा बर्बाद करना नहीं चाहता था I उसकी इच्छा थी कि इटली के मिलान नामक नगर में पढ़ाई करे I उसने यूरी से अनुरोध किया कि किसी डॉक्टर मित्र से मुझे एक सर्टिफिकेट दिलवा दे कि मुझे स्नायु संबंधी बीमारी है और मुझे इस नगर से बाहर चला जाना चाहिए यूरीन अपने साथी डा. अर्नेस्ट वील से बात की जो स्नायु विशेषज्ञ नहीं था I फिर भी उसने अलबर्ट से कहा कि डॉक्टर से वह सब कुछ सच-सच बोलना I यह प्रमाण पत्र देने को राजी हो गया कि अल्बर्ट को स्नायु संबंधी तकलीफ है और उसे छह माह तक स्कूल से अवकाश दिया जाना जरूरी है I डॉक्टर ने सेवा के लिए कोई फीस भी नहीं ली I छह माह तो काफी लंबा समय था I अलबर्ट को स्कूल छोड़ने की जरूरत न थी, और जरूरत हुई तो वह पुनः आकर अपनी डिप्लोमा की पढ़ाई शुरू कर सकता था I
अलबर्ट ने सोचा कि यह मेडिकल सर्टिफिकेट लेकर मुख्य शिक्षक के पास अगले दिन जाएगा I पर यूरी ने   सलाह दी कि पहले अपने गणित शिक्षक मि. कोच से एक प्रमाण पत्र ले लेना I मि. कोच भी अलबर्ट की इस बात से सहमत थे कि बालक अपना समय म्यूनिख की एक कक्षा में व्यर्थ नष्ट कर रहा है क्योंकि उसकी जानकारी तो उसके शिक्षक से भी बेहतर है I उन्होंने प्रमाण पत्र दे दिया I अल्बर्ट अब उच्च स्तरीय गणित का अध्ययन करने हेतु किसी कॉलेज में जा सकता था I

मुख्याध्यापक ने अलबर्ट को बुला भेजा तथा बोला कि तुम्हारे लिए बेहतर होगा कि स्कूल से निकल जाओ I यह तो एक प्रकार का निष्कासन था I दूसरा विकल्प यह था कि अलबर्ट स्वेच्छापूर्वक स्कूल छोड़कर चला जाए I उन्होंने कहा कि तुम पढ़ना ही नहीं चाहते, और हमेशा विद्रोह करते रहते हो अल्बर्ट बोला मैं तो वैसे ही स्कूल छोड़ कर जाने वाला था I वह ऑफिस से निकला तथा उस स्कूल को त्याग आया जहाँ उसने पाँच दुखदाई वर्ष बिताए थे यूरी ने उसे शुभेच्छाओं के साथ अलविदा बोला I उसे आशा थी अलबर्ट मिलान में खुश रहेगा I

Following is the complete question bank for Albert Einstein at School

Albert Einstein at School Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Questions 

1.What information do you gather about Albert and his pursuit of knowledge?

  Ans.   Albert was a brilliant boy at school. He was not satisfied with the sort of education provided at the Munich school. He knew a little more Maths than his Maths teacher. He hated to learn the dates of battles by heart. He believed that ideas were much more important than dates. He read books on Geology even though it was not taught at school. He was after ideas and not facts.

2. Why did the History teacher dislike Albert?

  Ans.   The History teacher, Mr Braun, never liked Albert who said frankly that there was no point in learning dates. He could not tell the year when the French were defeated at Waterloo. Mr Braun called the boy a disgrace and told him to leave school at once.

3. Why did Albert feel like leaving his school in Munich?

 Ans.   Albert hated the school in Munich, Germany. But he knew the importance of Getting a school diploma for admission in a college in Milan. The teachers at Munich were insensitive to his feelings. The History teacher, Mr Braun was most hostile to him. Albert felt miserable there. He was afraid he would have a nervous breakdown.

4. Who was Mr Koch? What did he think about Albert?

  Ans.   Mr Koch was Albert’s Maths teacher at the Munich school. He had a very high opinion about the boy’s brilliance. He even admitted that Albert would soon be able to teach him. He gave a glowing letter of reference to Albert that he was good enough to study higher Maths.

5. Who was Yuri? How did he help Albert?

   Ans. Yuri was Albert’s friend and the only person who stood by Albert when he was feeling miserable at school and also at his lodging. He helped Albert with his sincere advice. He introduced him to his doctor friend who agreed to give him a medical certificate. He was the only person in Munich whom Albert had seen before he left.

6. In what context and in what sense did Yuri call Albert—The world’s worst liar’?

   Ans. Albert felt so miserable in Munich that he wanted to get away from there at any cost. He sought his friend. Yuri’s help to get a medical certificate. He asked Yuri if he had a doctor friend who could certify that he (Alberti was suffering from a nervous breakdown and needed a breakfront school. But Yuri said that Albert looked quite cheerful, and the doctor would guess that he was fine because he was not good even at telling a lie. Yuri called Albert the world’s worst liar and told him to be frank with the doctor.

7. Why did Albert feel nervous when he met the doctor?

Ans.   Albert on Yuri’s advice agreed to see Dr Ernst Weil for the certificate. He wished that the doctor should certify that he was likely to suffer a nervous breakdown if he continued going to school. It was just an excuse. So he felt nervous. He did not know what to tell the doctor.

8. What reason did the headmaster give for expelling Albert from school?

Ans.   The headteacher charged Albert with creating problems in the class. His presence in the classroom made it impossible for the teacher to teach and for other students to a team, He said that Albert refused to learn and he was always in a rebellious mood. So he must leave school.

9. What was Albert’s theory of education?

  Ans.   Albert had a brilliant mind. Inc was a genius. He hated to learn the dates of history by heart. He thought that not facts but ideas really mattered. He did not see any point in learning the dates of bathes; instead, it would be more useful to learn as to why these battles were fought.

10. How did Mr Braun chide and curse Einstein?

 Ans. Mr Braun was a History teacher in Munich School. He asked Albert in what year the Prussians had defeated Napoleon. Albert honestly said that he did not see any point in learning dates. Mr Braun took him to the task. He said Albert was a disgrace and he should leave school.

11. Albert felt distressed even in his rented lodging. Why?

 Ans.    Albert was feeling miserable when he returned to his rented room in the locality. of the poor. There was dirt, bad food and noise. But what he hated most was its slum-like atmosphere. His landlady heats up her children and shouted at them every day. And she herself was beaten by her drunk husband every weekend when he came home.

12. How did Albert’s cousin Elsa try to persuade him to go on with his studies at Munich?

Ans.   Elsa, Albert’s cousin, tried to bring him round to complete his term for the diploma. She said that he did not have to understand what he was taught. He should just cram the answers for the exams. But Albert was not convinced.

13. What really cheered Albert while he had to stay at Munich much against his will?

Ans.   Albert had two hobbies. He read books on Science and enjoyed playing his violin. Again he was asked by his landlady to stop making “that wailing sound” in the house where children were already howling. His Science books and violin cheered him in that otherwise miserable atmosphere.

14. How did Dr Ernst Well treat and oblige Albert?

Ans. Yuri contacted his friend Dr Ernst Weil and explained Albert’s problem to him. The doctor agreed to help Albert. He noted that Albert was close to a nervous breakdown. He handed Albert a medical certificate, certifying that the boy must stay away from school for at least six months.

 Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value-based questions-

Long Answer Questions (up to 100 words)

1. How did Albert feel at school and at his lodging in Munich?

Ans.   Albert was studying in a German school in Munich. But he felt very cramped and suffocated there. He was intelligent, honest and truthful. He admitted frankly that he did not believe in learning the dates of historical events. In his opinion, ideas mattered much more than facts. He was taunted and scoled by Mr Braun every day. His interest lay chiefly in Maths and Geology. The History teacher reported against him to the Headmaster who threatened to expel him. So he felt miserable there.

Due to lack of money his father had rented a room for Albert in a very poor locality. The atmosphere of slum violence there disturbed him a lot. The landlady objected to his playing the violin and she shouted and beat up her children every day.

2.  What was Albert’s philosophy of education? Do you subscribe to his view?

Ans. Albert had a brilliant mind. He studied Geology when hardly any Science was taught at school. He clashed with his History teacher one day. He declared that he did not see any point in learning dates of battles. He explained his theory of education to the class. He said that ideas mattered more than the dates of battles.

Mr Braun called him a disgrace, an ungrateful boy who had better leave school. Albert Einstein’s philosophy of education certainly makes sense. No sensible person can support simply cramming the subjects for passing exams.

3. Bring out the contribution of Yuri, Maths teacher, Mr Koch and Dr Ernst Well in enabling Albert to move off to Milan?

Ans.   Albert felt miserable in his school in Munich. Neither the teachers nor the quality of education suited his taste. He wanted to leave Munich and go back to his parents in Milan for higher studies. He felt that he was wasting his time at the Munich school. He sought the help of his only friend Yuri in this regard. Yuri helped him get a medical certificate from his doctor friend Ernst Weil. The doctor recommended that Albert needed a change for six months in view of his likelihood of a nervous breakdown. Equally helpful was Mr Koch, the Maths teacher. He admitted that Albert knew a little more Maths than him, and should join some college for the study of higher Maths. Thus, these three persons accelerated his departure.

4. Yuri was a great help to Albert while in Munich. Comment and Justify.

  Ans.   Albert Einstein was, so to say, a loner, a boy isolated at school as well as at his lodgings in Munich. The only person who stood by Albert was his friend Yuri. He put his problem before Yuri and sought his help in leaving his school as well as the city. Yuri tried in vain to persuade. Albert to pass the exam for the school diploma. Yuri agreed, at last, to take Albert to Dr Ernst Well to get him a medical certificate. The doctor certified that Albert was close to a nervous breakdown and must stay away from school for six months at least. Yuri also advised Albert to get a testimonial from his Maths teacher. He finally said goodbye and good luck to Albert, before the latter left Munich for Milan.

5. Describe how History teacher and the Headmaster humiliated Albert.

Ans. The History teacher, Mr Braun, was chiefly to blame for driving Albert out of school and then out of Munich. He humiliated Albert in the classroom. He asked the boy in which year the Prussians had defeated the French. Albert told him that he did not see any sense in learning the dates and facts by heart. He explained his theory of education that facts were not so important as ideas and students should try to know the reason behind such wars.

Mr Braun called him a disgrace, an ungrateful boy who ought to be ashamed of himself. He complained against the boy to the head teacher who again treated Albert harshly. He was going to expel the boy for disturbing the class. Albert left the school on his own accord and moved off to Milan, Italy.

6. Bring out some of the distinguished qualities of Albert’s character.

 Ans. Albert Einstein had a very bad time in Munich. He was grossly misunderstood by his school teacher. They thought that the boy was a constant nuisance as he refused to learn facts and figures and was rebellious or unruly by nature, so he had better leave school. Albert, in fact, had a brilliant mind and was much ahead of his classmates. He had a keen interest in higher Maths, Science and subjects like Geology. He was sensitive and head-strong but also very honest and straightforward. His tastes were refined. He loved music and played the violin. He was keen to join some college to study higher Maths. He felt miserable at his lodging as well. He hated the slum-like atmosphere and violence there. He wanted to go beyond the textbook and explore his favourite subjects deeply.

 Value Based Questions and Answers of Albert Einstein at School

1. The present educational system is by and large out of tune with the times. We need an efficient system of education.

 Ans. The present system of education is based entirely on cramming. The students are required to cram facts and figures, historical data and researches done in various fields in the past. They have no creative imagination. If a student shows signs of innovation, he is sidelined and the teachers declare him a rebel. As such the student’s initiative is stifled and he finds himself being suffocated.

Students found having new ideas should be encouraged and if possible they should be given all the help to develop their innovative ideas and give them practical shape. Today, success is measured by suitable answers to some pet questions in the examination. Instead of rote learning, students’ real ability and intelligence should be highlighted and they should be encouraged by their teachers to keep marching on the path of their new ideas. Many students do show extraordinary talent but they become a laughing stock only because the teachers themselves cannot keep pace with them. Special training should be arranged for such students so that they may bring laurels to their institutes and to their parents. Had Albert not left Munich for Milan, he would not have earned recognition and his talent would not have blossomed into full-fledged theories which proved to be a boon for the world.


Chapter- 3 Ranga’s Marriage- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 3 English Language and Literature

 Ranga’s Marriage

By- Maasthi Venkatesa Iyengar 

 Introduction of the lesson- Ranga’s Marriage


Ranga’s Marriage is an interesting story of how a person manipulates to get a young boy married to an eleven-year-old girl in a village. The story dates back to the early days of British rule when English was not used in a big way. Rangappa, the son of a village accountant, is sent to Bangalore to study. His homecoming after six months makes a big event. The curious villagers gather outside Ranga’s house to see how much the boy had changed. And they are sadly disappointed. The narrator discusses the issue of marriage with Ranga. He is piqued to hear his ideas about marriage. He resolves to get the boy married to a very young and immature 11-year-old girl Ratna. He seeks the support of Shastri’s astrology to bring Ratna round. And Ranga forgets his idealism and settles down happily.

The story depicts the life in Indian villages in the past when child marriage was a common practice.

 Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- (Ranga’s Marriage)

Word-meanings and References

Pages 16-17

rare breeduncommon type, विरले किस्म के; folkpeople,लोग; pursuecarry on, go ahead with,आगे बढ़ने हेतु; millgather, make a crowd,भीड़ लगा लेते हैं; mouth fillingbig and high sounding,भारी भरकम; weddingmarriage,विवाह; hencetherefore,अतएव; fancyattractive,आकर्षण; mentionreference,जिक्र; probablyperhaps,शायद; cartographerone who draws maps of a territory,नक्शा नवीस ; shadowtrace,चिह्न; karigadabua South Indian fried sweet,दक्षिण भारत की एक मिठाई; absolutelycompletely,पूर्णरूप से ; objectoppose,प्रतिवाद करना,विरोध करना; stuck toclung to,अड़े रहना; glowinglyin a praising manner,प्रशंसात्मक तरीके से ; annayyaa respectful term for an elder, आदर सूचक शब्द; fleapesteredtroubled by flea or insects,पिस्सू द्वारा परेशान; rawunripe,कच्चा,हरा; sournessthe tangy taste, खट्टापन; creepertrailing plant,लता,बेल; beholdsee,देखना; feastlovely, pleasant,सुखद; ramblinggoing off the point,भटकनाl

Pages 18-19

disgracefulhumiliating, shameful,शर्मनाक; changeloose small coins,सिक्के,रेजगारी; mutteringmumbling not speaking clearly,बुड़-बुड़ करती; priceless commodityuseful thing,बहुमूल्य वस्तु; decadea period of ten years,दशक; immaturenot mature, childish,बचकाना; janewalruathe sacred thread worn by the Brahmans,जनेऊ; melted awaydispersed,तितर-बितर हो गया; lump–  a shapeless mass,ढेला; blessinggood wishes,आशीर्वाद; aspectside, part, पहलू ; assessedestimated, judged,परखा हुआ था; stiffinflexible, hard and upright,सख्त; pleasantrieslight conversation,हल्की फुल्की बातें ; consideratethoughtful, विचारशील; generouscharitable,उदार मना; recentlysometime back,पिछले दिनों ; troupeparty or company of performers,मण्डली ; matureintelligent, fully developed, परिपक्व बुद्धि वाला ; stainsspots,धब्बे ; bitter gourda vegetable,करेला; distressedpained,दुखी; chattingtalking,बतियाना made up my minddetermined,निश्चय कर लिया I

Pages 20-21

frequentalmost regular,अक्सर; fetchbring, take,ले जाए; thresholddoorstep,दहलीज़; curiouseager, उत्सुक; peeped inlooked in secretly,झाँक ा; blockedcovered, stopped,बंद हो गया; abruptlysuddenly, all at once,बंद हो गया, savouringtasting,स्वाद लेना; peelouter skin,छिलका; disappointmentloss of hope,निराशा,उदासी ; glancedlooked,देखा ; embarrassedashamed, upset,शर्मिन्दा ; overcome by shynessfeeling very shy,लाज से दबी ; shelterrefuge,शरण,आश्रय ; vowedtook a pledge, swore,शपथ लेना; fledran away, escaped,भाग गया; betrayshow,दिखाई देना; shrivelledcontracted,सिकुड़ गया; roastedbaked on tire, भुना हुआ ; brinjala vegetable,बैंगन; tutoredinstructed, taught,सिखा दिया l

Pages 22-23

usualnormal, as on other occasions,सामान्य; processactivity,प्रक्रिया; protestobjection,विरोध ,प्रतिवाद ; rarelynot often or frequent,बहुत कम; paraphernaliabooks, etc., पोथी पत्र ; astrologythe science of foretelling, ज्योतिष विधा ; ancientvery old, अति प्राचीन; indicatedshowed, told through movement of head,संकेत दिया ; mosssmall green plants,काई ; pearla precious round cream-coloured stone,रत्न; negotiationstalks about marriage,विवाह वार्ता ; bear fruitprove successful,सफल होना ; face had fallenlooked sad, उदास हो गय ा; marvellouswonderful, grand, भव्य; tinyvery small,छोटा I

 Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– (Ranga’s Marriage)/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – (Ranga’s Marriage)

Complete Summary

The narrator is called Shyama. He himself admits that he is like a dark piece of oilcake. He lives in Hosahalli village. He is sad to see that his village finds no mention in any geography book, nor a place in any atlas. But in his opinion, the village has several unique features. There are mango trees and creeping plants in the village pond. The best way to know the village is to visit it.

Shyama proceeds to tell a story that happened ten years ago. In those days, not many people knew English. So when the village accountant sent his son Ranga to Bangalore to study, it became news. Naturally, his homecoming after six months was also a great event. The news spread like wildfire. The villagers flocked to the boy’s house to see him. Shyama was also a part of the crowd. But everyone was disappointed. They noticed no change in Ranga. An old lady even ran her hand over Ranga’s chest. She was happy to note that the boy had not thrown away the sacred thread.

 The crowd melted away soon. Shyama then spoke to Ranga who did a namaskara most respectfully and even touched the narrator’s feet. He got the blessing to get married soon.

That afternoon, Ranga came to Shyama’s house with a couple of oranges. Shyama thought that such a generous fellow must get married, settle down and be of service to the society. He asked Rangappa when he planned to marry. But Ranga declared point blank that he was not going to marry unless he found the right girl. He had his own rigid views about marriage. It was silly to marry a very young and immature girl. Secondly, a man should marry a girl he admires. He was against the arranged marriage. Shyama was a little put out. Nevertheless, he made up his mind right then to find a match for Ranga.

And he didn’t have to wait and seek. Rama Rao’s niece, a pretty girl of eleven, had come to stay in the village. She was from a big town. She could play upon the harmonium and sing in a sweet voice. Her parents had died. The narrator thought that the girl was the most suitable bride for Ranga. She was called Ratna.

The very next morning the narrator called Ratna as well as Ranga to his house. Ratna was wearing a saree. While she was singing, Ranga also arrived. He stood at the door and looked in. Ratna saw a stranger and stopped suddenly. Ranga was disappointed. He glanced at her repeatedly. The shy girl ran inside. Ranga then enquired about her and asked whether she was married or not. Shyama told a lie that Ratna was married a year ago. Ranga’s face contracted like roasted brinjal.

Shyama went to Shastriji next morning and tutored him what he was to say to Ranga. That very afternoon Shyama met Ranga who seemed lost in thought. But both went to see Shastriji who was happy to see the boy. As fixed up already, he took out his astrology books and made some calculations. Then he declared that Ranga was thinking about some girl. She had the name of something found in the ocean. They agreed on Ratna as the right girl for the boy. But Ranga’s happiness was short-lived. Shyama repeated that Ratna was already married.

 They left the place together. On the way, Shyama walked into Ratna’s house. He brought happy news for Ranga that the girl wasn’t married yet. And the two were united in marriage before long.

Several years passed. One day, Ranga came to Shyama’s house to invite him to dinner. The occasion was the birthday of his three-year-old son. They had named the child Shyama as a mark of respect to the person who had negotiated their marriage. Shyama went to Ranga’s house for dinner. As a birthday gift, he placed a gold ring on the child’s little finger.

Summary in Hindi/ Ranga’s Marriage

Summary in Hindi

लेखक का नाम है श्यामा I वह स्वयं स्वीकारता है कि वह खली के काले पड़े ढेले की भाँति है I वह होसाहल्ली गाँव में रहता है I उसे इस बात का खेद है कि उसके गाँव का वर्णन किसी भी भूगोल की पुस्तक में नहीं है न ही उसे एटलस में कहीं दिखाया गया है I पर उसकी राय में उसका गाँव कई दृष्टि से अनूठा है I वहाँ आम के वृक्ष हैं तथा गाँव की ताल में एक बेल है I उस गाँव के बारे में जानकारी पाने का सर्वोत्तम तरीका है कि वहाँ जाकर देखा जाए I
श्यामा अब वह कहानी सुनाता है जो दस वर्ष पूर्व घटी थी I उन दिनों अंग्रेजी जानने वाले लोगों की संख्या बहुत कम थी I इसलिए जब गाँव के लेखाकार ने अपने बेटे रंगप्पा को बैंगलोर पढ़ने के लिए भेजा तो वह एक समाचार बन गया I स्वभाविक रूप से उसके छह माह पश्चात घर लौटना भी एक बड़ी घटना बन गई I यह समाचार जंगल में आग की भाँति फैल गया I सभी गाँववासी उस लड़के के घर उसे देखने पहुँच गए I श्यामा भी उस जनसमूह में शामिल था I पर सभी लोगों को निराशा हुई I उन्हें रंगा में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं देखा I  एक वृद्धा ने तो रंगा की छाती पर हाथ फेरा तथा उसे यह जानकर खुशी हुई कि बालक अभी भी जनेऊ धारण किए हुए है I
भीड़ धीरे-धीरे छट गई I श्यामा ने रंगा से बात की, रंगा ने उन्हें सादर नमस्कार किया तथा उसके चरण स्पर्श भी किए I उसे आशीर्वाद ही मिल गया कि तुम्हारा विवाह शीघ्र ही संपन्न हो जाए I
उसी शाम रंगा श्यामा के घर दो संतरे लेकर पहुँच गया I श्यामा को लगा कि ऐसे उदार हृदय व्यक्ति का विवाह शीघ्र हो जाना चाहिए I वह घर बसा ले और समाज की सेवा करे I उन्होंने रंगप्पा से पूछा कि तुमने कब विवाह करने का विचार किया है I पर रंगा ने दो टूक जवाब दिया कि जब तक उसकी पसंद की लड़की नहीं
मिलती वह विवाह नहीं करेगा I उसके विवाह के बारे में कुछ कठोर विचार थे I उसके अनुसार किसी भी छोटी आयु की अधिपक्व बुद्धि वाली लड़की से विवाह करना मूर्खता है I दूसरी बात, व्यक्ति को उसी लड़की से विवाह करना चाहिए जो उसे पसंद हो I वह माता-पिता द्वारा संयोजित विवाह नहीं करना चाहता था I श्यामा उदास से हो गए I फिर भी उन्होंने ठान लिया कि वे रंगा के लिए कोई लड़की शीघ्र ही खोज लेंगे I और उन्हें उसे खोजने के लिए प्रतीक्षा नहीं करनी पड़ी I रामाराव की भतीजी, ग्यारह वर्षीय सुन्दर लड़की, किसी बड़े नगर से गाँव में रहने आ गई थी I वह हारमोनियम बजाने तथा मधुरस्वर में गाने में निपुण थी I उसके माता-पिता स्वर्ग सिधार चुके थे I लेखक ने सोचा कि यही लड़की रंगा के लिए सर्वत्र उपयुक्त रहेगी उस लड़की का नाम था रत्ना I

अगली सुबह ही लेखक ने रत्ना को तथा रंगा को अपने घर पर बुला लिया I रत्ना साड़ी पहने थी तथा गाना गा रही थी I रंगा भी तभी आ गया I दरवाजे पर खड़े होकर उसने अन्दर झाँका I रत्ना ने किसी अजनबी को देखकर गायन छोड़ दिया I रंगा को निराशा हुई I उसने लड़की पर बार-बार दृष्टि डाली; रत्ना शरमाकर अंदर भाग गई I फिर रंगा ने उस लड़की के बारे में पूछा कि वह विवाहित है अथवा कुँवारी I श्यामा ने झूठ बोला कि रत्ना का विवाह तो एक वर्ष पूर्व ही हो चुका था I रंगा का चेहरा ऐसे सिकुड़ गया जैसे भुना हुआ बैंगन सिकुड़ जाता है I

श्यामा अगली प्रातः शास्त्री के पास गए I उन्होंने उसे सिखा-पढ़ा दिया कि रंगा से उन्हें क्या कहना है I उसी शाम श्यामा रंगा से मिले जो विचारों में खोया हुआ था I पर दोनों ही शास्त्री के घर पहुँच गए; शास्त्री रंगा को देखकर प्रसन्न हो गए I पूर्व निर्धारित कार्यक्रम के अनुसार शास्त्री ने ज्योतिष की पुस्तकें निकाली तथा कुछ गणना की I फिर उन्होंने बताया कि रंगा किसी लड़की के बारे में सोच रहा है I उस लड़की का नाम समुद्र में पाई जाने वाली किसी वस्तु के आधार पर है I सभी सहमत हो गए कि रत्ना ही रंगा के लिए उपयुक्त लड़की है पर रंगा की खुशी काफूर हो गई जब श्यामा ने दोहराया कि रत्ना का तो विवाह हो चुका है I

वे दोनों साथ-साथ वापिस चल दिए I रास्ते में श्यामा रत्ना के घर के अन्दर गए I वह रंगा के लिए एक सुखद समाचार लाए कि लड़की अभी कुँवारी है और बिना विलम्ब के रंगा का रत्ना से विवाह हो गया I

अनेक वर्ष बीत गए I एक दिन रंगा श्यामा के घर पर उन्हें भोजन का निमन्त्रण देने गया I अवसर था उसके तीन वर्षीय बेटे का जन्मदिन I उन्होंने बच्चे का नाम भी श्यामा रखा था I इस प्रकार से उन्होंने अपना विवाह कराने वाले के प्रति अपना आदर मान दिखाया I श्यामा रंगा के घर भोजन के लिए गए I जन्मदिन उपहार के रूप में उन्होंने बच्चे की छोटी अंगुली में एक सोने की अंगूठी पहना दी I

Following is the complete question bank for (Ranga’s Marriage)

Ranga’s Marriage Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

Short Answer Questions 

1.What were the two distinctive features of the village Hosahalli?

Ans.  The narrator speaks glowingly of his village. Hosahalli. He lists a number of distinctive features of the place. It has a doctor who had travelled widely. Then there are some special mango trees and a creeper growing in the village pond.

2. How does the narrator give us a vague picture of Indian villages during the British rule?

Ans. During the British rule, Indian villages were poor and undeveloped. Very few people could understand or speak English. So when Ranga was sent to Bangalore to study, it was a great event. Early marriage was a common practice. Ratna was married off when she was just eleven years old.

3. Why was Ranga’s homecoming a great event?

Ans. Ranga was the son of the village accountant. He was sent to Bangalore to study in an English school. People were very excited when Ranga returned home after six months. They expected a big change in the boy. So they rushed to his doorstep. His homecoming became a great event.

4. What role does the narrator play in the life of Rangappa?

Ans.   Shyama, the narrator, resolves to get Ranga married. He lays a trap for Ranga. He invites both, Ratna and Ranga to his house so that they see each other. There, as the narrator had thought, Ranga becomes attracted to Ratna. Finally, the narrator manages to get them married. Thus, the narrator plays the role of a match-maker.

5. What were Ranga’s views on the selection of a bride and marriage in general?

Ans. Rangappa had no intention to marry unless he found the right girl. He wanted a mature girl and also one whom he admired. He was against arranged marriage and against marrying an adolescent girl. If he failed to find the girl of his choice, he was ready to remain a bachelor.

6. Who was Ratna?

 Ans. Ratna was the eleven-year-old pretty niece of Rama Rao. She had lost her parents. Since she was from a big town, she knew how to play the veena and the harmonium. She also had a sweet voice. Shyama played a key role in her marriage with Ranga.

7. How did the narrator bring Ranga and Ratna face to face?

Ans. The narrator called Ratna to his house to take away some buttermilk. When she came he requested her to sing a song. In the meantime, he also sent for Ranga, so that he could see the girl. His plan was successful. Ranga fell for the sweet-voiced young and pretty girl.

8. What tricks did the narrator play to intensify Ranga’s interest in Ratna?

Ans. At first, Ranga was against marrying a young and immature girl. But the narrator played his cards tactfully. He brought Ranga and Ratna face to face. When he noticed that Ranga was attracted to the girl, he lied to him that Ratna had got married recently. Ranga was sad and disappointed on hearing this. Then with the help of the village astrologer, the narrator convinces Ranga that Rama was the girl for him. Even the stars predicted the same. Thus, Rana was convinced and he married Ratna.

9. Why did the narrator resolve to get Ranga married?

Ans.   The narrator was pleased when Ranga greeted him respectfully and later came to meet him with a couple of oranges. He thought that such a decent boy should marry and settle down. But Ranga had his own views about an ideal life-partner. He was willing to remain single until he found the right gid. So the narrator made up his mind to get the boy married soon.

10.  What role does Shastri play in bringing about Ranga and Ratna together?

Ans.   The narrator sought the help of Shastri in bringing Ranga and Rama together. He tutored Shastri, the astrologer. He took Ranga to his house. Shastriji read the stars and made calculations. He finally declared that the girl in Ranga’s mind has the name of something found in the ocean. It could be Ratna as well. Ranga was convinced that even stars wanted that he should marry Ratna.

11. How did Ranga and Ratna express their gratitude to the narrator?

Ans. Several years passed since the marriage of Ranga and Ratna. They had a three-year-old son now. Ranga invited the narrator for dinner at his house on the child’s birthday. There he came to know that the child was named “Shyama” after him. That was how the Iwo youngsters expressed their gratitude to Shyama.

12. Why did the narrator tell a lie about Ratna’s marital status?

Ans. The narrator noted Ranga’s growing interest in Rama. Ranga enquired if she was married. The narrator told a lie that she was married a year ago. He said so to see Ranga’s reaction. Later on, he declared that she was not married yet. Ranga was surprised and happy, all willing to marry Ratna.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions (up to 100 words)

1. Give a brief account of Ranga’s education, his views on marriage and finally how he got married.

Ans. Ranga was the son of an accountant of Hosahalli village. He made news when he went to Bangalore to study further. In those days, not many people could speak or even understand English. So when he returned home after six months, a curious crowd of villagers gathered at his house to see the change in the boy. They were disappointed.

Ranga was unwilling to marry a very young and immature girl. He was willing to remain a bachelor until he found the right girl. He was opposed to arranged marriage. A man should marry a girl he admired—that was his clear-cut philosophy. But the narrator resolved to get Ranga married at the earliest. He so manipulated the situation that Ranga saw young Ratna got attracted to her and with the sanction of Shastri’s astrology, married her.

2. Why and how does the narrator conspire to get Ranga married?

   Ans. Ranga was a young educated, generous and promising boy. But he was adamant on not marrying a very young and immature girl, selected by his parents. He was bent upon staying single until he found the right girl whom he admired. The narrator resolved to get him married. lie thought of Rama. the eleven-year-old niece of Rama Rao. She could play the harmonium and even had a sweet voice. The narrator brought Ratna and Ranga face to face at his own house. He roused the boy’s interest in the girl. He declared that the girl was already married. But it was a lie. He conspired with Shastri to further Ranga’s interest in Ratna. Ranga was made to believe that even according to the Shastras he was destined to marry Ratna.

3. Briefly narrate the main events of the story ‘Ranga’s Marriage’.

  Ans.   Ranga is the son of a village accountant. He becomes a hero when he goes to Bangalore for studies. When he returns to Hosahalli village, after six months, the people make a crowd at his house. They are curious to see the change in him. But they go back disappointed. Ranga’s views about marriage are now quite different after his stay in the city. He declares he would marry a mature girl whom he himself selects and admires. The narrator Shyama is provoked to get him married to the young 11-year-old niece of Rama Rao. He calls both of them to his house. Ratna comes to fetch buttermilk. Ranga hears her sing and becomes interested in her. Shyama tutors the village Shastri who declares that the girl called Ratna is the right match for him. The marriage is solemnised soon. Ranga names his firstborn son after Shyama. It is his tribute to the narrator.

 Value Based Questions and Answers of Ranga’s Marriage

Value Based Questions

1. The institution of child marriage is deep-rooted in our society. Laws are present to check it but it is still prevalent in society. It is an evil which laws alone cannot annihilate. Something more is to be done. Discuss.

  Ans.   Child marriage is prohibited by law in our country. Strangely enough, this social tradition is still prevalent in society. Child marriage is a social evil. Thus, this social evil needs treatment at the social level and this responsibility lies on the shoulders of the social organisations. They should carry out intensive awareness programmes against child marriage. To fight this evil, young boys and girls should willingly come forward to oppose this tradition. They should not give consent to such marriages. Child marriage snatches away childhood and its dreams. It makes a girlchild’s life a virtual hell. Motherhood at a tender age leaves her weak physically and mentally. As she is not well educated she does not know how to look after her children efficiently. The girls who become mothers at a tender age often die a premature death.

Those who try to perpetuate child marriage should be severely punished. The custodians of law, if found negligent, should be equally punished. More and more girls should be educated. Moreover, the girls must have more say when the question of their marriage crops up. Such measures can provide the only way to uproot this most heinous of the social evils.

2. To decry any language and any culture is not good. The bad thing is the unmindful aping of other cultures. Elucidate.

  Ans.   The widening influence of the western culture is all pervasive. Every culture has positive as well as negative points. Soaping any culture blindly is never good. English education has changed our lifestyle. It is good that it has made us broad-minded and we have rejected many age-old and outdated rites and rituals. Today, our women are no longer the slaves of men. They have their own say. But under the influence of western culture, we have ignored the good of our own culture. Junk food has replaced our healthy food. Materialism has made us forget the values of human relations. Cut-throat competition, a product of western culture has made us insensitive and brutish. Old Morals and values are forgotten. Marriage is a union of two families. So while having the right to choose one’s life partner one’s family’s role should not be ignored. We can conclude that we should try to form an amalgamation of positive points of different cultures and make this world a better place to live in.


Chapter-2 The Address- Extra Questions and Notes

Extra Questions, Notes, Assignment and study material for Class 11th as Per CBSE Syllabus

Chapter- 2 English Language and Literature

            The Address

                                                                                                      By- Marga Minco

 Introduction of the lesson- The Address


The Address is a very touching story. You can call it a tale of war, as it narrates two situations—one before the liberation war and the other post-war period. It revolves around the young daughter of Mrs S,s who in good faith allows her old time friend Mrs Dorling to carry away all the table silver and precious old things to her own house for safe-keeping. The narrator during her first homecoming notices many things missing. When she comes back home a second time, she sees Mrs Dorling taking away a heavy suitcase. She is also told by her mother to remember the address of Mrs Dorling. After the liberation, normalcy returns. The narrator feels like seeing and touching her things. She goes to Marconi Street address to see Mrs Dorling. There she gets a very cold reception from her and is not allowed to come inside. When she goes there the second time, Mrs Dorling’s daughter invites her in. The narrator is sad to see all her mother’s precious articles kept in the untidy room in a tasteless manner. Then she decides not to recover them. She even resolves to forget the address.

The story tells how war affects the lives of civilians as well. It disturbs the normal life and leads to conflicts and tension. The narrator loses her interest in her old stuff because they evoke the memories of her former life and make her nostalgic.

 Important Word-Meanings of difficult words from the lesson- The Address

Word-meanings and References

Pages 10-11

poignantpathetic,दयनीय; belongingsthings that belonged to her, furniture and crockery, etc.,अपनी चीजें; evokearouse, stoke up,जगा देना; resolvesmakes up her mind,निश्चय कर लेती है;  searchinglycuriously, doubtfully,खोजी द्दष्टि से; chinknarrow opening,दरार; preventstop, check,रोकना; absolutelycompletely,पूर्णरूप से; recognitionof familiarity,पहचान; staringlooking fixedly, एकटक देखती रही; it isn’t hershe is not the same woman or the right place,वही महिला  fleetinglyfor a moment or a short time, थोड़ी देर के लिए; probableperhaps,शायद ; let go offreed,छोड़ दिया; mustysmelling damp,सीलन युक्त ; emergedcame out,निकली; convenientcomfortable,सुविधापूर्ण; noddedshook her head in agreement or approval,हाँ के भाव से सिर  हिलाया; cautiouslycarefully,सावधानीपूर्वक; bay windowa window forming a recess,खिड़की जहाँ बैठने की जगह भी हो ; enamelpaint. smooth hard coating of colour,पेंट,रंग,; jambside post of the door or window,चौखट का एक भाग; struckoccurred,ध्यान में आया ; variousseveral, अनेक ; apparentlyclearly, स्पष्ट था ; acquaintancesame, familiar person, पूर्व परिचित महिला ; in one goin one trip,एक बार में; antiqueold-fashioned,पुराकालीन; luggingdragging heavy load,भारी बोझ घसीटते हुए  ; vasesflower pots, ornamental vessel,सजावटी पात्र ; crickmuscle problem,ऐंठन; shookmoved, हिलाया; insistedpressed hard,हठ की,बार बार कहा I

Page 12

entirely fully, पूर्णरूप स े; convincedassured,आश्वस्त; reprovinglyin a scolding manner,झिड़कते हुए; upsetdisturb discomfort,व्यथित करना; preciousgood old days, valuable,बहुमूल्य; beckonedmotioned, called with the movement of hand,बुलाया; noddedshook her head,सिर हिला दिया; initiallyat the start, at first,प्रारम्भ में; liberationfreedom,आज़ादी; stored stuffold things,पुरानी चीजें; confrontedface to face with,आमना-सामना करते हुए; enduredsurvived,सुरक्षित बनी रही  ; graduallyby and by,धीरे-धीरे; unthreatenedwith no fear,निर्भय होकर,बेखटके; glancingwatching, देखते रहे थे ; curiouseager about,जिज्ञासु; possessionsgoods, articles,वस्तुएँ ; doing an errandgone out on purpose,काम से बाहर गई I

Page 13

Passagecovered verandah or gallery,गलियारा; cumbersomeheavy,वजनी ; horrifiedtilled with fear,भयभीत; oppressedtroubled,व्यथित कर रही थी; tasteless wayclumsy, disorderly,फूहड़ तरीके से  ;  muggydamp,नमी युक्त; scarcelyhardly, at all,नहीं के बराबर; patterndesign,नमूना,डिज़ाईन  edgeborder,किनारा; pouredput, filled the cup with,डाला; lidcover, ढक्कन ; antiqueof olden times and precious,पुरानी ओर कीमती ; fanciedliked,पसन्द करती थी ; pewterzinc, an alloy made of tin and lead. जस्ता धातु I

Pages 14-15

cutleryknives, forks, spoons. etc.,छुरी,काँटे,आद ि; intentlykeenly, closely,ध्यानपूर्वक; Jinglingmetallic sound, खनक; objectsthings,वस्तुएँ; instantlyat once,तुरन्त; severedseparated,पृथक होन ा; shredssmall pieces, remains,छोटे-छोटे टुकड़े, अवशेष; resolveddetermined,निश्चय कर लिया  I

Short and Simple Summary of the lesson in English– The Address/ Summary in simple Words/ Critical appreciation of the lesson – The Address

Complete Summary

Holland was fighting for independence. The narrator had joined the forces. It was a long drawn and deadly war. Success seemed a far cry. The people doubted if any of the soldiers would return alive.

The narrator had only her mother Mrs S at home. Her mother was worried about the safety of her belongings. She had a lot of silver cutlery and antiques. One day, an old acquaintance of hers turned up unexpectedly. She was Mrs Dorling. She won the confidence of Mrs S and offered to take away Mrs S’s precious things to her own home for safe-keeping. And Mrs S accepted the offer thankfully.

The narrator was home for a few days during the first half of the war. She noticed the change in the room. She missed several things. She surprised the mother by her keen observation. It was then that Mrs S told her about Mrs Dorling who had kindly taken away all the table silver, vases, antique plates, crockery. Mrs Dorling promised to keep all those nice things safely. Mrs S, however, did not get an assurance that those things were returnable. Next morning, Mrs Dorling turned up again. This broad back woman was taking away the heavy suitcase stuffed with things. The mother introduced the narrator to Mrs Dorling. It was the first time the girl had met her. Mrs Dorling lived in Marconi Steet, House No. 46. The mother told the daughter to remember the address. And she did remember it for a long time.

After the war of liberation had come to an end, the narrator returned to her city.

Gradually, everything became more normal again. And one day the narrator was reminded of all her possessions. The mother was no more alive. She was alone, living in a single room. There was no space to recover all those things and keep them in that room. Still, she wanted to see them and touch them once. So she travelled by train to Marconi Street and rang the doorbell of house No. 46. A woman opened the door partly. Through the narrow opening, she studied the visitor. She was Mrs Dorling herself. She hadn’t expected the girl to come back home alive. She refused to recognise the visitor. The narrator for a while wondered if she had come to the wrong place. But her doubt was removed when she saw Mrs Dorling wearing her mother’s green knitted cardigan.

So she had come to the right address. Mrs Dorling could not help asking how she alone had survived the war. She refused to let the visitor into the house. She closed the door also. The narrator looked at the nameplate again. It said Dorling, Number 46. She walked back to the station and travelled back the memory lane. Her first visit to Mrs Dorling’s house was in vain. But she didn’t accept defeat. She decided to try a second time.

This time, Mrs Dorling’s 15-year-old daughter opened the door. Mrs Dorling wasn’t at home. The narrator decided to wait. She followed the girl along the passage. She saw her heavy candle holders hung next to a mirror. She was taken to the living room. She found herself in the midst of things which she wanted to see. But she was pained to see them arranged in a tasteless way. The furniture was ugly and the air was damp smelling. She sat down at a table and noticed that the table cloth was hers. It had a burn mark to the edge, left unrepaired by her mother.

 The girl said that her mother would be back soon and she had already made tea for her. The girl offered a cup to the visitor as well. She opened a box and took some spoons out. All those things were a part of the narrator’s mother’s belongings. She realised that one got so very used to things that one didn’t notice them intently. Mrs Dorling’s daughter also never noticed that the cutlery she used every day was silver. She opened a drawer to bring out more spoons and forks. But the narrator didn’t wait to see them. She didn’t want to meet Mrs Dorling. So she jumped up to go to catch her train.

At the corner of the road, she looked up at the nameplate. The address was correct. But she didn’t want to remember it any more. She had no intention to visit that house again. She had lost interest in the things that had been taken away from her house and put in strange surroundings. Moreover, she had no need of them in her small rented room. Only a handful of cutlery fitted in the narrow table drawer. So she made up her mind to forget that address forever, and it was quite easy to do now.

Summary in Hindi/ The Address

Summary in Hindi

हालैण्ड आजादी की जंग लड़ रहा था I लेखिका सेना में भर्ती हो गई थी I युद्ध लम्बा तथा भीषण था I सफलता जैसे दूर की कौड़ी-सी दिख रही थी I लोगों को शक था कि कोई भी सैनिक युद्ध से जीवित लौटेगा I

घर पर लेखिका की माँ ही थी I उसे अपनी चीजों की सुरक्षा की चिन्ता सता रही थी I उसके पास ढेर-से चाँदी के छुरी-काँटे तथा बहुमूल्य पुरानी चीजें थी I एक दिन उसकी एक पुरानी सहेली अप्रत्याशित रूप से आ गई I उसका नाम था Mrs. Dorling I Mrs.S’s का विश्वास जीत लिया I उसने सुझाव दिया कि Mrs.S’s की चीज़ों को अपने घर सुरक्षा हेतु ले जाए I लेखिका की माँ ने उसकी इस पेशकश को सधन्यवाद स्वीकार कर लिया I

लेखिका युद्ध के प्रथम आधे समय में कुछ दिनों के लिए घर आई थी I उसने कमरे में कुछ परिवर्तन देखा I उसे कुछेक वस्तुएँ वहाँ से गायब दिखी I उसने माँ को हैरान कर दिया I तभी माँ ने उसे Mrs.Dorling के बारे में बताया जो उसके  चाँदी के छुरी-काँटे, पात्र, पुरानी प्लेटें तथा कप-प्याले कृपा करके अपने घर ले गई थी Mrs.Dorling ने वचन दिया था कि वह सभी चीजें सुरक्षित रखेगी I पर Mrs.S’s ने उससे यह वचन नहीं लिया था कि वह सभी चीज़ों को कभी लौटा देगी I अगली प्रातः Mrs. Dorling पुनः आ गई I  चौड़ी पीठ वाली महिला एक भारी सूटकेस जिसमें अनेक चीजें भरी थी, लिए जा रही थी I माँ ने लेखिका का परिचय Mrs.Dorling से करा दिया I पहली बार में कितने Mrs.Dorling को देखा था जो मार्कोनी स्ट्रीट में, घर नं. 46 में रहती थी I माँ ने बेटी को बोला कि इस पते को याद रखना I और एक अरसे तक लेखिका उस पते को याद रखे रही I
आजादी की लड़ाई समाप्त हो गई, लेखिका अपने शहर वापिस लौट आई I
धीरे-धीरे सब कुछ सामान्य होने लगा I माँ अब जीवित नहीं थी I लेखिका अकेले ही एक कमरे में रह रही थी  I उसमें इतनी जगह न थी कि सारी चीजें वापस लेकर कमरे में सजा ले I फिर भी उसकी इच्छा हुई कि एक बार तो उन चीजों को देख ले, स्पर्श कर ले I इसलिए वह रेलगाड़ी से मार्कोनी स्ट्रीट गई और वहाँ उसने 46 नं.  घर की घंटी बजाई I एक महिला ने दरवाजा आधा खोल कर देखा I उस दरार से उसने आगन्तुक को पहचाना I वह Mrs.Dorling ही थी I जिसने इस लड़की के युद्ध से जीवित लौट आने की कोई उम्मीद नहीं थी I उसने लेखिका को पहचानने से इंकार कर दिया I लेखिका को एक क्षण ऐसा लगा कि कहीं वह गलत पते पर तो नहीं आ गई थी I और उसका संदेह दूर हो गया जब उसने Mrs.Dorling को अपनी माँ का हरा कार्डिगन पहने देखा I

तो वह सही पते पर ही आई थी I Mrs.Dorling पूछ बैठी कि तुम युद्ध से जीवित किस प्रकार लौट आई I उसने लेखिका को घर के अंदर नहीं बुलाया I उसने दरवाजा बंद कर दिया I लेखिका ने नाम पट्टिका पर पुनः दृष्टि डाली I उस पर लिखा था Dorling नं.46 I वह वापिस स्टेशन आ गई तथा स्मृतियों में खो गई I उसकी Mrs . Dorling के घर पर पहली मुलाकात तो निष्फल हो गई थी, पर उसने हार नहीं मानी I उसने दोबारा प्रयास करने का निर्णय ले लिया I

इस बार Mrs.Dorling की 15 वर्षीय बेटी ने दरवाजा खोला I Mrs.Dorling घर पर नहीं थी I लेखिका ने घर बैठकर प्रतीक्षा करने का विचार किया I लड़की के पीछे-पीछे वह गलियारे में चल पड़ी I उसने अपना एक मोमबत्ती स्टैंड दर्पण के निकट रखा देखा I वह बैठक में पहुँच गई I उसे चारों ओर अपनी वही चीजें दिखाई दी जिन्हें वह देखना चाहती थी I पर उसे यह देखकर पीड़ा हुई कि उन चीजों को फूहड़ढंग से रखा गया था I फर्नीचर टूटा-फूटा था तथा उसमें सीलन की बू आ रही थी वह एक मेज़ पर बैठ गई तथा देखा कि मेज़पोश उसका अपना ही था I  उसके किनारे पर जलने का एक दाग बना हुआ था जिसकी मरम्मत माँ ने नहीं की थी I

लड़की ने बताया कि माँ आने वाली वाली है तथा उसने उन्हीं के लिए चाय बना रखी है I लड़की ने लेखिका को एक  चाय का प्याला थमाया I उसने एक डिब्बा खोला तथा कुछ चम्मच निकाले I यह सभी चीजें उसकी माँ की ही संपदा थी I उसने महसूस किया कि व्यक्ति रोजमर्रा इस्तेमाल की जाने वाली चीजों का इतना आदी हो जाता है कि उनको ध्यान से नहीं देख पाता I Mrs.Dorling की बेटी ने भी कभी यह महसूस नहीं किया कि उसके छुरी-काँटे चाँदी के है I उसने एक दराज खोली ताकि चम्मच और काँटे निकाले I पर लेखिका उन्हें देखने के लिए ठहरी नहीं I वह Mrs.Dorling से मिलना नहीं चाहती थी I इसलिए वह अपनी गाड़ी पकड़ने के लिए चल दी I

सड़क पर कोने पर पहुँच कर उसने नाम पर पट्टिका पर पुनः नजर डाली I वह गई तो सही पते पर थी I पर अब याद रखने की कोई जरूरत नहीं थी I  वह वहाँ पुनः आने वाली नहीं थी I अपनी चीजों में उसकी
रूचि खत्म हो गई थी जिन्हें उसके घर से ले जाया गया था तथा नई जगह पर सजा दिया गया था I इसके अलावा उसे अब इन चीजों की अपनी छोटे किराए के कमरे में जरूरत भी न थी I उसकी संकरी मेज के  दराज में गिनती के छुरी-काँटे रखे जा सकते थे I इसलिए उसने निश्चय कर लिया कि Mrs.Dorling के घर के पते को वे सदा के लिए भुला देगी और ऐसा कर पाना अब बिल्कुल सरल काम था I

Following is the complete question bank for The Address

The Address Extra Questions and Answers

Short Answer Type Questions  (30 to 40 words)

1. Comment on the title of Marga’s story The Address.

Ans. The story has aptly been given the title, ‘The Address’. In fact, the entire story moves around Mrs Dorling’s address, Number 46, Marconi Street. She had taken away all the valuables from the narrator’s mother. The narrator went to that address twice after the war. But she had a bitter experience. She finally resolved to forget that address.

2. What makes the narrator to Mrs Dorling’s house twice? What was her experience there?

Ans.   Mrs Dorling had taken away all the valuables of her mother for safe-keeping. The narrator wanted to see and touch those things once. In the first visit to Marconi Street, Mrs Dorling refused to recognise her. In the second visit, it was Mrs Dorling’s daughter who opened the door. But this time the sight of her ill-arranged things distressed her.

3. How did the narrator and Mrs Dorling recognise each other?

Ans. The narrator knocked at Mrs Dorling’s house. Mrs Dorling recognised her and even asked how she had come back alive from the war. But she did not let the narrator enter her house. The narrator recognised Mrs Dorling from the cardigan she was wearing. It was her mother’s.

4. Who was Mrs Dorling? How did she rob or cheat Mrs S of all her antiques and silver?

Ans.   Mrs Dorling was an old acquaintance of Mrs S’s. She turned up unexpectedly during the wartime. She suggested that the silver and other antique valuables would be safe in her house. She won the confidence of Mrs S and carried away everything to her own house. Later on, she played foul and kept all those things with her.

5. How was the narrator convinced that she had come to the right address and met Mrs Dorling?

Ans. The narrator went to House No: 46, Marconi Street. She recognised Mrs Dorling who opened the door. She had no doubt that she had come to the right place. She also noticed that Mrs Dorling was wearing her mother’s knitted green cardigan.

6. Why did Mrs S allow Mrs Dorling to take away all her precious things to her house? Why didn’t the narrator object to it in time?

Ans. Mrs S was of Jewish origin. During the war, all the Jews were being evacuated from the country by the Nazi army. There was no security of life and property. So Mrs S allowed Mrs Dorling to take away all her silver and antique things for safe-keeping. The narrator could not prevent it because she usually came home only during holidays.

7. What was the narrator’s attitude toward her things transferred to Mrs Dorling’s house?

Ans. The narrator came back home at the end of the war. She had lost her interest in the silver cutlery and plates which had been taken away by Mrs Dorling. But for once, she wanted to see them and touch them. She felt very unhappy to see her things arranged tastelessly in Mrs Darling’s house. So she resolved not to claim them back.

8. How did the narrator discover for certain that the woollen tablecloth was hers?

Ans. In her second visit to Mrs Darling’s house, she noticed the woollen tablecloth. It was hers. She remembered that there was a burn mark on the edge which was never repaired. She ran her fingers on it and found it.

9. Why did the narrator leave Mrs Dorling’s house in such a hurry?

Ans. The narrator had a painful experience on her first visit to Marconi Street. She got a very cold shoulder. But she could not help paying a second visit. She felt oppressed to see her things there. All her mother’s antiques and precious silver and artefacts were kept tastelessly in a small and musty room. Suddenly all those familiar things lost their value for her. She did not want to see dishonest Mrs Dorling again. So, she left the house in a hurry.

10.  If the address of Mrs Dorling’s house was correct, why did the narrator resolve to forget it?

Ans. The narrator visited Mrs Darling’s house a second time. In fact, she had no desire to get all her things back. The address was correct but she lost interest in those stored things. Her rented room was too small for them. So she made up her mind to forget her treasure as well as the address of Mrs Dorling.

11. How had the narrator got Mrs Dorling’s address? Why did she wait for years to go there?

Ans. The narrator had once come home on leave. She was introduced by her mother to her old acquaintance Mrs Dorling who was taking away the suitcase stuffed with their valuables to her own house. The mother told the narrator Mrs Darling’s address and asked her to remember that. The narrator returned home several years later at the end of the war.

12. Why and when did the narrator feel an urge to see her mother’s belongings?

Ans.  After the liberation struggle was over, the narrator returned home. One day. she became curious about all her things at Mrs Darling’s house. She just wanted to see them, touch them and remember the old times and her mother.

Important Long/ Detailed Answer Type Questions- to be answered in about 100 -150 words each Value based questions-

Long Answer Questions (up to 100 words)

1. Discuss the aptness and significance of the title of the story The Address.

  Ans.   The Address is a tale of war. The narrator is a young girl, probably studying at the university. She comes home during the holidays. Her mother, in her absence, meets her old acquaintance Mrs Dorling. She allows her to take away all her silver and antiques for safe-keeping in her own house. She asks her daughter to remember Mrs Darling’s address. Marconi Street, Number 46. The narrator remembers the address. At the end of the war. she goes to that address but Mrs Dorling refuses to recognise her. The narrator goes to

the same address a second time. She recognises her mother’s belongings set tastelessly in a strange place. She loses interest in them and returns home. She resolves to forget that address forever.

2. Who was Mrs Dorling? What did the narrator learn about her from her mother?

 Ans. Mrs Dorling was an old acquaintance of Mrs S’s, the narrator’s mother. She called on her old friend unexpectedly while the narrator was away at college. She won the confidence of her friend. She had her eyes on her friend’s belongings. She must have pointed out that during wartime she might lose all her silver and antiques. She offered to take the risk herself. In bags and suitcases, she carried away all those things to her own house. The narrator learnt about Mrs Dorling and her address during one of her visits home. She remembered the address given by her mother. At the end of the war, she felt like seeing. touching and remembering her things. So she visited Mrs Dorling’s house but got a very cold welcome. The dishonest Mrs Dorling kept all precious things to herself.

3. Describe the narrator’s first visit to Marconi Street, No. 46.

Ans. The narrator returned home after the liberation. Even though she had lost all interest in her old stuff yet she wanted to see, touch and remember her things. She took a train to Marconi Street and tapped on the door of House No. 46. Mrs Dorling opened the door. She was surprised to see the visitor come alive from the war. She was wearing Mrs S’s green knitted cardigan. She was feeling guilty. She refused to talk to the narrator even for a moment. Her own daughter was there inside. But the door was closed on the narrator and she walked back to the station with a heavy heart.

4. What were the narrator’s experience and reaction when she went to Mrs Dorling’s house a second time?

Ans. The narrator had an unpleasant experience during her first visit to Marconi Street. Mrs Dorling gave her a cold shoulder. But the narrator’s urge to see her things and touch them did not cool down. She decided to try a second time. This time Mrs Dorling’s daughter opened the door. The mother had gone out. Her daughter led the narrator to a room inside. The narrator found herself in the midst of familiar things which were scattered in a tasteless way all around. The sight oppressed her. She noticed the candle holder and the woollen tablecloth. She noticed her mother’s beautiful tea set and the silver cutlery being used by that family in that small, musty room. Mrs Dorling did not even know how to use those precious things. All those things oppressed her now. She decided to leave the house at the earliest. Her things evoked the memories of her earlier life, and she was now living in a small rented room. So she made up her mind to forget her things and also Mrs Dorling’s address.

5. Give a brief character-sketch of Mrs S’s daughter.

  Ans.   The narrator was a young Jewish girl living in Holland with her mother. When the World war II started, the Nazi army started evacuating all the Jews from Europe. The narrator and her mother became very insecure. During this period an old acquaintance of Mrs S befriended her and offered to keep all her valuable belongings in her safe custody. Mrs S was a noble and trusting lady. She allowed Mrs Dorling to take away her precious antiques and cutlery etc. The narrator had some doubts about Mrs Dorling but her mother silenced her.

The narrator survived the war and came back to her old city. Now her mother was dead, her house belonged to someone else and she had no worldly possessions. Still, she is happy to be alive and trying to make a life for herself. One day she feels an urge to go to Mrs Dorling’s house and see all her mother’s precious belongings. But when she sees that all her mother’s beautiful things were kept by Mrs Dorling in a tasteless manner and she was even using them, the narrator loses all interest in those things. With a feeling of detachment, she goes back to her own rented room and decides to start life afresh. She is a brave and self-respecting girl. She does not want to live in her past glory. She wants to live in the present.

6. Write a brief note on Mrs Dorling.

   Ans. Mrs Dorling was at one time Mrs S’s friend. But the two were not in contact. Both had a daughter each. Mrs Dorling herself was a mean, greedy and dishonest woman. She won the confidence of Mrs S’s and carted away all the table silver and precious old things to her own house. She had taken for granted that the narrator and her family would not come back alive from the war. The sight of the narrator at her doorstep gave her a shocking surprise. She did not allow the narrator to walk into her house. She sent her away dejected. When she saw the narrator at her doorstep, she became scared that the narrator would see all her mother’s precious things and would ask to take back everything. Mrs Dorling is greedy and means person. In fact, when she had offered to take away all the antique and precious things of Mrs S, to keep in her safe custody, her intention was not honourable at all. She had all the intention of grabbing all those things. She was quite sure that Mrs S and her family would not come alive after the war.