English Grammar Connectors Rules & Exercises

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CONNECTORS

A connector is a word which is used to join words, Phrases and clauses.

KINDS OF CONNECTORS

(i) Relative Pronouns and Relative Adverbs

(ii) Conjunctions

(iii) Prepositions

CONJUNCTION  

A conjunction is a word or phrase which joins together words or sentences or parts of sentences. Conjunctions help to say things in a simple and short way.

CLASSES OF CONJUNCTIONS

(i)Co-ordinating Conjunction

(ii)Subordinating Conjunction

(iii)Correlative Conjunction

(i)Co-ordinating Conjunctions

A coordinating conjunction joins together words, phrases or clauses of equal rank or importance (that is, they are independent, not dependent on the other.) The common coordinating conjunctions are: and, hut, fir, stilt only; yet, or; otherwise, nor, neither either, as well as, then, thus, etc.

He worked hard but he failed.

He is a great and noble man.

Three and two make five.

Rishu is ill, so he is admitted to the hospital. He is poor, still, people like him.

Note: Some compound expressions or phrases and as conjunctions; as,

I will forgive you on condition that you don’t repeat the mistake.

He ran away as soon as he saw police.

Other compound conjunctions are even if,

 so that, as well as, as if in order that, provided that, etc.

(ii) Subordinating Conjunctions

A subordinating conjunction joins a clause to another clause where one clause (subordinate clause) is dependent on another clause (principal clause) for its full meaning. The common subordinating conjunctions are: after, though, although, when, since, till, until, while, because, before, whether, if as long as, as though, lest, then, etc.

I will come if you invite me.

I do not know when he will come.

We can’t go out because it is raining.

Although he did not work hard, he passed.

Tell them that I will come.

I will wait until you come.

Work hard lest you should fail.

Something is better than nothing.

Types of Subordinating Conjunctions

(a) Of Time: when, while, before. After, until, till, are, since, as soon as, as long as

(b) Of Place: where, wherever, whence

(c) Of Cause or: because, since, as, that Reason

(d) Of purpose: that, in order that, lest, so that

(e) Of result or consequence: that                 

(f)  Of condition   : if unless, provided or provided that, as if; whether

(g) Of concession: Although, though

(h) Of comparison:  (a) comparison of equal degree – as, less, than, no less than.

                      (b) Comparison of unequal degree – as

(i) Of Manner of Extent: as so far as

(iii) Correlative Conjunctions

  Either ……. or

Either Ram or Mohan will go to Delhi.

Both…….  and

She is both beautiful and intelligent.

Neither…. nor

Neither Ham nor Mohan will go w Delhi.

Though…. yet

Though he is poor yet he is honest.

So……. that

He worked so hard that he fell ill.

Hardly……. when

Hardly he had stepped out of the house when the root’ fell.

Whether……. or

I don’t know whether he will accompany me or not.

No sooner…….  than

No sooner did the bell ring than the boys ran out of their classes.

USES OF IMPORTANT CONJUNCTIONS 

He has been ill since he came here.  (Time)

You can go wherever you like.                       (Place)

He is working hard so that he may pass. (Purpose)

if you wonder about, you will fail.      (Condition)

I am glad that you have conic.                       (Cause)

As he is proud, everybody hates him.             (Cause)

He is cleverer than his brother (is).    Comparison)

Do as you are told.                              (Manner)

Although he worked hard, yet he failed. (Contrast)

Note: Since as a conjunction is preceded by a verb in the Present Indefinite or Present Perfect Tense

 While the latter part of the sentence has Past Indefinite Tense:

It is long since I saw him.

Lest means ‘so that not. It is always followed by ‘should’.

He ran hard lest he should miss the train.

Unless, until The word ‘not is used after unless or until.

He can’t help you unless you listen to him.

Wait here until he returns.

‘So long as’ and ‘as long as’ denote time during which a certain action takes place.

So long as and as long as he does his work,

he is safe from harm.

However, is used both as a subordinate and co-ordinate conjunction. As a subordinate conjunction ‘however’ precedes some Adjective Or Adverb:

However hard it may rain, we shall go out.

KINDS OF CO-ORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

1.Cumulative: Add one statement to another These are: And, also, too, no less than, as well as, both, only. not only ….. but also, etc:

Ram bought a pen and a pencil.

2. Adversative: They express opposition or contrast between two statements. These are: But, still, yet, only, while, nevertheless, whereas, etc.

I was angry sill/ I kept quiet.

3. Alternative: They express a choice between two statements. These are: Either — or; neither- nor, else, otherwise.

Neither a borrower nor a lender is.

4. Illative: These show that one statement or Fact is inferred from others. These are: For, therefore, so, then etc.

He didn’t work therefore he failed.

English Grammar Connectors Exercises No.1,2 & 3